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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8337 matches for " Fran?ois Malecaze "
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Quality of DNA Extracted from Mouthwashes
Tetyana Zayats, Terri L. Young, David A. Mackey, Franois Malecaze, Patrick Calvas, Jeremy A. Guggenheim
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006165
Abstract: Background A cost effective, safe and efficient method of obtaining DNA samples is essential in large scale genetic analyses. Buccal cells are an attractive source of DNA, as their collection is non-invasive and can be carried out by mail. However, little attention has been given to the quality of DNA extracted from mouthwashes. Methodology Mouthwash-derived DNA was extracted from 500 subjects participating in a genetic study of high myopia. DNA quality was investigated using two standard techniques: agarose gel electrophoresis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Principal Findings Whereas the majority of mouthwash-derived DNA samples showed a single band of high molecular weight DNA by gel electrophoresis, 8.9% (95% CI: 7.1–10.7%) of samples contained only a smear of low-to-medium molecular weight, degraded DNA. The odds of DNA degradation in a subject's second mouthwash sample, given degradation of the first, was significantly greater than one (OR = 3.13; 95% CI: 1.22–7.39; Fisher's test P = 0.009), suggesting that DNA degradation was at least partially a subject-specific phenomenon. Approximately 12.4% (95% CI: 10.4–14.4%) of mouthwash-derived DNA failed to PCR amplify efficiently (using an ~200 bp microsatellite marker). However, we found there was no significant difference in amplification success rate between DNA samples judged to be degraded or non-degraded by gel electrophoresis (Fisher's test P = 0.5). Conclusions This study demonstrated that DNA degradation affects a significant minority of saline mouthwashes, and that the phenomenon is partially subject-specific. Whilst the level of degradation did not significantly prevent successful amplification of short PCR fragments, previous studies suggest that such DNA degradation would compromise more demanding applications.
Corneal Transduction by Intra-Stromal Injection of AAV Vectors In Vivo in the Mouse and Ex Vivo in Human Explants
Claire Hippert, Sandy Ibanes, Nicolas Serratrice, Franck Court, Franois Malecaze, Eric J. Kremer, Vasiliki Kalatzis
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035318
Abstract: The cornea is a transparent, avascular tissue that acts as the major refractive surface of the eye. Corneal transparency, assured by the inner stroma, is vital for this role. Disruption in stromal transparency can occur in some inherited or acquired diseases. As a consequence, light entering the eye is blocked or distorted, leading to decreased visual acuity. Possible treatment for restoring transparency could be via viral-based gene therapy. The stroma is particularly amenable to this strategy due to its immunoprivileged nature and low turnover rate. We assayed the potential of AAV vectors to transduce keratocytes following intra-stromal injection in vivo in the mouse cornea and ex vivo in human explants. In murine and human corneas, we transduced the entire stroma using a single injection, preferentially targeted keratocytes and achieved long-term gene transfer (up to 17 months in vivo in mice). Of the serotypes tested, AAV2/8 was the most promising for gene transfer in both mouse and man. Furthermore, transgene expression could be transiently increased following aggression to the cornea.
The Changes in Cameroon’s Public Television in the Advent of Digital Switchover: The Impact of Technological Innovation on Audio-Visual Public Policies  [PDF]
Franois Wakata Bolvine
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2017.51001
Abstract: Technological innovation strongly impacts the lives of citizens as a whole and is followed by serious consequences on national public policies and on the sector directly concerned. The dynamics of change in the national audio-visual landscape with the public service television engaged in the digital switch-over process is indeed the core of this study. It reveals how innovation has impelled policy-makers to develop a comprehensive strategy, leading to objectives and decisions to completely reshape the national audio-visual landscape with regard to legal, institutional, infrastructural, economic and cultural aspects; and, specifically, public television in its organization, functioning, mission as well as in its uses.
Media and Justice in Cameroon or the Dynamics of a Dual Interaction  [PDF]
Franois Wakata Bolvine
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2017.52006
Abstract: Information on justice in Cameroon examines the balance of power between justice and the media in an environment characterised by an interaction highlighting tension between the objectives of the field of journalism confronted with constrains and the rigours of a judicial environment that preserves its tenets. Referring to the TOURAINE approach which associates the sociology of action with the theory of conflicts, prompts strategies of actors vacillating between conflict and collaboration, in a dynamics with well-defined requirements: if legal matters easily become media events, the contrary, namely the influence of justice by the press is hardly recognised by the judge, confronted with the norms governing his socio-professional group. Influence, if necessary, emerges from two narrow channels: speedy proceedings and exemplary sentence.
When neurological symptoms hides a nephrologic pathology and a cardiac abnormality  [PDF]
Clotilde Muller, Bernadette Faller, Franois Sellal, Franois Chantrel
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2011.11002
Abstract: We bring report the case of a young woman who presents with neurological symptoms, and to which the practised investigations led to the discovery in chain of unexpected pathologies. These neurological disorders were revealing of the picture associating a nephrotic syndrome and a patent foramen ovale. This foramen was the major route of a rain of emboles ring peripheral favored by the nephrotic syndrome towards the cerebral hemispheres.
