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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7829 matches for " Francesco Vieceli Dalla Sega "
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Dietary Phenolic Acids Act as Effective Antioxidants in Membrane Models and in Cultured Cells, Exhibiting Proapoptotic Effects in Leukaemia Cells
Laura Zambonin,Cristiana Caliceti,Francesco Vieceli Dalla Sega,Diana Fiorentini,Silvana Hrelia,Laura Landi,Cecilia Prata
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/839298
Abstract: Caffeic, syringic, and protocatechuic acids are phenolic acids derived directly from food intake or come from the gut metabolism of polyphenols. In this study, the antioxidant activity of these compounds was at first evaluated in membrane models, where caffeic acid behaved as a very effective chain-breaking antioxidant, whereas syringic and protocatechuic acids were only retardants of lipid peroxidation. However, all three compounds acted as good scavengers of reactive species in cultured cells subjected to exogenous oxidative stress produced by low level of H2O2. Many tumour cells are characterised by increased ROS levels compared with their noncancerous counterparts. Therefore, we investigated whether phenolic acids, at low concentrations, comparable to those present in human plasma, were able to decrease basal reactive species. Results show that phenolic acids reduced ROS in a leukaemia cell line (HEL), whereas no effect was observed in normal cells, such as HUVEC. The compounds exhibited no toxicity to normal cells while they decreased proliferation in leukaemia cells, inducing apoptosis. In the debate on optimal ROS-manipulating strategies in cancer therapy, our work in leukaemia cells supports the antioxidant ROS-depleting approach.
Effect of Plasma Membrane Cholesterol Depletion on Glucose Transport Regulation in Leukemia Cells
Cristiana Caliceti, Laura Zambonin, Cecilia Prata, Francesco Vieceli Dalla Sega, Gabriele Hakim, Silvana Hrelia, Diana Fiorentini
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041246
Abstract: GLUT1 is the predominant glucose transporter in leukemia cells, and the modulation of glucose transport activity by cytokines, oncogenes or metabolic stresses is essential for their survival and proliferation. However, the molecular mechanisms allowing to control GLUT1 trafficking and degradation are still under debate. In this study we investigated whether plasma membrane cholesterol depletion plays a role in glucose transport activity in M07e cells, a human megakaryocytic leukemia line. To this purpose, the effect of cholesterol depletion by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MBCD) on both GLUT1 activity and trafficking was compared to that of the cytokine Stem Cell Factor (SCF). Results show that, like SCF, MBCD led to an increased glucose transport rate and caused a subcellular redistribution of GLUT1, recruiting intracellular transporter molecules to the plasma membrane. Due to the role of caveolae/lipid rafts in GLUT1 stimulation in response to many stimuli, we have also investigated the GLUT1 distribution along the fractions obtained after non ionic detergent treatment and density gradient centrifugation, which was only slightly changed upon MBCD treatment. The data suggest that MBCD exerts its action via a cholesterol-dependent mechanism that ultimately results in augmented GLUT1 translocation. Moreover, cholesterol depletion triggers GLUT1 translocation without the involvement of c-kit signalling pathway, in fact MBCD effect does not involve Akt and PLCγ phosphorylation. These data, together with the observation that the combined MBCD/SCF cell treatment caused an additive effect on glucose uptake, suggest that the action of SCF and MBCD may proceed through two distinct mechanisms, the former following a signalling pathway, and the latter possibly involving a novel cholesterol dependent mechanism.
Steviol Glycosides Modulate Glucose Transport in Different Cell Types
Benedetta Rizzo,Laura Zambonin,Cristina Angeloni,Emanuela Leoncini,Francesco Vieceli Dalla Sega,Cecilia Prata,Diana Fiorentini,Silvana Hrelia
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/348169
Abstract: Extracts from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a plant native to Central and South America, have been used as a sweetener since ancient times. Currently, Stevia extracts are largely used as a noncaloric high-potency biosweetener alternative to sugar, due to the growing incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and metabolic disorders worldwide. Despite the large number of studies on Stevia and steviol glycosides in vivo, little is reported concerning the cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning the beneficial effects on human health. The effect of four commercial Stevia extracts on glucose transport activity was evaluated in HL-60 human leukaemia and in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. The extracts were able to enhance glucose uptake in both cellular lines, as efficiently as insulin. Our data suggest that steviol glycosides could act by modulating GLUT translocation through the PI3K/Akt pathway since treatments with both insulin and Stevia extracts increased the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt. Furthermore, Stevia extracts were able to revert the effect of the reduction of glucose uptake caused by methylglyoxal, an inhibitor of the insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt pathway. These results corroborate the hypothesis that Stevia extracts could mimic insulin effects modulating PI3K/Akt pathway. 1. Introduction Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a weak perennial shrub belonging to Asteraceae (Compositae) family, native to subtropical regions of Brazil and Paraguay. Its leaves have been used as a sweetener since ancient times and for many other medicinal purposes in Latin America and the Orient for centuries [1, 2]. The “sweet herb” has gained increasing interest from nutritional researchers and commercial area in the last years, due to the growing need to find new natural calorie-free sweeteners alternative to sugar. Indeed, in both industrialized and developing countries, the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity is sharply increasing as a result of dietary behaviours, reduced physical activities, and ageing. These metabolic disorders have become major public health problems worldwide [3, 4]. Glycemic control is fundamental to the management of diabetes since it is associated with significantly decreased rates of retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and cardiovascular disease, the most common cause of death in diabetic patients. The effort to achieve near-normoglycemia through the key strategy of glycemic control includes recommendations for prevention and control of diabetes, for example, monitoring carbohydrate intake and limiting the consumption
On the Calculation of Puckering Free Energy Surfaces
Marcello Sega,Emmanuel Autieri,Francesco Pederiva
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1063/1.3147642
Abstract: Cremer-Pople puckering coordinates appear to be the natural candidate variables to explore the conformational space of cyclic compounds, and in literature different parametrizations have been used to this end. However, while every parametrization is equivalent in identifying conformations, it is not obvious that they can also act as proper collective variables for the exploration of the puckered conformations free energy surface. It is shown that only the polar parametrization is fit to produce an unbiased estimate of the free energy landscape. As an example, the case of a six-membered ring, glucuronic acid, is presented, showing the artefacts that are generated when a wrong parametrization is used.
