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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 298390 matches for " Frans J. Kok "
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No Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation on Global DNA Methylation in Men and Women with Moderately Elevated Homocysteine
Audrey Y. Jung, Yvo Smulders, Petra Verhoef, Frans J. Kok, Henk Blom, Robert M. Kok, Ellen Kampman, Jane Durga
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024976
Abstract: A global loss of cytosine methylation in DNA has been implicated in a wide range of diseases. There is growing evidence that modifications in DNA methylation can be brought about by altering the intake of methyl donors such as folate. We examined whether long-term daily supplementation with 0.8 mg of folic acid would increase global DNA methylation compared with placebo in individuals with elevated plasma homocysteine. We also investigated if these effects were modified by MTHFR C677T genotype. Two hundred sixteen participants out of 818 subjects who had participated in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial were selected, pre-stratified on MTHFR C677T genotype and matched on age and smoking status. They were allocated to receive either folic acid (0.8 mg/d; n = 105) or placebo treatment (n = 111) for three years. Peripheral blood leukocyte DNA methylation and serum and erythrocyte folate were assessed. Global DNA methylation was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and expressed as a percentage of 5-methylcytosines versus the total number of cytosine. There was no difference in global DNA methylation between those randomized to folic acid and those in the placebo group (difference = 0.008, 95%CI = ?0.05,0.07, P = 0.79). There was also no difference between treatment groups when we stratified for MTHFR C677T genotype (CC, n = 76; CT, n = 70; TT, n = 70), baseline erythrocyte folate status or baseline DNA methylation levels. In moderately hyperhomocysteinemic men and women, long-term folic acid supplementation does not increase global DNA methylation in peripheral blood leukocytes. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00110604
Cognitive development and children's perceptions of fruit and vegetables; a qualitative study
Gertrude G Zeinstra, Maria A Koelen, Frans J Kok, Cees de Graaf
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-4-30
Abstract: The study population consisted of eight 4–5-year-old children, eight 7–8-year-old children and twelve 11–12-year-old children, recruited via a primary school in Wageningen, The Netherlands. Qualitative in-depth information was obtained by duo-interviews and focus group discussions. A structured guide with questions and game tasks was applied to address different domains in a consistent way.The developmental progress at the abstraction level was seen in children's reasoning across all domains. Children's preferences expanded and increased in complexity as they moved to a higher age bracket. The most important determinants for liking and disliking shifted from appearance and texture attributes in 4–5-year-olds towards taste attributes in 11–12-year-olds. Children's knowledge of basic tastes increased. Their understanding of health improved as they grew older. The emergence of social norms and perspectives of others as the children grew older was also seen in relation to fruit and vegetables. Child-reported parental strategies to stimulate healthy eating appeared to vary with age in line with cognitive development.Cognitive development is paralleled by changes in the importance given to the attributes that determine whether a child likes or dislikes fruits and vegetables; children's understanding of and reasoning about health; and parental use of strategies. These developmental differences should be incorporated in programs designed to increase long-term fruit and vegetable intake in children.The beneficial effects of eating fruit and vegetables are widely acknowledged [1,2]. However, many children do not meet the recommended guidelines for fruit and vegetable intake [3-5]. The Dutch recommendations for 4–12-year-old children of 150 grams of vegetables and two pieces (≈200 gram) of fruit, are in line with international guidelines [6]. Because food preferences and eating habits established in childhood often persist into adulthood, children are an appropriate group to t
Efficacy of iron fortification compared to iron supplementation among Vietnamese schoolchildren
Huong Thi Le, Inge D Brouwer, Jan Burema, Khan Nguyen, Frans J Kok
Nutrition Journal , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-5-32
