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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 470152 matches for " Frank A. Bonsu "
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First Nationwide Survey on the Resistance to First Line Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs in Ghana  [PDF]
Kennedy K. Addo, Richard Owusu, Christian Bonsu, Kwaku Owusu-Darko, Samuel O. Addo, Gloria I. Mensah, Mercy J. Newman, David Ofori-Adjei, Frank A. Bonsu
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2018.61007
Abstract: Background/objective: A nationwide survey on the resistance to first line anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) drugs was conducted in Ghana from 2007-2008 by Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research in collaboration with the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. We aimed to characterize mycobacterial species causing pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and determine the resistance pattern to first line anti-TB drugs among newly diagnosed and previously treated PTB patients in Ghana. Methods: Two sputum samples from consented new smear positive PTB patients who had never been treated for TB or had been on anti-TB treatment for less than a month and patients who had been treated for TB previously for more than a month in selected diagnostic centres nationwide were collected for culture, identification and drug susceptibility test. Culture positive isolates were tested against streptomycin (S), isoniazid (H), rifampicin (R) and ethambutol (E) using the simplified proportion method and line probe assay (LPA). The LPA was performed in mid-2017. Results: Among 410 samples, 345 positive cultures were obtained and identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Of the 345 isolates, 133 were further differentiated by GenoType MTBC® as M. tuberculosis, 126 (94.7%) and M. africanum 7 (5.3%). The overall drug resistance patterns were as follows: 43/345 (12.5%), 6/345 (1.7%), 9/345 (2.6%) and 71/345 (20.6%) were resistant to H, R, E and S respectively and 5/345 (1.4%) were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Conclusion: The results indicate high levels of resistance to S and H among new and previously treated TB patients. We recommend adequate surveillance systems including periodic national anti-TB drug resistance surveys.
Factors affecting TB case detection and treatment in the Sissala East District, Ghana  [PDF]
Collins K. Ahorlu, Frank Bonsu
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2013.13006
Abstract: Background: Tuberculosis remains a major heal- th problem affecting about a third of the world population despite a number of preventive and control measures taken in the past few decades. Eighty-five percent of all tuberculosis cases are concentrated in Asia and Africa due to lack of education and health care infrastructure. Objective: To determine factors affecting low tuberculosis case detection in the Sissala East district in the Upper West Region of Ghana. Methods: This was a descriptive study where semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 61 respondents; six focus group discussions and 20 in-depth interviews were conducted to generate both qualitative and quantitative data for analysis. Results: Tuberculosis, known locally as Kesibine was identified as a major problem in the district. The two most frequently reported TB related dis-tresses were coughing (96.7%) and chest pains (95.0%). However, these distresses were reported more after probing for them. The most frequently spontaneously reported distress was reduced income (60.7%) for patients. The most prominent cause reported was sexual pollution (72.2%). Suspected tuberculosis patients are stigmatized and are denied sex by their partners as shown in the following narrative; I will not eat or have sex with her or eat any leftover from her plate (male local healer, In-depth interview). Case detection and treatment is hampered by lack of communication between sub-district facilities and the district hospital to aid laboratory diagnosis. Conclusion: There is therefore the need for vigorous health education to inform the people about the biomedical causes of TB and the availability of appropriate treatment for the disease at health facilities. However, the education should not aim at changing the “wrong beliefs” but focus on making people aware of the biomedical causes and see TB as treatable infection, which could be controlled.
