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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 193299 matches for " Frédéric Canini "
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What Are the Ethical Problems Raised by the Increase of Cognitive Capabilities in the Defence Structure: The French Legal Structure, the Ethical Position of the French Military Health Service  [PDF]
Marion Trousselard, Frédéric Canini
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2015.64047
Abstract: All contemporary discussions concerning the ethics of human experimentation are grounded in the Nuremberg Code (Macklin, 1992) which listed what for many are the basic principles underlying the ethical conduct of human research. By law all scientific researches that use human research volunteers are governed by regulations prescribing the ethical treatment of these volunteers (Jones, 1993). The present purpose concerns what Ethics is in order to discuss about how military researches are directly affected by these regulations. They particularly concern neurosciences and precisely how to improve cognition for military individuals. Main arsenal was discussed according the risk-benefit balance. Furthermore, implications for medical reflexion were proposed. The French law prescribing the ethical principles for conducting research on humans as animals have been successively defined in accordance with European texts (French Public Health Code, 1994, 2004; Favre, Vallet, Renaudeau et al., 2004). All of these have consequences for conducting the French biomedical research for the defence.
Relationship between Mindfulness and Psychological Adjustment in Soldiers According to Their Confrontation with Repeated Deployments and Stressors  [PDF]
Marion Trousselard, Dominique Steiler, Damien Claverie, Frédéric Canini
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.31016
Abstract: Although interest in incorporating mindfulness into medical interventions is growing, data on the relationships between mindfulness, stress and coping in military personnel is still scarce. This report investigates the relationship between psychological adjustment and mindfulness in soldiers according to their repeated deployments and confrontations with stressors. Our findings indicate that soldiers’ mindfulness levels were in the range of the middle-aged civilian working population, and were negatively correlated with emotional disturbance measures, and positively correlated with their subjective assessments of their own well-being. Individuals confronted with conflict deployments and stressors recorded lower mindfulness scores, and appeared high in emotional disturbance measures.
Anticushing Drug Metyrapone Exhibits Specific Interactions with Serine Containing Systems. A Possible Molecular Target?  [PDF]
David Crouzier, Jean-Claude Debouzy, Florian Nachon, Dominique Debouzy, Guy Lallement, Frédéric Canini
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2011.24041
Abstract: Metyrapone (2-methyl-1,2-di-3-pyridyl-1-propanone) is a drug largely used as inhibitor of glucocorticoid synthesis. Although its binding to various proteins has been well indentified, its accurate molecular mechanism of action remains unknown. Therefore, the interactions of metyrapone (MET) with various membrane components such as phospholipids, cholesterol, their corresponding polar heads and a model serine containing peptide have been investigated by NMR and ESR methods. It was found that neither cholesterol nor most of the phospholipids tested, nor dimyristin exhibit any interaction with MET, except phosphatidylserine (DMPS). Furthermore, only serine bearing polar head (O-phosphoserine) showed an association with MET (stoechiometry 1:1, Kd = 3200M-1). As similar observations were also performed on serine alone and in the presence of the serine containing model peptide, (NASDSDGQDL), a possible implication of these interactions in the binding recognition of MET on serine-containing active site was finally tested and discussed.
The Role of an Animal-Mascot in the Psychological Adjustment of Soldiers Exposed to Combat Stress  [PDF]
Marion Trousselard, Aurelie Jean, Fran?ois Beiger, Florent Marchandot, Bernard Davoust, Frédéric Canini
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.515188
Abstract: For many soldiers confronted with exposure to stressful situations, an animal-mascot bond is considered effective help for dealing with the stress. While most studies carried out on animals’ needs concentrate on the care of civilian individuals, our focus was on determining the reliability of an instrument to measure emotional, rational and psychosocial needs of the military engaged in numerous conflicts around the world, and to analyze its external validation. Methods: In an anonymous cross-sectional retrospective survey, we applied the animal-mascot bond questionnaire (AMBS) associated with Coping Inventory Stressful Scale (CISS), Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Check List Scale (PCL-S) assessments to 168 soldiers after their deployment in theatre. Results: Factor analyses of the 23-item construct (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.962) pointed to a 3-factor solution, which revealed 77.03% of variance: 1) Animal-group bond, 2) Individual-animal emotional bond, and 3) Individual-animal rational bond. All these factors were positively correlated with the emotional-centred coping style. Human-animal bonds were greater for soldiers with the provisional diagnosis of PTSD. Limited responsibility was the strongest predictor for animalmascot bonds. Both individual animal bonds were also predicted by the PTSD status and emotional coping. Conclusions: The evaluation of the AMBS revealed that the instrument had good psychometric properties. Soldiers with less responsibility, PTSD and emotional-coping scored the highest on the AMBS suggesting that they expressed the highest needs for a bond with an animalmascot. One may assume that the animal-mascot bonds will trend to a therapeutic coping process for mitigating distress for soldiers.
