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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9916 matches for " Frank "
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Solution for Rational Expectation Models Free of Complex Numbers  [PDF]
Frank Hespeler
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2011.13011
Abstract: This paper approaches the problem of the potential for complex-valued solutions within linear macroeconomic models with rational expectations. It finds that these problems are associated with a specific solution method for the underlying model. The paper establishes that the danger of complex-valued solutions always can be eliminated by forcing those solutions to fulfill additional constraints. These constraints are essentially restrictions on the degrees of freedoms in indeterminate solutions.
A Characterization of the Optimal Management of Heterogeneous Environmental Assets under Uncertainty  [PDF]
Frank Raymond
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.25093
Abstract: The application herein involves the optimal management of renewable and nonrenewable resources within the context of a stochastic model of optimal control. By characterizing the two dimensional Bellman solution, three rules with respect to resource management are established. Within the context of coastal development, this analysis may help to explain why renewable resources may become increasingly vulnerable to random external shocks as nonrenewable resources are depleted. Although existence of an optimal closed form solution to the multi-sector Bellman model remains an open mathematical question, this analysis offers a characterization which can be applied to other scenarios in economics or finance in which two assets following stochastic processes interact.
Investigating the Suitability of Agile Methods for Requirements Development of Home Care Systems  [PDF]
Sandra Kelly, Frank Keenan
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.39104
Abstract: The ageing population in developed countries brings many benefits but also many challenges, particularly in terms of the development of appropriate technology to support their ability to remain in their own home environment. One particular challenge reported for such Home Care Systems (HCS) is the identification of an appropriate requirements development technique for dealing with the typical diverse stakeholders involved. Agile Methods (AMs) recognize this challenge and propose techniques that could be useful. This paper examines the desirable characteristics identified for requirements development in HCS and investigates the extent to which agile practices conform to these. It also sets out future work to improve the situation for the non compliant points found.
Free Anterolateral Thigh Perforator Flap for Head and Neck Cancer Resection in a Nonagenarian  [PDF]
Frank Lin, Damien Grinsell
Modern Plastic Surgery (MPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/mps.2012.21001
Abstract: With an aging population, free flap reconstruction for head and neck cancer ablation in the elderly is becoming more commonplace. In nonagenarians, however, such major operations are still rarely offered due to its physiological demands. We report the first case of successful resection and reconstruction of head and neck cancer with a free perforator flap in a 96 year old patient. We feel that with careful patient and flap selection, careful preoperative workup and close collaboration between treating teams, age alone should not preclude patients from receiving the best possible curative treatment and reconstruction in head and neck cancers. Even in nonagenarians, perforator free flaps, such as the anterolateral thigh flap, can be used safely to achieve good functional and aesthetic outcomes.
Optical Modeling and Analysis of Peripheral Optics of Contact Lenses  [PDF]
Jie Shen, Frank Spors
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2012.23012
Abstract: Background: Degraded peripheral vision has been hypothesized to be a stimulus for the development of foveal refractive error. Contact lenses have been widely used to correct central vision, but their impacts on peripheral vision are still unknown. The purpose of this study was to use optical model software to evaluate the peripheral optics of rigid gas permeable (RGP) and soft contact lenses (SCLs) in isolation. This will better assist us in understanding their peripheral optical performances on human eyes. Methods: An optical design software package (Zemax EE) was used to model peripheral optics of Menicon RGP lens and Acuvue 2 SCLs. Profiles of sphero-cylindrical power and major higher-order aberrations were computed in 10osteps out to 40o off-axis eccentricity for –3.0 D central focal power contact lens. The results of optical modeling were analyzed and compared with previously published experimental data. Results: –3.0 D RGP lenses and SCLs had –1.4 D and –2.0 D dioptric power at 40o eccentricity, respectively. The reduced dioptric power in the periphery of the analyzed contact lenses quantitatively matched with the reduced amount of hyperopic field curvature found from experimental data when these contact lenses fitted on human eyes. Cylindrical power increased to 0.3 D ~ 0.4 D at 40o eccentricity for both lens types. In addition, both contact lens types produced higher order aberrations, namely 1.2 μm coma and 0.15 μm spherical aberration at 40o eccentricity. Conclusions: Compared to SCLs, RGP lenses with equal focal power had less dioptric power in the periphery. Both RGP lenses and SCLs produced the same amount of major higher-order aberrations with increasing of the field angle. Some of these results can be used to predict and understand the peripheral optical performance of contact lenses on human eyes.
Some Characteristics of a Plant Growth Promoting Enterobacter sp. Isolated from the Roots of Maize  [PDF]
Frank Ogbo, Julius Okonkwo
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2012.23046
Abstract: Some properties of an Enterobacter sp. isolated from the roots of maize are described. Isolation was carried out using the semisolid enrichment culture technique and subsequent plating, both on nitrogen free biotin medium. Morphological, biochemical and phylogenetic characterization using the MicroSeqTM 16S rDNA technique were employed in identification of isolate, which was revealed to be closest matched at 99.4% with Enterobacter asburiae. The isolate possessed properties of plant growth promoting bacteria. Thus, it produced indole-3-acetic, plant polymer hydrolyzing enzymes, pectinase and cellulase as well as ammonia in vitro. The isolate grew well in the presence of both 3% NaCl and 10 μg of streptomycin. In plate bioassays, isolate promoted the germination of both maize and rice seeds as well as root and lateral root growth resulting in weight increases of seedlings over their controls. Experiments to quantify ability of isolate to promote plant growth was performed using hydroponics solutions and as appropriate, an inoculum of the isolate. Pot experiments were also employed. Results from these studies showed that isolate enhanced nitrogen accumulation and significantly (p < 0.05), improved the growth of maze seedlings over controls. Isolate has potential for utilizetion as inocula for sustainable production of cereals.
Genetic Background May Confer Susceptibility to PTC in Benign Multinodular Thyroid Disease  [PDF]
Sivatharsiny Thavarajah, Frank Weber
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2012.36128
Abstract: Purpose: The incidence of hyperplastic thyroid nodular disease has been consistently rising over the last decades. In addition, unsuspected papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) can be found in up to 34% of patients operated for benign thyroid lesions. PTC tends to occur multi-focally and is commonly of polyclonal origin. We set out to test the hypothesis that in benign thyroid disease, a unique genetic signature can already be identified in the benign pathology, which is associated with a susceptibility of the thyroid tissue to neoplastic transformation in the context of additional growth promoting stimuli. Patients and Methods: We obtained a set of 23 samples from patients with multinodular goiter (MNG), 12 of whom also harbored an unsuspected PTC. We used global gene expression analysis to evaluate for dissimilarities in the gene expression patterns between these two groups. We also compared these patterns to the profiles of 3 normal thyroid and 7 PTC samples. Results: We were able to accurately distinguish between hyperplastic nodules of patients with multinodular goiter and those that were associated with a PTC. One of the strongest differentially expressed genes, CDC42, has been implicated to respond to environmental factors such as UVB radiation and might point to novel factors contributing to PTC genesis in the setting of pre-existing benign proliferative disease. Conclusion: While the comparison between histologically identical samples cannot distinguish the two groups of goiters, unsupervised or supervised approaches allowed us to identify a molecular signature associated with PTC susceptibility in multinodular goiter.
The Philosophical Paradigm of African Identity and Development  [PDF]
Frank Okenna Ndubisi
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.31A037