Abstract: Anaemia is a significant public health problem in Vietnam. The 2000 National Nutrition Risk Factor Survey in Vietnam showed an anaemia prevalence of 34% in children under five and 25% in women [1]. No nationally representative data are available on the prevalence of anaemia among primary schoolchildren in Vietnam; however, a few local studies show an anaemia prevalence of approximately 30% [2,3]. Iron deficiency is considered as the major cause of anaemia, due to low intake and bioavailability of iron in the diet [4,5]. The National Nutrition Survey shows that the mean iron intake of Vietnamese people, which is mainly non-haeme iron, only reaches 72% of the RDA [6]. While iron supplementation in itself is highly effective in reducing iron deficiency anaemia, the implementation has been characterized by low coverage (15–20%) and non compliance [1].Food-based strategies are recommended as long-term interventions to address the malnutrition problem in the country [7]. Although it is generally accepted that the increase of consumption of animal products would increase iron intake in the long term, the consumption of animal products in developing countries is sincerely hampered by low socio-economic status [8]. Food fortification is often suggested as one of the most effective and sustainable strategies for increasing iron intake in the general population [4].Studies on the effect of iron supplements [9-13] or iron-fortified foods [14-18] on indicators of iron deficiency have been carried out, but few studies compare the effect of iron fortification with iron supplementation on the improvement of iron and anaemia status. It is generally known that fortification is less effective than supplementation due to differences in iron dose and the bioavailability of iron [19]. However, the extent of the differences in effect is unknown. In a previous study, Baltussen et al. suggested that fortification would be 50% less effective than supplementation, but this assumption was not
Impact of Multi-Micronutrient Supplementation on Growth and Morbidity of HIV-Infected South African Children
Siyazi Mda,Joop M. A. van Raaij,Fran?ois P. R. de Villiers,Frans J. Kok
Nutrients , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/nu5104079
Abstract: Poor growth, micronutrient deficiencies and episodes of diarrhea and respiratory infections occur frequently in HIV-infected children. We investigated whether multi-micronutrient supplementation would improve the growth performance and reduce the number of episodes of diarrhea and/or of respiratory symptoms in HIV-infected children. In a double-blind randomized trial, HIV-infected South African children aged 4–24 months ( n = 201) were assigned to receive multi-micronutrient supplements or placebo daily for six months. The children were assessed for respiratory symptoms or diarrhea bi-weekly; weights and heights were measured monthly. In total, 121 children completed the six month follow up study period (60%). A total of 43 children died; 27 of them had received supplements. This difference in mortality was not statistically significant ( p = 0.12). Weight-for-height Z-scores improved significantly ( p < 0.05) among children given supplements compared with those given placebo (0.40 (0.09–0.71)) versus ?0.04 (?0.39–0.31) (mean (95% CI)). Height-for-age Z-scores did not improve in both treatment groups. The number of monthly episodes of diarrhea in the placebo group (0.36 (0.26–0.46)) was higher ( p = 0.09) than in the supplement group (0.25 (0.17–0.33)) and the number of monthly episodes of respiratory symptoms was significantly higher ( p < 0.05) among children on placebos (1.01 (0.83–1.79)) than those on supplements (0.66 (0.52–0.80)). Multi-micronutrient supplements significantly improved wasting and reduced the number of episodes of diarrhea and respiratory symptoms.
Effect of an individually tailored one-year energy balance programme on body weight, body composition and lifestyle in recent retirees: a cluster randomised controlled trial
Andrea Werkman, Paul JM Hulshof, Annette Stafleu, Stef PJ Kremers, Frans J Kok, Evert G Schouten, Albertine J Schuit
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-110
Abstract: A randomised controlled trial was conducted among recent retirees (N = 413; mean age 59.5 years). Outcome measures were assessed using anthropometry, bio-impedance, blood pressure measurement and questionnaires.Waist circumference, body weight and blood pressure decreased significantly in men of the intervention and control group, but no significant between-group-differences were observed at 12 or at 24-months follow-up. A significant effect of the programme was only observed on waist circumference (-1.56 cm (95%CI: -2.91 to -0.21)) at 12 month follow up among men with low education (n = 85). Physical activity and dietary behaviours improved in both the intervention and control group during the intervention period. Although, these behaviours changed more favourably in the intervention group, these between-group-differences were not statistically significant.The multifaceted computer-tailored programme for recent retirees did not appear to be effective. Apparently the transition to occupational retirement and/or participation in the study had a greater impact than the intervention programme.Clinical Trials NCT00122213.The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity also affects the older population [1] and prevention of weight gain is also important in this population [2,3]. Weight gain is more common during transitional stages [3], such as occupational retirement at the sixth decade. Changes in physical activity and dietary behaviour, possibly induced by the retirement, contribute to this phenomenon. Moreover, with biological ageing, fat mass (mostly abdominal fat mass) increases and fat-free mass (mostly muscle mass) decreases. However, the extent differs between men and women and does not necessarily coincide with weight gain [1,4,5]. Abdominal obesity is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type II and other chronic diseases [6]. Hence, the period of occupational retirement is a good moment to intervene, because it may