Stress Management Based on Trait-Anxiety Levels and Sleep Quality in Middle-Aged Employees Confronted with Psychosocial Chronic Stress  [PDF]
Marion Trousselard, Dominique Steiler, Angelique Lebreton, Pascal Van Beers, Catherine Drogout, Josiane Denis, Mounir Chennaoui, Frédéric Canini
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.51013
Abstract:

A stress management program using cardiac coherence was implemented after an organizational downsizing. The study was conducted in nine voluntary workers in order to evaluate the efficiency of the program. A baseline evaluation was conducted on psychological variables (anxiety, perceived-stress, wellbeing and sleep), endocrine assessments (urinary cortisol excretion, alpha-amylase and salivary concentrations) and physiological recordings (sleep and heart rate variability). The low number of participants was due to the intrusive approach in collecting physiological and endocrine variables. The program consisted of ten sessions of cardiac coherence training during a 3-month follow-up period. At the end of the training sequence, subjects were once again exposed to the same evaluation battery. A decrease in perceived stress and a subsequent increase in well-being were observed. Sleep quality improved as suggested by the results of the subjective and objective measurements. For the entirety of the results, improvements were higher in subjects with high vs. low trait-anxiety scoring. The pattern of results for subjects prone to a high level of trait-anxiety suggested that stress and sleep are related to each other in a bidirectional way: increased anxiety is associated to poor sleep and stress reduction improves both anxiety and sleep. On the basis of these results, we suggest that trait-anxiety can be used as an indicator of which employees should be given priority for stress management intervention. We will also highlight the interest of operationally physiological recordings, used outside the laboratory, for measuring objective improvements due to this stress management intervention, as quality of sleep.

Validation of a French version of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory - short version: relationships between mindfulness and stress in an adult population
Marion Trousselard, Dominique Steiler, Christian Raphel, Corinne Cian, Raffi Duymedjian, Damien Claverie, Frédéric Canini
BioPsychoSocial Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0759-4-8
Abstract: Five hundred and six non-clinical middle-aged working individuals rated themselves on the self-report French version FMI and completed measures of psychological constructs potentially related to mindfulness levels.Results were comparable to results of the original short version. Internal consistency of the scale based on the one-factor solution was .74, and test-retest reliability was good. The one-dimensional solution as the alternative to the two-factor structure solution yielded suboptimal fit indices. Correlations also indicated that individuals scoring high on mindfulness are prone to stress tolerance, positive affects and higher self-efficacy. Furthermore, subjects with no reports of stressful events were higher on mindfulness.These data showed that mindfulness can be measured validly and reliably with the proposed French version of the FMI. The data also highlighted the relationship between mindfulness and stress in an adult population. Mindfulness appears to reduce negative appraisals of challenging or threatening events.Mindfulness has been described as a non-elaborative, non-judgmental present-centred awareness in which each thought, feeling or sensation that arises in the attention field is acknowledged and accepted as it is [1-4]. Mindfulness appears as an attribute of consciousness long believed to promote well-being [5,6]. Indeed, mindfulness training is related to positive psychological and physiological outcomes [6,7]. A high level of mindfulness increases willingness to tolerate uncomfortable emotions and sensations [8-11] and emotional acceptance [12,13,4]. It also decreases the impact of negative emotional events and reduces time needed to recover [12]. Mindfulness is therefore employed in the treatment of various anxiety disorders, for example in the non-clinical population for helping to cope with challenging or threatening events [12,14-17]. Thus, it can serve as a predictor of day-to-day self-regulated behaviour and adaptability to stressful e
Combining Internal Data with Scenario Analysis  [PDF]
Elias Karam, Frédéric Planchet
Modern Economy (ME) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/me.2015.65055
Abstract: A Bayesian inference approach offers a methodical concept that combines internal data with experts’ opinions. Joining these two elements with precision is certainly one of the challenges in operational risk. In this paper, we are interested in applying a Bayesian inference technique in a robust manner to be able to estimate a capital requirement that best approaches the reality. In addition, we illustrate the importance of a consistent scenario analysis in showing that the expert opinion coherence leads to a robust estimation of risk.
