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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 31180 matches for " Francisco Ruiz-Fons "
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Wild boar: an increasing concern for Aujeszky's disease control in pigs?
Mariana Boadella, Christian Gortázar, Joaquín Vicente, Francisco Ruiz-Fons
BMC Veterinary Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-8-7
Abstract: Sera from 1659 wild boar were collected from 2000 to 2010 within 6 areas of the Iberian Peninsula and tested for the presence of antibodies against ADV by ELISA. According to sampling date, wild boar were grouped into three time periods. ADV prevalence was compared through period both globally and by geographic area. Overall seroprevalence for the ten-year study period was 49.6 ± 2.4%. The highest seroprevalence was recorded in areas with intense wild boar management. The annual proportion of positive wild boar sampling sites remained stable through the study period, while the percentage of domestic pig AD positive counties decreased from 70% in 2003 to 1.7% in 2010.Results presented herein confirmed our hypothesis that ADV would remain almost stable in wild boar populations. This evidences the increasing risk wild boar pose in the final stages of ADV eradication in pigs and for wildlife conservation.Aujeszky's disease (AD), also known as pseudorabies, is one of the most economically important infectious diseases of swine for which suids are the natural hosts [1]. The disease is caused by Suid herpesvirus type I, a neuroinvasive virus with a wide host range that excludes only higher primates. Mammals other than suids are considered dead-end hosts since infection is normally fatal before virus excretion occurs. AD has a high economic impact in pig husbandry, both through direct effects of the disease on the animals and through movement and trade restrictions of pigs and their products. The direct impact of AD in wild boar population dynamics is considered to be low, but AD outbreaks with associated wild boar mortality have been reported and restrictions to wild boar movements may also have an impact on wild boar production for hunting [2,3].Implications in conservation are considerable since fatal cases have repeatedly been described in endangered carnivores after consumption of ADV contaminated meat [4,5]. In the Iberian Peninsula, the Iberian wolf (Canis lupus sign
Evidence of the Importance of Host Habitat Use in Predicting the Dilution Effect of Wild Boar for Deer Exposure to Anaplasma spp
Agustín Estrada-Pe?a, Pelayo Acevedo, Francisco Ruiz-Fons, Christian Gortázar, José de la Fuente
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002999
Abstract: Foci of tick-borne pathogens occur at fine spatial scales, and depend upon a complex arrangement of factors involving climate, host abundance and landscape composition. It has been proposed that the presence of hosts that support tick feeding but not pathogen multiplication may dilute the transmission of the pathogen. However, models need to consider the spatial component to adequately explain how hosts, ticks and pathogens are distributed into the landscape. In this study, a novel, lattice-derived, behavior-based, spatially-explicit model was developed to test how changes in the assumed perception of different landscape elements affect the outcome of the connectivity between patches and therefore the dilution effect. The objective of this study was to explain changes in the exposure rate (ER) of red deer to Anaplasma spp. under different configurations of suitable habitat and landscape fragmentation in the presence of variable densities of the potentially diluting host, wild boar. The model showed that the increase in habitat fragmentation had a deep impact on Habitat Sharing Ratio (HSR), a parameter describing the amount of habitat shared by red deer and wild boar, weighted by the probability of the animals to remain together in the same patch (according to movement rules), the density of ticks and the density of animals at a given vegetation patch, and decreased the dilution effect of wild boar on deer Anaplasma ER. The model was validated with data collected on deer, wild boar and tick densities, climate, landscape composition, host vegetation preferences and deer seropositivity to Anaplasma spp. (as a measure of ER) in 10 study sites in Spain. However, although conditions were appropriate for a dilution effect, empirical results did not show a decrease in deer ER in sites with high wild boar densities. The model showed that the HSR was the most effective parameter to explain the absence of the dilution effect. These results suggest that host habitat usage may weaken the predicted dilution effect for tick-borne pathogens and emphasize the importance of the perceptual capabilities of different hosts in different landscapes and habitat fragmentation conditions for predictions of dilution effects.
