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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6928 matches for " Franco Merletti "
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Effects of Italian Smoking Regulation on Rates of Hospital Admission for Acute Coronary Events: A Country-Wide Study
Francesco Barone-Adesi,Antonio Gasparrini,Loredana Vizzini,Franco Merletti,Lorenzo Richiardi
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017419
Abstract: Several studies have reported a reduction in acute coronary events (ACEs) in the general population after the enforcement of smoking regulations, although there is uncertainty concerning the magnitude of the effect of such interventions. We conducted a country-wide evaluation of the health effects of the introduction of a smoking ban in public places, using data on hospital admissions for ACEs from the Italian population after the implementation of a national smoking regulation in January 2005.
Cancer Risk in Mothers of Men Operated for Undescended Testis
Hadriano M. Lacerda,Lorenzo Richiardi,Andreas Pettersson,Marine Corbin,Franco Merletti,Olof Akre
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014285
Abstract: Undescended testis, or cryptorchidism, occurs in 2–5% of boys born at term, and by 12 months of age about 1% of all boys have manifest cryptorchidism. Several hormonal substances control this process and disruption of the foetal sex-hormones balance is a potential cause of undescended testis, however, to a great extent the aetiology of cryptorchidism is unclear.
Lung cancer risk in painters: a meta-analysis
Guha,Neela; Merletti,Franco; Steenland,Nelson Kyle; Altieri,Andrea; Cogliano,Vincent; Straif,Kurt;
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81232011000900029
Abstract: we conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively compare the association between occupation as a painter and the incidence or mortality from lung cancer. pubmed and the reference lists of pertinent publications were searched and reviewed. for the meta-analysis, we used data from 47 independent cohort, record linkage, and case-control studies (from a total of 74 reports), including > 11,000 incident cases or deaths from lung cancer among painters. three authors independently abstracted data and assessed study quality. the summary relative risk (meta-rr, random effects) for lung cancer in paint-ers was 1.35 [95% confidence interval (ci), 1.29-1.41; 47 studies] and 1.35 (95% ci, 1.21-1.51; 27 studies) after controlling for smoking. the relative risk was higher in never-smokers (meta-rr = 2.00; 95% ci, 1.09-3.67; 3studies) and persisted when restricted to studies that adjusted for other occupational exposures (meta-rr = 1.57; 95% ci, 1.21-2.04; 5 studies). these results support the conclusion that occupational exposures in painters are causally associated with the risk of lung cancer.
Methylation of APC and GSTP1 in Non-Neoplastic Tissue Adjacent to Prostate Tumour and Mortality from Prostate Cancer
Lorenzo Richiardi, Valentina Fiano, Chiara Grasso, Daniela Zugna, Luisa Delsedime, Anna Gillio-Tos, Franco Merletti
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068162
Abstract: Background Markers that can discriminate between indolent and aggressive prostate tumours are needed. We studied gene methylation in non-neoplastic tissue adjacent to prostate tumour (NTAT) in association with prostate cancer mortality. Methods From two cohorts of consecutive prostate cancer patients diagnosed at one pathology ward in Turin, Italy, we selected 157 patients with available NTAT and followed them up for more than 14 years. We obtained DNA from NTAT in paraffin-embedded prostate tumour tissues and used probe real-time PCR to analyse methylation of the glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1) and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene promoters. Results Prevalence of APC and GSTP1 methylation in the NTAT was between 40 and 45%. It was associated with methylation in prostate tumour tissue for the same two genes as well as with a high Gleason score. The hazard ratio (HR) of prostate cancer mortality was 2.38 (95% confidence interval: 1.23–4.61) for APC methylation, and 2.92 (1.49–5.74) for GSTP1 methylation in NTAT. It changed to 1.91 (1.03–3.56) and 1.60 (0.80–3.19) after adjusting for Gleason score and methylation in prostate tumour tissue. Comparison of 2 vs. 0 methylated genes in NTAT revealed a HR of 4.30 (2.00–9.22), which decreased to 2.40 (1.15–5.01) after adjustment. Results were stronger in the first 5 years of follow-up (adjusted HR: 3.29, 95% CI: 1.27–8.52). Conclusions Changes in gene methylation are an early event in prostate carcinogenesis and may play a role in cancer progression. Gene methylation in NTAT is a possible prognostic marker to be evaluated in clinical studies.