First Nationwide Survey of the Prevalence of TB/HIV Co-Infection in Ghana  [PDF]
Kennedy K. Addo, William K. Ampofo, Richard Owusu, Christian Bonsu, Naomi Nartey, Gloria I. Mensah, Samuel O. Addo, Kofi Bonney, Justice Kumi, Adukwei Hesse, Nii A. Addo, Frank A. Bonsu
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2018.62013
Abstract: Background: To better understand the extent of the magnitude of tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) co-infection in Ghana, a baseline study was conducted to establish the national prevalence of the dual infection. The study aimed to determine the most prevalent HIV serotype (HIV-1 or HIV-2) in TB patients (new and old cases); genotype mycobacterial species causing TB/HIV co-infection and determine their drug susceptibility patterns. Methods: Sputum and dried blood samples were collected from 503 TB patients from 67 health facilities nationwide between December 2007 and November 2008. All samples were processed for mycobacterial and HIV testing using conventional and molecular methods. Results: A total of 517 paired sputum samples were received from 517 patients. A total 503 patients [335 (66.6%) males; 168 (33.4%) females] had at least one culture positive sample. Majority (93.0%) of the patients were new cases while 7.0% were old cases. All 503 TB isolates were Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Of 503 blood samples, 74 were positive for HIV (14.7%), comprising 71 (14.1%) and 3 (0.6%) for HIV-1 and HIV-1 & 2 respectively; none was positive for HIV-2 alone. The seroprevalence of HIV in newly diagnosed TB patients and those already on treatment, was 69/468 (14.7%) and 5/35 (14.3%) respectively (p > 0.05). Differentiation of isolates from TB/HIV co-infected patients showed that 70/74 (94.6%) were Mycobacterium tuberculosis while 4/74 (5.4%) were Mycobacterium africanum. Monoresistance to isoniazid and rifampicin were 4/74 (5.4%) and 1/74 (1.4%) respectively; resistance to both drugs (multi-drug resistant-MDR) was not observed. Sixty nine (93.2%) isolates were susceptible to both drugs. Conclusion: The prevalence of HIV infection in TB patients was 14.7%. TB/HIV was common among the sexually active age group (25 - 34 years). Majority of the TB isolates were M. tuberculosis which were susceptible to both isoniazid and rifampicin. HIV-1 was the common serotype infecting TB patients in Ghana.
A tuberculin skin test survey among Ghanaian school children
Kennedy Addo, Susan van den Hof, Gloria Mensah, Adukwei Hesse, Christian Bonsu, Kwadwo Koram, Felix Afutu, Frank Bonsu
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-35
Abstract: Tuberculin survey was conducted in 179 primary schools from 21 districts in 8 regions. Schools were purposively selected so as to reflect the proportion of affluent private and free tuition public schools as well as the proportion of small and large schools.Of the 24,778 children registered for the survey, 23,600 (95.2%) were tested of which 21,861 (92.6%) were available for reading. The age distribution showed an increase in numbers of children towards older age: 11% of the children were 6 years and 25%, 10 years. Females were 52.5% and males 47.5%. The proportion of girls was higher in all age groups (range 51.4% to 54.0%, p < 0.001). BCG scar was visible in 89.3% of the children. The percentage of children with a BCG scar differed by district and by age. The percentage of children with a BCG scar decreased with increasing age in all districts, reflecting increasing BCG vaccination coverage in Ghana in the last ten years. The risk of tuberculosis infection was low in the northern savannah zones compared to the southern coastal zones. Using a cut-off of 15 mm, the prevalence of infection ranged from 0.0% to 5.4% and the Annual Risks of Tuberculosis Infection 0.0% to 0.6%. There was an increase in the proportion of infected children after the age of 7 years. Children attending low and middle-class schools had a higher risk of infection than children attending upper-class schools.Tuberculosis infection is still a public health problem in Ghana and to monitor the trend, the survey needs to be repeated at 5 years interval.Ghana is a West African country, bordering Burkina Faso to the north, Togo to the east, Cote d'Ivoire to the west and the Gulf of Guinea to the south. For administrative purposes, the country is divided into 10 regions and subdivided into 168 districts. Topographically, Ghana is divided into three ecological zones. The southern regions (Western, Central, Volta, Greater-Accra) make up the coastal zone, the central regions (Brong Ahafo, Ashanti, Eastern
Potential impact of large scale abstraction on the quality of shallow groundwater for irrigation in the Keta Strip, Ghana
BK Kortatsi, E Young, A Mensah-Bonsu
West African Journal of Applied Ecology , 2005,
Abstract: The potential impact of large-scale groundwater abstraction on the shallow groundwater and crop production within the Keta Strip was examined. The assessment was based on geophysical data, data on groundwater quality, soils, irrigation water requirement and hydrogeology of the Strip. The results indicate that the shallow groundwater can support only medium to high salt tolerant crops. This is consistent with the medium salt tolerant crops especially shallot and onion currently grown in the area. Large-scale irrigation of the Strip will require at least 2 x 107 m3 of water during the dry season. ion of such large volume of water from the shallow aquifer will result in the lowering of water table by approximately 1.0 m per year. The consequence of this will be the up coning of the fresh/saline water interface probably by as much as 4.7 m, resulting in salinisation of the fresh water lenses particularly around the lagoon end where most of the shallot farms are situated. Apart from up conning, salinisation may result from ingress of brackish/saline water from the lagoon and sea into the fresh water lenses. Though post irrigation rainfall will be adequate to nullify the water table depression, once the fresh water is contaminated, it is extremely difficult to decontaminate. Consequently, the shallow groundwater will evolve from medium through high to very high salinity hazard to crops. Specific ions toxicity will also increase due to increment in the concentrations of individual ions. Thus, the previously freshwater will become unsuitable for the production of even high salt tolerance crops. This will effectively halt the lucrative shallot and other vegetable farming in the Keta Strip and thus signify socio-economic disaster for the Keta Strip in particular and Ghana in general.
