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Restorative justice and victims: Not a self-evident relationship
Pemberton Antony,Winkel Frans W.,Groenhuijsen Mark
Temida , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/tem0601011p
Abstract: The two most prominent developments in criminal justice in the last twenty to thirty years are the rise of restorative justice and the recognition and improvement of the position of the victim. The first part of the paper discusses a theoretical model for victims within restorative justice that the researchers at the InterVICT research institute authors of this paper) are developing at this moment. This model incorporates current knowledge from social psychology and studies surrounding traumatic stress and provides a number of hypotheses that will be subsequently evaluated in practice with participants in restorative justice procedures. On the other hand, international legal protocols for restorative justice also lack a consistent victim-oriented perspective. To this end the European Forum for Victim Services has recently published a statement concerning the position of the victim within mediation. The second part of the paper addresses the central issues in this statement. Taken together the paper moves beyond criticism of restorative justice, as it hopes to redirect theory and implementation of restorative justice toward a stronger victim-orientation.
The effectiveness of video interaction guidance in parents of premature infants: A multicenter randomised controlled trial
Anneke Tooten, Hannah N Hoffenkamp, Ruby AS Hall, Frans Winkel, Marij Eli?ns, Ad JJM Vingerhoets, Hedwig JA van Bakel
BMC Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-76
Abstract: This study is a multi-center randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of Video Interaction Guidance in parents of premature infants. In this study 210 newborn infants with their parents will be included: n?=?70 healthy term infants (>37?weeks GA), n?=?70 moderate term infants (32–37?weeks GA) which are recruited from maternity wards of 6 general hospitals and n?=?70 extremely preterm infants or very low birth weight infants (<32?weeks GA) recruited by the NICU of 2 specialized hospitals. The participating families will be divided into 3 groups: a reference group (i.e. full term infants and their parents, receiving care as usual), a control group (i.e. premature infants and their parents, receiving care as usual) and an intervention group (i.e. premature infants and their parents, receiving VIG). The data will be collected during the first six months after birth using observations of parent-infant interactions, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Primary outcomes are the quality of parental bonding and parent-infant interactive behaviour. Parental secondary outcomes are (posttraumatic) stress symptoms, depression, anxiety and feelings of anger and hostility. Infant secondary outcomes are behavioral aspects such as crying, eating, and sleeping.This is the first prospective study to empirically evaluate the effect of VIG in parents of premature infants. Family recruitment is expected to be completed in January 2012. First results should be available by 2012.NTR3423Each year, 2% to 9% of the newborns require specialised care in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). The majority are premature infants (born before 37?weeks of gestational age) who weigh less than 2500?g at birth. Modern medical technology has forced back the frontiers of viability so that a growing number of babies, even as young as 23 to 24?weeks gestation with weights as low as 500 gram, are currently surviving [1]. With the improved survival chance of preterm infants, there i
Rush to Judgment
Richard Winkel
PLOS Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030071
Trauer als Biografiegenerator Mourning as Biography Generator El duelo como generador de biografía
Heidemarie Winkel
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2008,