A Broad Assessment of Factors Determining Culicoides imicola Abundance: Modelling the Present and Forecasting Its Future in Climate Change Scenarios
Pelayo Acevedo,Francisco Ruiz-Fons,Rosa Estrada,Ana Luz Márquez,Miguel Angel Miranda,Christian Gortázar,Javier Lucientes
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014236
Abstract: Bluetongue (BT) is still present in Europe and the introduction of new serotypes from endemic areas in the African continent is a possible threat. Culicoides imicola remains one of the most relevant BT vectors in Spain and research on the environmental determinants driving its life cycle is key to preventing and controlling BT. Our aim was to improve our understanding of the biotic and abiotic determinants of C. imicola by modelling its present abundance, studying the spatial pattern of predicted abundance in relation to BT outbreaks, and investigating how the predicted current distribution and abundance patterns might change under future (2011–2040) scenarios of climate change according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. C. imicola abundance data from the bluetongue national surveillance programme were modelled with spatial, topoclimatic, host and soil factors. The influence of these factors was further assessed by variation partitioning procedures. The predicted abundance of C. imicola was also projected to a future period. Variation partitioning demonstrated that the pure effect of host and topoclimate factors explained a high percentage (>80%) of the variation. The pure effect of soil followed in importance in explaining the abundance of C. imicola. A close link was confirmed between C. imicola abundance and BT outbreaks. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to consider wild and domestic hosts in predictive modelling for an arthropod vector. The main findings regarding the near future show that there is no evidence to suggest that there will be an important increase in the distribution range of C. imicola; this contrasts with an expected increase in abundance in the areas where it is already present in mainland Spain. What may be expected regarding the future scenario for orbiviruses in mainland Spain, is that higher predicted C. imicola abundance may significantly change the rate of transmission of orbiviruses.
Seroepidemiological study of Q fever in domestic ruminants in semi-extensive grazing systems
Francisco Ruiz-Fons, Ianire Astobiza, Jesús F Barandika, Ana Hurtado, Raquel Atxaerandio, Ramón A Juste, Ana L García-Pérez
BMC Veterinary Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-6-3
Abstract: ELISA anti-C. burnetii antibody prevalence was slightly higher in sheep (11.8 ± 2.0%) than in goats (8.7 ± 5.9%) and beef cattle (6.7 ± 2.0%). Herd prevalence was 74% for ovine, 45% for goat and 43% for bovine. Twenty-one percent of sheep flocks, 27% of goat and 14% of cattle herds had a C. burnetii seroprevalence ≥ 20%. Only 15 out of 214 ELISA-positive animals reacted positive by CFT. Age-associated seroprevalence differed between ruminant species with a general increasing pattern with age. No evidence of correlation between abortion history and seroprevalence rates was observed despite the known abortifacient nature of C. burnetii in domestic ruminants.Results reported herein showed that sheep had the highest contact rate with C. burnetii in the region but also that cattle and goats should not be neglected as part of the domestic cycle of C. burnetii. This work reports basic epidemiologic patterns of C. burnetii in semi-extensive grazed domestic ruminants which, together with the relevant role of C. burnetii as a zoonotic and abortifacient agent, makes these results to concern both Public and Animal Health Authorities.Q fever is a worldwide distributed zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, a ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium that is able to infect humans and a wide range of animals, both aquatic and terrestrial [1-3]. Q fever is a polymorphic disease in humans with subclinic, acute and chronic forms [1,3]. Several groups in Spain have studied the clinical aspects and the distribution of the disease in different regions [5-7]. The disease seems to be more prevalent in northern Spain than in the central and southern regions of the country, and it is especially high in the Basque Country (northern Spain) where large series of human pneumonia cases due to C. burnetii have been reported [1,8]. It is proposed that C. burnetii is maintained in nature following two different cycles, the wild cycle in which ticks and wild animals are involved, and the domestic cycle, whe
Long-Term Dynamics of Bluetongue Virus in Wild Ruminants: Relationship with Outbreaks in Livestock in Spain, 2006-2011
Cristina Lorca-Oró, Jorge Ramón López-Olvera, Francisco Ruiz-Fons, Pelayo Acevedo, Ignacio García-Bocanegra, álvaro Oleaga, Christian Gortázar, Joan Pujols
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100027
Abstract: Wild and domestic ruminants are susceptible to Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection. Three BTV serotypes (BTV-4, BTV-1 and BTV-8) have been detected in Spain in the last decade. Even though control strategies have been applied to livestock, BTV circulation has been frequently detected in wild ruminant populations in Spain. The aim of the present study is to assess the role for wild ruminants in maintaining BTV after the vaccination programs in livestock in mainland Spain. A total of 931 out 1,914 (48.6%) serum samples, collected from eight different wild ruminant species between 2006 and 2011, were BTV positive by ELISA. In order to detect specific antibodies against BTV-1, BTV-4 and BTV-8, positive sera were also tested by serumneutralisation test (SNT). From the ELISA positive samples that could be tested by SNT (687 out of 931), 292 (42.5%) showed neutralising antibodies against one or two BTV serotypes. For each BTV seroptype, the number of outbreaks in livestock (11,857 outbreaks in total) was modelled with pure autoregressive models and the resulting smoothed values, representing the predicted number of BTV outbreaks in livestock at municipality level, were positively correlated with BTV persistence in wild species. The strength of this relationship significantly decreased as red deer (Cervus elaphus) population abundance increased. In addition, BTV RNA was detected by real time RT-PCR in 32 out of 311 (10.3%) spleen samples from seropositive animals. Although BT outbreaks in livestock have decreased substantially after vaccination campaigns, our results indicated that wild ruminants have been exposed to BTV in territories where outbreaks in domestic animals occurred. The detection of BTV RNA and spatial association between BT outbreaks in livestock and BTV rates in red deer are consistent with the hypothesis of virus circulation and BTV maintenance within Iberian wild ruminant populations.