The Structure Of Labour Market And Demand For Hired Labour For Oil Palm Production In The Western Region Of Ghana
A Mensah-Bonsu, DP Amegashie, S Gyasie
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2009,
Abstract: The study uses cross sectional data from randomly selected oil palm famers to describe the struc-ture of the labour market and estimate the factors which influence oil palm farmers’ demand for hired labour in the Western Region. Descriptive statistics and the ordinary least square regres-sion techniques have been applied in the analysis. The results suggest that the structure of la-bour for oil palm production typifies a small-scale agricultural production, with some farmers using contract labour (14 percent), salaried labour (11 percent) and fertilizer (30 percent) in production. The estimated regression results show that the value of investment in other inputs (e.g. fertilizer), village wage rate, size of oil palm farm and higher educational attainment have significant and positive influences on oil palm farmers’ demand for hired labour. The distance of the farm from home has a negative and significant influence. The estimated hired labour de-mand elasticities for farm size, value of other inputs, village wage rate and distance are inelastic. It is noted that issues on labour requirement of farmers should be based on economic considera-tions such as the structure of labour of the farmers, farm size, village wage rate and cost of other productive inputs. For oil palm production, carrying of fresh fruit bunches and slashing are two main activities that could be mechanized, but may lead to retrenchment of female and male hired labour, respectively.
Population-Based Tuberculosis Disease Prevalence Survey in Ghana: The Role and Lessons Learnt from the Laboratory  [PDF]
Kennedy Kwasi Addo, Samuel Ofori Addo, Christian Bonsu, Ezekiel Mensah, Sarah Edusei, Prosper Dedzo, Michael Amo Omari, Samuel Kudzawu, Honesty Ganu, Samuel Kumah Atiadevie, Frank Adae Bonsu
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2019.72009
Abstract: Background: Bacteriologically-confirmed tuberculosis (TB) cases used in calculating TB prevalence in a country are obtained through laboratory examination of sputum specimens. Objective: This article describes laboratory processing of specimens, results overview, conclusions and key lessons learnt from the perspective of laboratory personnel involved in the conduct of TB disease prevalence survey in Ghana in 2013. Methods: Symptoms screening and Chest X-ray suggestive of TB were used to select participants who produced sputum to confirm TB cases using microscopy, culture and Xpert® MTB/RIF assay (GeneXpert). Results: A total of 15,935 single and paired sputum specimens were received from eligible participants. About half of Ziehl-Nielsen (129/263) and Auramine O (122/246) stained smear positives were scanty positive. Culture positivity rate for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was 266/14,994 (1.7%) and 100/15,179 (0.7%) in Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) and Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) media respectively; while non-tuberculous mycobacterium was 294/14,994 (1.96%) and 167/15,179 (1.1%). Total contamination rates in MGIT (5.4%) were higher than in LJ (1.7%). Prevalence of smear positive TB and bacteriologically confirmed TB among adult population (≥15 years) was estimated at 111 (95% CI: 76 - 145) and 356 (95% CI: 288 - 425) per 100,000 population respectively. Conclusions and Lessons Learnt: Direct supervision of specimen collection by well-trained laboratory personnel, timely transportation of specimens from field to laboratory, prompt specimen processing and use of electronic data management systems are essential for a reliable TB disease prevalence survey data. More importantly, strengthening human and logistical capacity of the laboratory must be of utmost priority.