Labeled HepasphereTM behavior during venous drainage simulation at 1.5T  [PDF]
Hassan Jassar, Franois Langevin
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2010.311142
Abstract: Stability of the magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent inside vascular occlusion agents is important for their localization with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of this paper is to study the behaviour of the superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) within Hepaspheres? microparticles (MP) by MRI when they are submitted to negative pressure induced by venous drainage of a tumor. Therefore, a venous drainage model was established and three parameters were taken into account according to physiologic parameters in tumors: pH, temperature and flow blood rate. Four cycles of pumping were performed with the presence of labeled Hepaspheres? with Endorem®. Several MR images of MP and perfusion liquid were taken before and after pumping. Endorem® release was determined after correction of non-uniformity intensities in MR images. Intensity variation according to spatial position, coil and MR acquisition parameters was studied. Labeled microparticles (LB*MP) appeared as black spots in MRI images whatever duration and pH. Our model demonstrates the stability of the SPIO inside the occlusion agent during time. Moreover, the proposed correction method proves the reduction of the intensity non-uniformity in MRI images.
Architectural Model of a Biological Retina Using Cellular Automata  [PDF]
Franois Devillard, Bernard Heit
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2014.214008
Abstract: Developments in neurophysiology focusing on foveal vision have characterized more and more precisely the spatiotemporal processing that is well adapted to the regularization of the visual information within the retina. The works described in this article focus on a simplified architectural model based on features and mechanisms of adaptation in the retina. Similarly to the biological retina, which transforms luminance information into a series of encoded representations of image characteristics transmitted to the brain, our structural model allows us to reveal more information in the scene. Our modeling of the different functional pathways permits the mapping of important complementary information types at abstract levels of image analysis, and thereby allows a better exploitation of visual clues. Our model is based on a distributed cellular automata network and simulates the retinal processing of stimuli that are stationary or in motion. Thanks to its capacity for dynamic adaptation, our model can adapt itself to different scenes (e.g., bright and dim, stationary and moving, etc.) and can parallelize those processing steps that can be supported by parallel calculators.
Ethical Decision-Making in Clinical Nutritional Practice  [PDF]
Franois P. R. de Villiers
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.26089
Abstract: Ethics requires a critical evaluation of assumptions and arguments about norms and values; what should be done and what should not. Practitioners should practice ethically, and the professions should be at the forefront of applied ethics. There are four principles, patient autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice, which are guides to ethical day-to-day practice. Patient autonomy: Autonomy means self-rule by persons of their thoughts and actions. Patient autonomy requires the practitioner to realise that patients have the right to be involved in decision-making on their own behalf. Beneficence refers to the duty of the practitioner to do the best for the patient. The benefits of breast-feeding are many, and the eventual outcome on health enormous. Nevertheless, health-care workers are diffident in promoting breast-feeding, and readily accept excuses for not breast-feeding, contrary to the principle of beneficence. Non-maleficence refers to the duty of the practitioner not to do harm; it requires the practitioner to withhold harmful therapies; Vitamin E, for example, has been proven to be ineffective as an antioxidant in humans, and large doses have been proven to increase mortality. Yet these are the doses available in supermarkets and “Health shops”. Nutritionists should actively advise against harmful “dietary supplementation”. Distributive justice requires every patient to have an equal opportunity to obtain appropriate therapy. There are relatively few nutritionists and dieticians in South Africa, and indeed in the entire African continent, but proportionately even fewer in the areas of greatest need. A case illustrates the application of these ethical principles to show how they can be applied to our daily practice. Using these four principles is a practical approach to solving ethical dilemmas.
Microwave-Assisted Polyesterification Process in Bulk and Aqueous Media  [PDF]
Nassima Mazouzi-Sennour, Franois Henry
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2014.41003
Abstract: Microwave irradiation in polymer chemistry is an emerging research field. This type of heating can enhance the rate of reaction and improve the specific characteristics of the formed polymer. In this context, the present paper focuses on selective microwave (MW) heating and its influence on the polyesterification reaction. As a reaction model, the polyesterification of sebacic acid with decanediol, in bulk and in aqueous emulsion is investigated. The reaction was catalyzed by using 4-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA), which plays a catalytic and surfactant role. Both in bulk and in aqueous media, a polyester with higher molecular weight is obtained in MW heating compared to the conventional heating.
Influence of Microwave Irradiation on Hydrolysis Reaction of Sunflower Oil in Aqueous Emulsion  [PDF]
Nassima Mazouzi-Sennour, Franois Henry
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2014.41004
Abstract: Microwave irradiation (MW) has been widely applied as heating in chemical processing. It offers a clean, convenient and inexpensive method of heating which often results in higher yields and shorter reaction times. Here, we study the microwave heating influence on the hydrolysis of the triglyceride (sunflower oil) in aqueous emulsion catalyzed by using 4-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA). The progress of the hydrolysis reaction was determined by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The effects of temperature, reaction time and the catalyst nature and concentration on the hydrolysis reaction were investigated. The hydrolysis was carried out at temperatures ranging between 90°C and 150°C. The polarity of the reaction medium accelerated this reaction.
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