Hierarchical Regression for Multiple Comparisons in a Case-Control Study of Occupational Risks for Lung Cancer
Marine Corbin, Lorenzo Richiardi, Roel Vermeulen, Hans Kromhout, Franco Merletti, Susan Peters, Lorenzo Simonato, Kyle Steenland, Neil Pearce, Milena Maule
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038944
Abstract: Background Occupational studies often involve multiple comparisons and therefore suffer from false positive findings. Semi-Bayes adjustment methods have sometimes been used to address this issue. Hierarchical regression is a more general approach, including Semi-Bayes adjustment as a special case, that aims at improving the validity of standard maximum-likelihood estimates in the presence of multiple comparisons by incorporating similarities between the exposures of interest in a second-stage model. Methodology/Principal Findings We re-analysed data from an occupational case-control study of lung cancer, applying hierarchical regression. In the second-stage model, we included the exposure to three known lung carcinogens (asbestos, chromium and silica) for each occupation, under the assumption that occupations entailing similar carcinogenic exposures are associated with similar risks of lung cancer. Hierarchical regression estimates had smaller confidence intervals than maximum-likelihood estimates. The shrinkage toward the null was stronger for extreme, less stable estimates (e.g., “specialised farmers”: maximum-likelihood OR: 3.44, 95%CI 0.90–13.17; hierarchical regression OR: 1.53, 95%CI 0.63–3.68). Unlike Semi-Bayes adjustment toward the global mean, hierarchical regression did not shrink all the ORs towards the null (e.g., “Metal smelting, converting and refining furnacemen”: maximum-likelihood OR: 1.07, Semi-Bayes OR: 1.06, hierarchical regression OR: 1.26). Conclusions/Significance Hierarchical regression could be a valuable tool in occupational studies in which disease risk is estimated for a large amount of occupations when we have information available on the key carcinogenic exposures involved in each occupation. With the constant progress in exposure assessment methods in occupational settings and the availability of Job Exposure Matrices, it should become easier to apply this approach.
Occult HCV Infection: An Unexpected Finding in a Population Unselected for Hepatic Disease
Laura De Marco,Anna Gillio-Tos,Valentina Fiano,Guglielmo Ronco,Vittorio Krogh,Domenico Palli,Salvatore Panico,Rosario Tumino,Paolo Vineis,Franco Merletti,Lorenzo Richiardi,Carlotta Sacerdote
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008128
Abstract: Occult Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a new pathological entity characterized by presence of liver disease and absence or very low levels of detectable HCV-RNA in serum. Abnormal values of liver enzymes and presence of replicative HCV-RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells are also observed. Aim of the study was to evaluate occult HCV occurrence in a population unselected for hepatic disease.