Study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial investigating the effectiveness of a tailored energy balance programme for recent retirees
Andrea Werkman, Albertine J Schuit, Lydia Kwak, Stef PJ Kremers, Tommy LS Visscher, Frans J Kok, Evert G Schouten
BMC Public Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-6-293
Abstract: A systematic and stepwise approach (Intervention Mapping) is used to develop a low-intensity energy balance intervention programme for recent retirees. This one-year, low-intensity multifaceted programme aims to prevent accumulation of abdominal fat mass and general weight gain by increasing awareness of energy balance and influencing related behaviours of participants' preference. These behaviours are physical activity, fibre intake, portion size and fat consumption. The effectiveness of the intervention programme is tested in a cluster randomised controlled trial. Measurements of anthropometry, physical activity, energy intake, and related psychosocial determinants are performed at baseline and repeated at 6 months for intermediate effect, at 12 months to evaluate short-term intervention effects and at 24 months to test the sustainability of the effects.This intervention programme is unique in its focus on retirees and energy balance. It aims at increasing awareness and takes into account personal preferences of the users by offering several options for behaviour change. Moreover, the intervention programme is evaluated at short-term and long-term and includes consecutive outcome measures (determinants, behaviour and body composition).This study is performed as part of the Netherlands Heart Foundation 'Netherlands Research programme for weight Gain prevention' (NHF-NRG). This multidisciplinary programme aims to gain insight into behavioural determinants of weight gain and to identify potentially effective methods and strategies for the prevention of weight gain in distinct target groups: adolescents, young adults and recent retirees [1].Overweight and obesity are associated with chronic conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancer, and thus considered a major public health concern [2]. Many attempts have been made to treat overweight and obesity and although these attempts show short term weight loss in most subjec
Nationwide shifts in the double burden of overweight and underweight in Vietnamese adults in 2000 and 2005: two national nutrition surveys
Do TP Ha, Edith JM Feskens, Paul Deurenberg, Le B Mai, Nguyen C Khan, Frans J Kok
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-62
Abstract: The study was based on two nationally representative surveys, the National Nutrition Survey 2000 (14,452 subjects) and the National Adult Obesity Survey 2005 (17,213 subjects). Adults aged 25-64 years were sampled to be nationally representative. Multiple multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of underweight and overweight with socio-economic indicators.The distribution of BMI across the population and population groups indicated a shift towards higher BMI levels in 2005 as compared to 2000. The nationwide prevalence of overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) was 6.6% and 0.4% respectively in 2005, almost twice the rates of 2000 (3.5% and 0.2%). Using the Asian BMI cut-off of 23 kg/m2 the overweight prevalence was 16.3% in 2005 and 11.7% in 2000. In contrast, the underweight prevalence (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) of 20.9% in 2005 was lower than the rate of 25.0% in 2000. Women were more likely to be both underweight and overweight as compared to men in both 2000 and 2005. Urban residents were more likely to be overweight and less likely to be underweight as compared to rural residents in both years. The shifts from underweight to overweight were clearer among the higher food expenditure levels.The double nutrition burden was clearly present in Vietnam. The distribution of BMI across the population groups generally indicated a shift towards higher BMI levels in 2005 as compared to 2000. The prevalence of overweight was increased while the declined level of undernutrition was still high in 2005. The shifts of underweight to overweight were most obvious among population groups with higher food expenditure levels.In developing countries the prevalence of overweight is increasing, while underweight prevalence is still high. This situation is known as the double burden of malnutrition [1]. Although the underweight prevalence is decreasing it is still high, between 20% and 50%, in countries such as India, Bangladesh, China,