Sex-biased differences in the effects of host individual, host population and environmental traits driving tick parasitism in red deer
Francisco Ruiz-Fons,Pelayo Acevedo,Raquel Sobrino,Joaquín Vicente,Yolanda Fierro,Isabel G. Fernández-de-Mera
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2013.00023
Abstract: The interactions between host individual, host population, and environmental factors modulate parasite abundance in a given host population. Since adult exophilic ticks are highly aggregated in red deer (Cervus elaphus) and this ungulate exhibits significant sexual size dimorphism, life history traits and segregation, we hypothesized that tick parasitism on males and hinds would be differentially influenced by each of these factors. To test the hypothesis, ticks from 306 red deer—182 males and 124 females—were collected during 7 years in a red deer population in south-central Spain. By using generalized linear models, with a negative binomial error distribution and a logarithmic link function, we modeled tick abundance on deer with 20 potential predictors. Three models were developed: one for red deer males, another for hinds, and one combining data for males and females and including “sex” as factor. Our rationale was that if tick burdens on males and hinds relate to the explanatory factors in a differential way, it is not possible to precisely and accurately predict the tick burden on one sex using the model fitted on the other sex, or with the model that combines data from both sexes. Our results showed that deer males were the primary target for ticks, the weight of each factor differed between sexes, and each sex specific model was not able to accurately predict burdens on the animals of the other sex. That is, results support for sex-biased differences. The higher weight of host individual and population factors in the model for males show that intrinsic deer factors more strongly explain tick burden than environmental host-seeking tick abundance. In contrast, environmental variables predominated in the models explaining tick burdens in hinds.
Protection against Tuberculosis in Eurasian Wild Boar Vaccinated with Heat-Inactivated Mycobacterium bovis
Joseba M. Garrido, Iker A. Sevilla, Beatriz Beltrán-Beck, Esmeralda Minguijón, Cristina Ballesteros, Ruth C. Galindo, Mariana Boadella, Konstantin P. Lyashchenko, Beatriz Romero, Maria Victoria Geijo, Francisco Ruiz-Fons, Alicia Aranaz, Ramón A. Juste, Joaquín Vicente, José de la Fuente, Christian Gortázar
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024905
Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex continues to affect humans and animals worldwide and its control requires vaccination of wildlife reservoir species such as Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Vaccination efforts for TB control in wildlife have been based primarily on oral live BCG formulations. However, this is the first report of the use of oral inactivated vaccines for controlling TB in wildlife. In this study, four groups of 5 wild boar each were vaccinated with inactivated M. bovis by the oral and intramuscular routes, vaccinated with oral BCG or left unvaccinated as controls. All groups were later challenged with a field strain of M. bovis. The results of the IFN-gamma response, serum antibody levels, M. bovis culture, TB lesion scores, and the expression of C3 and MUT genes were compared between these four groups. The results suggested that vaccination with heat-inactivated M. bovis or BCG protect wild boar from TB. These results also encouraged testing combinations of BCG and inactivated M. bovis to vaccinate wild boar against TB. Vaccine formulations using heat-inactivated M. bovis for TB control in wildlife would have the advantage of being environmentally safe and more stable under field conditions when compared to live BCG vaccines. The antibody response and MUT expression levels can help differentiating between vaccinated and infected wild boar and as correlates of protective response in vaccinated animals. These results suggest that vaccine studies in free-living wild boar are now possible to reveal the full potential of protecting against TB using oral M. bovis inactivated and BCG vaccines.