Prevalence and Follow-Up of Occult HCV Infection in an Italian Population Free of Clinically Detectable Infectious Liver Disease
Laura De Marco, Paola Manzini, Morena Trevisan, Anna Gillio-Tos, Franca Danielle, Cinzia Balloco, Alessandra Pizzi, Eleonora De Filippo, Sergio D’Antico, Beatrice Violante, Adriano Valfrè, Franco Curti, Franco Merletti, Lorenzo Richiardi
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043541
Abstract: Background Occult hepatitis C virus infection (OCI) is a recently described phenomenon characterized by undetectable levels of HCV-RNA in serum/plasma by current laboratory assays, with identifiable levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and/or liver tissue by molecular tests with enhanced sensitivity. Previous results from our group showed an OCI prevalence of 3.3% in a population unselected for hepatic disease. The present study aimed to evaluate OCI prevalence in a larger cohort of infectious liver disease-free (ILDF) subjects. Clinical follow-up of OCI subjects was performed to investigate the natural history of the infection. Methods and Findings 439 subjects referred to a Turin Blood Bank for phlebotomy therapy were recruited. They included 314 ILDF subjects, 40 HCV-positive subjects and 85 HBV-positive subjects, of whom 7 were active HBV carriers. Six subjects (4/314 ILDF subjects [1.27%] and 2/7 active HBV carriers [28%]) were positive for HCV-RNA in PBMCs, but negative for serological and virological markers of HCV, indicating OCI. HCV genotypes were determined in the PBMCs of 3/6 OCI subjects two had type 1b; the other had type 2a/2c. OCI subjects were followed up for at least 2 years. After 12 months only one OCI persisted, showing a low HCV viral load (3.73×101 UI/ml). By the end of follow-up all OCI subjects were negative for HCV. No seroconversion, alteration of liver enzyme levels, or reduction of liver synthesis occurred during follow-up. Conclusions This study demonstrated the existence of OCI in ILDF subjects, and suggested a high OCI prevalence among active HBV carriers. Follow-up suggested that OCI could be transient, with a trend toward the decrease of HCV viral load to levels undetectable by conventional methods after 12–18 months. Confirmation studies with a longer follow-up period are needed for identification of the OCI clearance or recurrence rates, and to characterize the viruses involved.
Epidemiology As a Tool to Reveal Inequalities in Breast Cancer Care.
PLOS Medicine , 2006,
Eyjafjallajökull Volcanic Eruption: Ice Nuclei and Particle Characterization  [PDF]
Franco Belosi, Gianni Santachiara, Franco Prodi
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2011.12005
Abstract: The Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption was an extraordinary event in that it led to widespread and unprecedented disruption to air travel over Europe – a region generally considered to be free from the hazards associated with volcanic eruptions, excluding the extreme south influenced by Mt. Etna. In situ measurements were performed at the research centre of the National Research Council (CNR) area of Bologna (44?31′ N; 11?20′ E), an urban background site, in order to contribute to knowledge concerning the impact of the volcanic emission.Aerosol size distributions measured with a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS) and an Optical Particle Counter (OPC) show an increase in concentration of the accumulation and coarse fraction during the transit of the ash cloud, with respect to the subsequent period of the event, while particles smaller than 0.3 μm seem not to be affected by volcanic ash. Ice nuclei measured in the sampled air during and after the ash cloud transit, show an higher concentration during the ash cloud transit, with a ratio of about 1:110 with respect to the aerosol number concentration measured with the OPC.The elemental composition of aerosol particles, performed with SEM-EDX, gives about 30% of the inorganic coarse particles (geometric diameter larger than 1 μm) of volcanic origin on the 20 April. Si and Al concentrations result prevalently much higher than Ca and Fe ones. A large number of particles contained sulphur, indicating secondary processes of sulphate/sulphuric acid formation due to sulphur dioxide oxidation during transport in the volcanic plume.
A Review of Termo- and Diffusio-Phoresis in the Atmospheric Aerosol Scavenging Process. Part 1: Drop Scavenging  [PDF]
Gianni Santachiara, Franco Prodi, Franco Belosi
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2012.22016
Abstract: The role of phoretic forces in providing in-cloud and below-cloud scavenging due to falling drop is reviewed by considering published papers dealing with theoretical models, laboratory and field measurements. Theoretical analyses agree that Brownian diffusion appears to dominate drop scavenging of aerosol with radius less than 0.1 μm, and inertial impaction dominates scavenging of aerosol with radius higher than 1 μm. Thus, there is a minimum collection efficiency for particles in the approximate range 0.1 μm - 1 μm, where phoretic forces are felt. Generally speaking, published papers report not uniform evaluations of the contribution of thermo- and diffusiophoretic forces. This disagreement is partially due to the different laboratory and field conditions, and different theoretical approaches.
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