Abstract: Der Tod eines Alter Ego erweist sich für Trauernde als gravierende Kontingenzerfahrung. Sie vermag das individuelle Selbstverst ndnis in umfassender Weise zu erschüttern, wobei sich Trauer als Schmerz von unvergleichlicher Intensit t und Tiefe konstituiert. Die emotionale Erfahrung wird hierbei – nach Ma gabe psychologischer und therapeutischer Vorstellungen – zum Ausgangspunkt und zum Ma stab individueller Selbstvergewisserung. Diese Auffassung von Trauer korrespondiert mit einer allgemeinen, im Kontext moderner Gesellschaften entstandenen Zuschreibung von Emotionalit t zur Ebene des inneren Erlebens: Ich bin, was meine Gefühle mir sagen. Dass es gelingen kann, Trauer als pers nlichen Schmerz zu thematisieren und zum Ausgangspunkt individueller Selbstthematisierung zu machen, setzt systemtheoretisch gesehen semantische Strukturen zur Kommunizierung von individuellem Leid voraus. Im Rahmen einer auf biografischen Interviews basierenden Studie hat sich die symbolische Codierung von Trauer als individuell einzigartige Erfahrung von Schmerz und Leid erwiesen. Unabh ngig von kommunikativen Zurechnungen sozialer Systeme k nnen, so zeigt das Material weiterhin, verschiedenste lebensgeschichtliche Brüche und Diskontinuit tserfahrungen thematisiert werden. Trauer er ffnet aber nicht nur punktuell eine Selbstthematisierung: Die zentrale These lautet, dass Trauer als Biografiegenerator fungiert, indem sie eine systematische und umfassende Rekonstruktion der Lebensgeschichte unter den Aspekten von Leid und Schmerz erlaubt. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801501 For bereaved persons, an alter ego's death proves to be a serious experience of contingency. It can unsettle the individual's conception of the self, whereby mourning emerges as grief of a unique intensity and depth. The development of the emotional experience becomes a starting point and measure for the individual's re-conceptualization of the self in terms of psychological and therapeutic images. The notion of mourning as personal grief corresponds to a general, typically modern attribution of emotionality within the realm of inner experience and inwardness, i.e., I am what my feelings are expressing. From a general systems approach, talking about mourning as private and individual grief requires social communication standards. Within a research based on biographical interviews mourning proved to be a symbolic communication code for the expression of a unique and individual experience of sorrow, despair and bewilderment. Furthermore the results revealed that the distinctiveness of different biographical discontin
“Biological Nitrogen Fixation” Book Summary  [PDF]
Frans J. de Bruijn
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2016.66040
Abstract: Biological nitrogen fixation is a very valuable alternative to nitrogen fertilizer. This process will be discussed in the “Biological Nitrogen Fixation” book. A wide array of free-living and associative nitrogen fixing organisms (diazotrophs) will be covered. The most extensively studied and applied example of biological nitrogen fixation is the symbiotic interaction between nitrogen fixing “rhizobia” and legume plants. While legumes are important as major food and feed crops, cereals such as wheat, maize and rice are the primary food crops, but do not have this symbiotic nitrogen fixing interaction with rhizobia. It has thus been a “holy grail” to transfer the ability to fix nitrogen to the cereals and this topic will be also addressed in these books.
Construire son identité européenne grace à l’Autre : le cas des légendes urbaines
Aurore Van de Winkel
Synergies Canada , 2011,
Abstract: Dans la société européenne actuelle, les individus ont tendance à effectuer un repli identitaire sur l’un de leurs groupes d’appartenance. Chacun d’entre eux veut devenir autonome par rapport aux autres et en même temps, s’homogénéiser. C’est seulement en refusant de s’identifier à un “Autre”, à l’étranger, que ce “nous” pourra se construire en une entité auto-suffisante. Par leur narration, les légendes urbaines permettent, aux Européens, la réaffirmation de leurs normes et de leurs valeurs, et ainsi la clarification de l’une de leurs identités. L’analyse sémio-pragmatique de centaines de légendes nous a permis de montrer les intentions, les représentations, la relation et les r les de leurs diffuseurs européens. Ces récits mettent tous en scène la confrontation de deux protagonistes et ses conséquences: l’un représentant la communauté des sujets-transmetteurs, l’autre une entité opposée jugée négative . Cette opposition permet d’associer certains individus à des actes ou des événements renvoyant à la peur, l’interdit, le mystère et l’espoir. Même si l’approche interactionnelle nous a montré que les situations de construction ou d’affirmation d’une identité sont plus complexes et ne peuvent se résumer en une stricte et permanente opposition entre deux groupes, le contenu des légendes urbaines européennes se construit sur une simplification de la réalité qui facilite la représentation du monde et de soi. Comme cette désignation de l’Autre n’est pas reliée à des faits mais à des croyances et des stéréotypes, cet Autre devient un bouc-émissaire qui permet par opposition de savoir comment les Européens s’identifient aujourd’hui.