More on superstring chiral measures
Francesco Dalla Piazza
Mathematics , 2008, DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysb.2010.11.010
Abstract: In this paper we study the expressions of the superstring chiral measures for $g\leq 5$. We obtain certain new expressions which are functions of higher powers of theta constants. For $g=3$ we show that the measures can be written in terms of fourth power of theta constants and for $g=4$ in terms of squares of theta constants. In both cases the forms $\Xi_8^{(g)}[0^{(g)}]$ appearing in the expression of the measures are defined on the whole Siegel upper half space. Instead, for $g=5$ we find a form $\Xi_8^{(5)}[0^{(5)}]$ which is a polynomial in the classical theta constants, well defined on the Siegel upper half space and satisfying some suitable constraints on the moduli space of curves (and not on the whole Siegel upper half space) that could be a candidate for the genus five superstring measure. Moreover, we discuss the problem of the uniqueness of this form in genus five. We also determine the dimension of certain spaces of modular forms and reinterpret the vanishing of the cosmological constant in terms of group representations.
Two loop superstring amplitudes and S_6 representations
Sergio Cacciatori,Francesco Dalla Piazza
Mathematics , 2007, DOI: 10.1007/s11005-007-0213-8
Abstract: In this paper we describe how representation theory of groups can be used to shorten the derivation of two loop partition functions in string theory, giving an intrinsic description of modular forms appearing in the results of D'Hoker and Phong [1]. Our method has the advantage of using only algebraic properties of modular functions and it can be extended to any genus g.
A new proof of the Caporaso-Sernesi theorem via Weber's formula
Francesco Dalla Piazza,Alessio Fiorentino
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: In this paper we give a new proof of Caporaso and Sernesi's result which states that the general plane quartic is uniquely determined by its 28 bitangents. Our proof uses classical geometric results, as it is based on Weber's formula and on the injectivity of the $\theta^{(4)}$ map.
Puckering Free Energy of Pyranoses: an NMR and Metadynamics--Umbrella Sampling Investigation
Emmanuel Autieri,Marcello Sega,Francesco Pederiva,Graziano Guella
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1063/1.3476466
Abstract: We present the results of a combined metadynamics--umbrella sampling investigation of the puckered conformers of pyranoses described using the gromos 45a4 force field. The free energy landscape of Cremer--Pople puckering coordinates has been calculated for the whole series of alpha and beta aldohexoses, showing that the current force field parameters fail in reproducing proper puckering free energy differences between chair conformers. We suggest a modification to the gromos 45a4 parameter set which improves considerably the agreement of simulation results with theoretical and experimental estimates of puckering free energies. We also report on the experimental measurement of altrose conformers populations by means of NMR spectroscopy, which show good agreement with the predictions of current theoretical models.
Kramers Theory for Conformational Transitions of Macromolecules
Marcello Sega,Pietro Faccioli,Francesco Pederiva,Henri Orland
Quantitative Biology , 2008,
Abstract: We consider the application of Kramers theory to the microscopic calculation of rates of conformational transitions of macromolecules. The main difficulty in such an approach is to locate the transition state in a huge configuration space. We present a method which identifies the transition state along the most probable reaction pathway. It is then possible to microscopically compute the activation energy, the damping coefficient, the eigenfrequencies at the transition state and obtain the rate, without any a-priori choice of a reaction coordinate. Our theoretical results are tested against the results of Molecular Dynamics simulations for transitions in a 2-dimensional double well and for the cis-trans isomerization of a linear molecule.
Siegel modular forms and finite symplectic groups
Francesco Dalla Piazza,Bert van Geemen
Mathematics , 2008,
Abstract: The finite symplectic group Sp(2g) over the field of two elements has a natural representation on the vector space of Siegel modular forms of given weight for the principal congruence subgroup of level two. In this paper we decompose this representation, for various (small) values of the genus and the level, into irreducible representations. As a consequence we obtain uniqueness results for certain modular forms related to the superstring measure, a better understanding of certain modular forms in genus three studied by D'Hoker and Phong as well as a new construction of Miyawaki's cusp form of weight twelve in genus three.
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