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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 462428 matches for " Fraser A. Januchowski-Hartley "
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Fear of Fishers: Human Predation Explains Behavioral Changes in Coral Reef Fishes
Fraser A. Januchowski-Hartley,Nicholas A. J. Graham,David A. Feary,Tau Morove,Joshua E. Cinner
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022761
Abstract: Prey flight decisions in response to predation risk are increasingly being considered in conservation and management decisions in the terrestrial realm, but are rarely considered in marine systems. This field-based study investigated how the behavioral response of coral reef fish families varied along a gradient of subsistence fishing pressure in Papua New Guinea. Specifically, we examined how fishing pressure was related to pre-flight behavior and flight initiation distance (FID), and whether FID was influenced by body size (centimeters total length), group size (including both con- and hetero-specific individuals), or life-history phase. Fishing pressure was positively associated with higher FID, but only in families that were primarily targeted by spear guns. Among these families, there were variable responses in FID; some families showed increased FID monotonically with fishing pressure, while others showed increased FID only at the highest levels of fishing pressure. Body size was more significant in varying FID at higher levels of fishing pressure. Although family-level differences in pre-flight behavior were reported, such behavior showed low concordance with fishing pressure. FID shows promise as a tool by which compliance and effectiveness of management of reef fisheries can be assessed.
Coral Reef Community Composition in the Context of Disturbance History on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia
Nicholas A. J. Graham, Karen M. Chong-Seng, Cindy Huchery, Fraser A. Januchowski-Hartley, Kirsty L. Nash
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101204
Abstract: Much research on coral reefs has documented differential declines in coral and associated organisms. In order to contextualise this general degradation, research on community composition is necessary in the context of varied disturbance histories and the biological processes and physical features thought to retard or promote recovery. We conducted a spatial assessment of coral reef communities across five reefs of the central Great Barrier Reef, Australia, with known disturbance histories, and assessed patterns of coral cover and community composition related to a range of other variables thought to be important for reef dynamics. Two of the reefs had not been extensively disturbed for at least 15 years prior to the surveys. Three of the reefs had been severely impacted by crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks and coral bleaching approximately a decade before the surveys, from which only one of them was showing signs of recovery based on independent surveys. We incorporated wave exposure (sheltered and exposed) and reef zone (slope, crest and flat) into our design, providing a comprehensive assessment of the spatial patterns in community composition on these reefs. Categorising corals into life history groupings, we document major coral community differences in the unrecovered reefs, compared to the composition and covers found on the undisturbed reefs. The recovered reef, despite having similar coral cover, had a different community composition from the undisturbed reefs, which may indicate slow successional processes, or a different natural community dominance pattern due to hydrology and other oceanographic factors. The variables that best correlated with patterns in the coral community among sites included the density of juvenile corals, herbivore fish biomass, fish species richness and the cover of macroalgae. Given increasing impacts to the Great Barrier Reef, efforts to mitigate local stressors will be imperative to encouraging coral communities to persist into the future.
Fresh Waters and Fish Diversity: Distribution, Protection and Disturbance in Tropical Australia
Stephanie R. Januchowski-Hartley, Richard G. Pearson, Robert Puschendorf, Thomas Rayner
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025846
Abstract: Background Given the globally poor protection of fresh waters for their intrinsic ecological values, assessments are needed to determine how well fresh waters and supported fish species are incidentally protected within existing terrestrial protected-area networks, and to identify their vulnerability to human-induced disturbances. To date, gaps in data have severely constrained any attempt to explore the representation of fresh waters in tropical regions. Methodology and Results We determined the distribution of fresh waters and fish diversity in the Wet Tropics of Queensland, Australia. We then used distribution data of fresh waters, fish species, human-induced disturbances, and the terrestrial protected-area network to assess the effectiveness of terrestrial protected areas for fresh waters and fish species. We also identified human-induced disturbances likely to influence the effectiveness of freshwater protection and evaluated the vulnerability of fresh waters to these disturbances within and outside protected areas. The representation of fresh waters and fish species in the protected areas of the Wet Tropics is poor: 83% of stream types defined by order, 75% of wetland types, and 89% of fish species have less than 20% of their total Wet Tropics length, area or distribution completely within IUCN category II protected areas. Numerous disturbances affect fresh waters both within and outside of protected areas despite the high level of protection afforded to terrestrial areas in the Wet Tropics (>60% of the region). High-order streams and associated wetlands are influenced by the greatest number of human-induced disturbances and are also the least protected. Thirty-two percent of stream length upstream of protected areas has at least one human-induced disturbance present. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate the need for greater consideration of explicit protection and off-reserve management for fresh waters and supported biodiversity by showing that, even in a region where terrestrial protection is high, it does not adequately capture fresh waters.
Hepatitis A Vaccine: Should We Use it in Practice?