I. Gallin, Rechtsetzung ist Machtsetzung. Die deutsche Rechtsetzung in den Niederlanden 1940-1945
L.C. Winkel
BMGN : Low Countries Historical Review , 2001,
Hereditary tree growth and Levy forests
Thomas Duquesne,Matthias Winkel
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: We introduce the notion of a hereditary property for rooted real trees and we also consider reduction of trees by a given hereditary property. Leaf-length erasure, also called trimming, is included as a special case of hereditary reduction. We only consider the metric structure of trees, and our framework is the space $\bT$ of pointed isometry classes of locally compact rooted real trees equipped with the Gromov-Hausdorff distance. Some of the main results of the paper are a general tightness criterion in $\bT$ and limit theorems for growing families of trees. We apply these results to Galton-Watson trees with exponentially distributed edge lengths. This class is preserved by hereditary reduction. Then we consider families of such Galton-Watson trees that are consistent under hereditary reduction and that we call growth processes. We prove that the associated families of offspring distributions are completely characterised by the branching mechanism of a continuous-state branching process. We also prove that such growth processes converge to Levy forests. As a by-product of this convergence, we obtain a characterisation of the laws of Levy forests in terms of leaf-length erasure and we obtain invariance principles for discrete Galton-Watson trees, including the super-critical cases.
Regenerative tree growth: Markovian embedding of fragmenters, bifurcators, and bead splitting processes
Jim Pitman,Matthias Winkel
Mathematics , 2013, DOI: 10.1214/14-AOP945
Abstract: Some, but not all processes of the form $M_t=\exp(-\xi_t)$ for a pure-jump subordinator $\xi$ with Laplace exponent $\Phi$ arise as residual mass processes of particle 1 (tagged particle) in Bertoin's partition-valued exchangeable fragmentation processes. We introduce the notion of a Markovian embedding of $M=(M_t,t\ge 0)$ in a fragmentation process, and we show that for each $\Phi$, there is a unique (in distribution) binary fragmentation process in which $M$ has a Markovian embedding. The identification of the Laplace exponent $\Phi^*$ of its tagged particle process $M^*$ gives rise to a symmetrisation operation $\Phi\mapsto\Phi^*$, which we investigate in a general study of pairs $(M,M^*)$ that coincide up to a random time and then evolve independently. We call $M$ a fragmenter and $(M,M^*)$ a bifurcator. For $\alpha>0$, we equip the interval $R_1=[0,\int_0^{\infty}M_t^{\alpha}\,dt]$ with a purely atomic probability measure $\mu_1$, which captures the jump sizes of $M$ suitably placed on $R_1$. We study binary tree growth processes that in the $n$th step sample an atom (``bead'') from $\mu _n$ and build $(R_{n+1},\mu_{n+1})$ by replacing the atom by a rescaled independent copy of $(R_1,\mu_1)$ that we tie to the position of the atom. We show that any such bead splitting process $((R_n,\mu_n),n\ge1)$ converges almost surely to an $\alpha$-self-similar continuum random tree of Haas and Miermont, in the Gromov-Hausdorff-Prohorov sense. This generalises Aldous's line-breaking construction of the Brownian continuum random tree.
Regenerative tree growth: Binary self-similar continuum random trees and Poisson--Dirichlet compositions
Jim Pitman,Matthias Winkel
Mathematics , 2008, DOI: 10.1214/08-AOP445
Abstract: We use a natural ordered extension of the Chinese Restaurant Process to grow a two-parameter family of binary self-similar continuum fragmentation trees. We provide an explicit embedding of Ford's sequence of alpha model trees in the continuum tree which we identified in a previous article as a distributional scaling limit of Ford's trees. In general, the Markov branching trees induced by the two-parameter growth rule are not sampling consistent, so the existence of compact limiting trees cannot be deduced from previous work on the sampling consistent case. We develop here a new approach to establish such limits, based on regenerative interval partitions and the urn-model description of sampling from Dirichlet random distributions.
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