Relation of Leptin, Ghrelin and Inflammatory Cytokines with Body Mass Index in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients with and without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Ying Zheng, Aiguo Ma, Qiuzhen Wang, Xiuxia Han, Jing Cai, Evert G. Schouten, Frans J. Kok, Yunchun Li
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080122
Abstract: Background Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients often suffer from anorexia and poor nutrition, causing weight loss. The peptide hormones leptin and its counterpart ghrelin, acting in the regulation of food intake and fat utilization, play an important role in nutritional balance. This study aimed to investigate the association of blood concentrations of leptin, ghrelin and inflammatory cytokines with body mass index (BMI) in TB patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods BMI, biochemical parameters and plasma levels of leptin, ghrelin and inflammatory cytokines were measured before the start of treatment in 27 incident TB patients with T2DM, 21 TB patients and 23 healthy subjects enrolled in this study. Results The levels of leptin were significantly higher in TB patients (35.2±19.1 ng/ml) than TB+T2DM (12.6±6.1 ng/ml) and control (16.1±11.1 ng/ml) groups. The level of ghrelin was significantly lower in TB (119.9±46.1 pg/ml) and non-significantly lower in TB+T2DM (127.7±38.6 pg/ml) groups than control (191.6±86.5 pg/ml) group. The levels of TNF-α were higher, while IFN-γ and IL-6 levels were lower in patients than in the control group. Leptin showed a negative correlation with BMI in TB (r=-0.622, p<0.05) and TB+T2DM (r= -0.654, p<0.05) groups, but a positive correlation with BMI in the control group (r=0.521, p<0.05). Contrary ghrelin showed a positive correlation with BMI in TB (r=0.695, p<0.05) and TB+T2DM (r= 0.199, p>0.05) groups, but negative correlation with BMI in the control (r=-0.693, p<0.05) group. Inflammatory cytokines were poorly correlated with BMI in this study. Only IFN-γ showed a significant negative correlation with BMI in the control group (r=-0.545, p<0.05). Conclusions This study may suggest that possible abnormalities in ghrelin and leptin regulation (high levels of leptin and low levels of ghrelin) may be associated with low BMI and may account for the poor nutrition associated with TB and TB+T2DM.
“Biological Nitrogen Fixation” Book Summary  [PDF]
Frans J. de Bruijn
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2016.66040
Abstract: Biological nitrogen fixation is a very valuable alternative to nitrogen fertilizer. This process will be discussed in the “Biological Nitrogen Fixation” book. A wide array of free-living and associative nitrogen fixing organisms (diazotrophs) will be covered. The most extensively studied and applied example of biological nitrogen fixation is the symbiotic interaction between nitrogen fixing “rhizobia” and legume plants. While legumes are important as major food and feed crops, cereals such as wheat, maize and rice are the primary food crops, but do not have this symbiotic nitrogen fixing interaction with rhizobia. It has thus been a “holy grail” to transfer the ability to fix nitrogen to the cereals and this topic will be also addressed in these books.
Zinc Biofortification of Rice in China: A Simulation of Zinc Intake with Different Dietary Patterns
Yu Qin,Alida Melse-Boonstra,Baojun Yuan,Xiaoqun Pan,Yue Dai,Minghao Zhou,Rita Wegmueller,Jinkou Zhao,Frans J. Kok,Zumin Shi
Nutrients , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/nu4060517
Abstract: A cross-sectional survey of 2819 adults aged 20 years and above was undertaken in 2002 in Jiangsu Province. Zinc intake was assessed using a consecutive 3-day 24-h dietary recall method. Insufficient and excess intake was determined according to the Chinese Dietary Recommended Intakes. Four distinct dietary patterns were identified namely “traditional”, “macho”, “sweet tooth”, and “healthy”. Intake of zinc from biofortified rice was simulated at an intermediate zinc concentration (2.7 mg/100 g) and a high zinc concentration (3.8 mg/100 g) in rice. Average total zinc intake was 12.0 ± 3.7 mg/day, and insufficiency of zinc intake was present in 15.4%. Simulated zinc intake from biofortified rice with intermediate and high zinc concentration decreased the prevalence of low zinc intake to 6.5% and 4.4%, respectively. The effect was most pronounced in the “traditional” pattern, with only 0.7% of insufficiency of zinc intake remaining in the highest quartile of the pattern. Zinc intake was inversely associated with the “sweet tooth” pattern. Zinc biofortifed rice improves dietary zinc intake and lowers risk for insufficient zinc intake, especially for subjects with a more “traditional” food pattern, but less for subjects with a “sweet tooth” food pattern.
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