Ramona Mahtani,Hartley A. Garfield
University of Toronto Medical Journal , 2004, DOI: 10.5015/utmj.v81i3.654
The Diversity of Bitter Manioc (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Cultivation in a Whitewater Amazonian Landscape
James A. Fraser
Diversity , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/d2040586
Abstract: While bitter manioc has been one of the most important staple crops in the central Amazon for thousands of years, there have been few studies of its cultivation in the fertile whitewater landscapes of this region. Anthropological research on bitter manioc cultivation in the Amazon has focused almost exclusively on long-fallow shifting cultivation in marginal upland areas of low soil fertility. This has contributed to the persistence of the oversimplified notion that because bitter manioc is well adapted to infertile upland soils; it cannot yield well in alluvial and/or fertile soils. I hypothesized that bitter manioc cultivation would be well adapted to the fertile soils of the whitewater landscapes of the central Amazon because of the centrality of this crop to subsistence in this region. In this article, I examine one such whitewater landscape, the middle Madeira River, Amazonas, Brazil, where smallholders cultivate bitter manioc on fertile Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) and floodplain soils, and on infertile Oxisols and Ultisols. In this region, cultivation on fertile soils tends to be short-cycled, characterised by short fallowing (0–6 years) and shorter cropping periods (5–12 months) with a predominance of low starch fast maturing “weak” landraces. By contrast, cultivation on infertile soils is normally long-cycled, characterised by longer fallows (>10 years) and longer cropping periods (1–3 years) with a predominance of high starch slow maturing “strong” landraces. This diversity in bitter manioc cultivation systems (landraces, fallow periods, soils) demonstrates that Amazonian farmers have adapted bitter manioc cultivation to the specific characteristics of the landscapes that they inhabit. I conclude that contrary to earlier claims, there are no ecological limitations on growing bitter manioc in fertile soils, and therefore the cultivation of this crop in floodplain and ADE soils would have been possible in the pre-Columbian period.
Unconventional warfare
C. A. Fraser
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship , 1968, DOI: 10.4102/koers.v36i2.1286
Abstract: The world of today can look back at some fifty years of widespread and virtually continuous political revolution. Prob- ably more governments have come into being, passed through drastic change, or ceased to exist than in any comparable period in history. Certainly a larger proportion of the world’s popula- tion has been involved in and has been aware of these upheavals than was ever the case in earlier days. It is the political pheno- menon of the twentieth century, the visible wind of revolution, stirring in many continents.
Rejoinder to "Is Bayes Posterior just Quick and Dirty Confidence?"
D. A. S. Fraser
Statistics , 2012, DOI: 10.1214/11-STS352REJ
Abstract: Rejoinder to "Is Bayes Posterior just Quick and Dirty Confidence?" by D. A. S. Fraser [arXiv:1112.5582]
Discussion: On Arguments Concerning Statistical Principles
D. A. S. Fraser
Statistics , 2014, DOI: 10.1214/14-STS473
Abstract: Discussion of "On the Birnbaum Argument for the Strong Likelihood Principle" by Deborah G. Mayo [arXiv:1302.7021].
Is Bayes Posterior just Quick and Dirty Confidence?
D. A. S. Fraser
Statistics , 2011, DOI: 10.1214/11-STS352
Abstract: Bayes [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 53 (1763) 370--418; 54 296--325] introduced the observed likelihood function to statistical inference and provided a weight function to calibrate the parameter; he also introduced a confidence distribution on the parameter space but did not provide present justifications. Of course the names likelihood and confidence did not appear until much later: Fisher [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 222 (1922) 309--368] for likelihood and Neyman [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 237 (1937) 333--380] for confidence. Lindley [J. Roy. Statist. Soc. Ser. B 20 (1958) 102--107] showed that the Bayes and the confidence results were different when the model was not location. This paper examines the occurrence of true statements from the Bayes approach and from the confidence approach, and shows that the proportion of true statements in the Bayes case depends critically on the presence of linearity in the model; and with departure from this linearity the Bayes approach can be a poor approximation and be seriously misleading. Bayesian integration of weighted likelihood thus provides a first-order linear approximation to confidence, but without linearity can give substantially incorrect results.
Mood Disorders, Circadian Rhythms, Melatonin and Melatonin Agonists
M.A. Quera Salva and S. Hartley
Journal of Central Nervous System Disease , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/JCNSD.S4103
Abstract: Recent advances in the understanding of circadian rhythms have led to an interest in the treatment of major depressive disorder with chronobiotic agents. Many tissues have autonomous circadian rhythms, which are orchestrated by the master clock, situated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SNC). Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine) is secreted from the pineal gland during darkness. Melatonin acts mainly on MT1 and MT2 receptors, which are present in the SNC, regulating physiological and neuroendocrine functions, including circadian entrainment, referred to as the chronobiotic effet. Circadian rhythms has been shown to be either misaligned or phase shifted or decreased in amplitude in both acute episodes and relapse of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder. Manipulation of circadian rhythms either using physical treatments (such as high intensity light) or behavioral therapy has shown promise in improving symptoms. Pharmacotherapy using melatonin and pure melatonin receptor agonists, while improving sleep, has not been shown to improve symptoms of depression. A novel antidepressant, agomelatine, combines 5HT2c antagonist and melatonin agonist action, and has shown promise in both acute treatment of MDD and in preventing relapse.
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