Identity, is the distinguishing characteristic of a person or being. African identity is “being-with” as opposed to the Western individualism, communalism as oppose to collectivism. African “self” is rooted in the family-hood. The West battered African World view and cultural heritage, with the racialism, slave trade, colonization and other Western ideologies. They considered Africans inferiors and influenced most Africans to see themselves as such. Thus Africans are backward and without integral development and independence, although it was quite certain that pre-colonial Africa was not static or dead. However, the essence of philosophy is to inquire critically into the marvels and problematic that confronts one in his world in view of producing systematic explanation and sustained response to them. Therefore, Contemporary African Philosophy focuses on these marvels and problematic confronting the Africa World. The essence of philosophical paradigm of African identity and development is to reason out the way people think with the aim of rediscovering and situating them on the right track, which is, being original and authentic with the view of arriving at a desired goal. It is also for emancipating Africa from bartered African image and European conditioning, slavery and neo-colonization. African ontology is anthropocentric; any serious minded development paradigm must take manmmaduasits point of departure and the point of arrival. It must be peoples’ oriented, relevant to the peoples’ needs and aspirations.

Immiserizing Credit: Challenging the Efficacy of Microfinance  [PDF]
Frank Raymond, John Adams
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.48058

Despite a dearth of theoretical studies, there is widespread perception that microfinance is an enormously useful tool for economic development. However, an increasing number of households in lesser developed countries are facing the same debt squeeze as those in the developed world, but are less able to manage debt responsibilities. The consequences are much more dramatic for LDC households because a much larger portion of household income is necessary for subsistence. As such, microfinance can become immiserizing for poor families with few assets. We develop a dynamic model that allows households to use credit markets in order to augment household consumption or capital. Results indicate a proclivity for households to increase debt over time, challenging the efficacy of microfinance as a sustainable tool for development.

Einstein’s Pseudo-Tensor in n Spatial Dimensions for Static Systems with Spherical Symmetry  [PDF]
Frank R. Tangherlini
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.49163

It was noted earlier that the general relativity field equations for static systems with spherical symmetry can be put into a linear form when the source energy density equals radial stress. These linear equations lead to a delta function energymomentum tensor for a point mass source for the Schwarzschild field that has vanishing self-stress, and whose integral therefore transforms properly under a Lorentz transformation, as though the particle is in the flat space-time of special relativity (SR). These findings were later extended to n spatial dimensions. Consistent with this SR-like result for the source tensor, Nordstrom and independently, Schrodinger, found for three spatial dimensions that the Einstein gravitational energy-momentum pseudo-tensor vanished in proper quasi-rectangular coordinates. The present work shows that this vanishing holds for the pseudo-tensor when extended to n spatial dimensions. Two additional consequences of this work are: 1) the dependency of the Einstein gravitational coupling constant κ on spatial dimensionality employed earlier is further justified; 2) the Tolman expression for the mass of a static, isolated system is generalized to take into account the dimensionality of space for n

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