Indigenous knowledge: the basis for survival of the peasant farmer in Africa
Mensah Bonsu
Journal of Philosophy and Culture , 2004,
Genotypic Diversity and Drug Susceptibility Patterns among M. tuberculosis Complex Isolates from South-Western Ghana
Dorothy Yeboah-Manu, Adwoa Asante-Poku, Thomas Bodmer, David Stucki, Kwadwo Koram, Frank Bonsu, Gerd Pluschke, Sebastien Gagneux
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021906
Abstract: Objective The aim of this study was to use spoligotyping and large sequence polymorphism (LSP) to study the population structure of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates. Methods MTBC isolates were identified using standard biochemical procedures, IS6110 PCR, and large sequence polymorphisms. Isolates were further typed using spoligotyping, and the phenotypic drug susceptibility patterns were determined by the proportion method. Result One hundred and sixty-two isolates were characterised by LSP typing. Of these, 130 (80.25%) were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis sensu stricto (MTBss), with the Cameroon sub-lineage being dominant (N = 59/130, 45.38%). Thirty-two (19.75%) isolates were classified as Mycobacterium africanum type 1, and of these 26 (81.25%) were identified as West-Africa I, and 6 (18.75%) as West-Africa II. Spoligotyping sub-lineages identified among the MTBss included Haarlem (N = 15, 11.53%), Ghana (N = 22, 16.92%), Beijing (4, 3.08%), EAI (4, 3.08%), Uganda I (4, 3.08%), LAM (2, 1.54%), X (N = 1, 0.77%) and S (2, 1.54%). Nine isolates had SIT numbers with no identified sub-lineages while 17 had no SIT numbers. MTBss isolates were more likely to be resistant to streptomycin (p<0.008) and to any drug resistance (p<0.03) when compared to M. africanum. Conclusion This study demonstrated that overall 36.4% of TB in South-Western Ghana is caused by the Cameroon sub-lineage of MTBC and 20% by M. africanum type 1, including both the West-Africa 1 and West-Africa 2 lineages. The diversity of MTBC in Ghana should be considered when evaluating new TB vaccines.
Modeling and detection of respiratory-related outbreak signatures
Peter F Craigmile, Namhee Kim, Soledad A Fernandez, Bema K Bonsu
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6947-7-28
Abstract: We consider time series models for chest radiograph data obtained from Midwest children's emergency departments. These models incorporate available covariate information such as patient visit counts and smoothed ambient temperature series, as well as time series dependencies on daily and weekly seasonal scales. Respiratory-related outbreak signature detection is based on filtering the one-step-ahead prediction errors obtained from the time series models for the respiratory-complaint background.Using simulation experiments based on a stochastic model for an anthrax attack, we illustrate the effect of the choice of filter and the statistical models upon radiograph-attributed outbreak signature detection.We demonstrate the importance of using seasonal autoregressive integrated average time series models (SARIMA) with covariates in the modeling of respiratory-related time series data. We find some homogeneity in the time series models for the respiratory-complaint backgrounds across the Midwest emergency departments studied. Our simulations show that the balance between specificity, sensitivity, and timeliness to detect an outbreak signature differs by the emergency department and the choice of filter. The linear and exponential filters provide a good balance.Well-known, as well as previously uncharacterized infections continue to (re)emerge around the globe. To avoid casualties from outbreaks of these infections and from the potential criminal uses of bioagents, surveillance systems are needed that have the capacity to identify such outbreaks accurately and rapidly. The accuracy and timeliness of biosurveillance systems rests on the ability to model the uncertainty, severity, and aberrancy of clinical symptoms that are likely to portend disease outbreaks as expressed through the data monitoring system. Shmueli [1] summarizes the problems that biosurveillance systems, in general, pose to traditional statistical monitoring: (a) biosurveillance data may not be independent
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