Spatial distribution and risk factors of Brucellosis in Iberian wild ungulates
Pilar M Mu?oz, Mariana Boadella, Maricruz Arnal, María J de Miguel, Miguel Revilla, David Martínez, Joaquín Vicente, Pelayo Acevedo, álvaro Oleaga, Francisco Ruiz-Fons, Clara M Marín, José M Prieto, José de la Fuente, Marta Barral, Montserrat Barberán, Daniel de Luco, José M Blasco, Christian Gortázar
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-10-46
Abstract: A multi-species indirect immunosorbent assay (iELISA) using Brucella S-LPS antigen was developed. In several regions having brucellosis in livestock, individual serum samples were taken between 1999 and 2009 from 2,579 wild bovids, 6,448 wild cervids and4,454 Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), and tested to assess brucellosis apparent prevalence. Strains isolated from wild boar were characterized to identify the presence of markers shared with the strains isolated from domestic pigs.Mean apparent prevalence below 0.5% was identified in chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica), Iberian wild goat (Capra pyrenaica), and red deer (Cervus elaphus). Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama), mouflon (Ovis aries) and Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) tested were seronegative. Only one red deer and one Iberian wild goat resulted positive in culture, isolating B. abortus biovar 1 and B. melitensis biovar 1, respectively. Apparent prevalence in wild boar ranged from 25% to 46% in the different regions studied, with the highest figures detected in South-Central Spain. The probability of wild boar being positive in the iELISA was also affected by age, age-by-sex interaction, sampling month, and the density of outdoor domestic pigs. A total of 104 bacterial isolates were obtained from wild boar, being all identified as B. suis biovar 2. DNA polymorphisms were similar to those found in domestic pigs.In conclusion, brucellosis in wild boar is widespread in the Iberian Peninsula, thus representing an important threat for domestic pigs. By contrast, wild ruminants were not identified as a significant brucellosis reservoir for livestock.Brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella, characterized by abortion and infertility in several mammal species, and being considered one of the most important zoonosis worldwide [1]. Brucella melitensis, followed by Brucella abortus and Brucella suis, are the main species involved in the infection of human beings,
Crossing the Interspecies Barrier: Opening the Door to Zoonotic Pathogens
Christian Gortazar ,Leslie A. Reperant,Thijs Kuiken,José de la Fuente,Mariana Boadella,Beatriz Martínez-Lopez,Francisco Ruiz-Fons,Agustin Estrada-Pe?a,Christian Drosten,Graham Medley,Richard Ostfeld,Townsend Peterson,Kurt C. VerCauteren,Christian Menge,Marc Artois,Constance Schultsz,Richard Delahay,Jordi Serra-Cobo,Robert Poulin,Frederic Keck,Alonso A. Aguirre,Heikki Henttonen,Andrew P. Dobson,Susan Kutz,Juan Lubroth,Atle Mysterud
PLOS Pathogens , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004129
La melancolía del orangután . Los estudios de A en B: Marcelino Menéndez Pelayo y su Horacio en Espa a (1877) =
José Francisco RUIZ CASANOVA
1611 : Revista de Historia de la Traducción , 2007,
Abstract: No se ponderará nunca lo suficiente la deuda que las letras espa olas tienen respecto de la obra de Marcelino Menéndez Pelayo (1856-1912). La formación de Marcelino Menéndez Pelayo y su posterior disciplina personal, puestas al servicio de una necesidad –humana y con ciertos rasgos románticos– de saber, fueron determinantes tanto de la variedad como de la calidad y cantidad de sus trabajos filológicos: estudios literarios, ediciones, antologías, traducciones, repertorios bibliográficos, monografías temáticas, etc. Se destaca aquí, Horacio en Espa a (1877, 2a ed.: 1885), la obra que, en justicia, debe considerarse como la primera concebida según el cambio de paradigma o Modelo A en B del panorama comparatista europeo. The debt owed by Spanish letters to Marcelino Menéndez Pelayo (1856-1912) can never be adequately estimated. Marcelino Menéndez Pelayo’s training and subsequent personal discipline, driven by a human thirst for knowledge tinged with Romanticism, played a decisive role in the variety as well as the quality and quantity of his philological works: literary studies, editions, anthologies, translations, bibliographic repertories, monographic works, etc. Chief among the latter is his Horacio en Espa a (1877, 2nd ed.: 1885), a work which, in all fairness, must be regarded as the first conceived according to the Paradigm Shift, or the A in B Model, in European comparative studies.
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