Improvement of Bare Soil Semi-Empirical Radar Backscattering Models (Oh and Dubois) with SAR Multi-Spectral Satellite Data (X-, C- and L-Bands)  [PDF]
Rémy Fieuzal, Frédéric Baup
Advances in Remote Sensing (ARS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ars.2016.54023
Abstract: The objective of this study is to improve the performance of semi-empirical radar backscatter models, which are mainly used in microwave remote sensing (Oh 1992, Oh 2004 and Dubois). The study is based on satellite and ground data collected on bare soil surfaces during the Multispectral Crop Monitoring experimental campaign of the CESBIO laboratory in 2010 over an agricultural region in southwestern France. The dataset covers a wide range of soil (viewing top soil moisture, surface roughness and texture) and satellite (at different frequencies: X-, C- and L-bands, and different incidence angles: 24.3° to 53.3°) configurations. The proposed methodology consists in identifying and correcting the residues of the models, depending on the surface properties (roughness, moisture, texture) and/or sensor characteristics (frequency, incidence angle). Finally, one model has been retained for each frequency domain. Results show that the enhancements of the models significantly increase the simulation performances. The coefficient of correlation increases of 23% in mean and the simulation errors (RMSE) are reduced to below 2 dB (at the X and C-bands) and to 1 dB at the L-band, compared to the initial models. At the X- and C-bands, the best performances of the modified models are provided by Dubois, whereas Oh 2004 is more suitable for the L-band (r is equal to 0.69, 0.65 and 0.85). Moreover, the modified models of Oh 1992 and 2004 and Dubois, developed in this study, offer a wider domain of validity than the initial formalism and increase the capabilities of retrieving the backscattering signal in view of applications of such approaches to stronglycontrasted agricultural surface states.
Quantitative Evaluation of the Lifshitz-Type Temperature Effect on the Casimir Force  [PDF]
Frédéric Schuller, Renaud Savalle
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2017.811105
Abstract: We consider the extension of the Casimir effect to finite temperatures in the ideal case of perfectly reflecting plates. We apply Lifshitz’s theory in its Dzyaloshinskii version, and calculate the resulting force numerically for various plate distances. We show that the limiting expression found in the literature corresponds to unrealistic values of the parameters for which the force is too small to be measurable. Preliminary remark: There exists a huge literature on the Casimir effect both theoretical and experimental. In this note we concentrate on a particular point of the subject, quoting only references directly related to this point.
The Geomagnetic Effects of Solar Activity as Measured at Ouagadougou Station  [PDF]
Aristide Marie Frédéric Gyébré, Doua Allain Gnabahou, Frédéric Ouattara
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2018.82013
Abstract: The coronal mass ejections (CMEs) produce by Sun poloidal magnetic fields contribute to geomagnetic storms. The geomagnetic storm effects produced by one-day-shock, two-days-shock and three-days-shock activities on Ouagadougou station F2 layer critical frequency time variation are analyzed. It is found that during the solar minimum and the increasing phases, the shock activity produces both positive and negative storms. The positive storm is observed during daytime. At the solar maximum and the decreasing phases only the positive storm is produced. At the solar minimum there is no three-days-shock activity. During the solar increasing phase the highest amplitude of the storm effect is due to the one-day-shock activity and the lowest is produced by the two-days-shock activity. At the solar maximum phase the ionosphere electric current system is not affected by the shock activity. Nevertheless, the highest amplitude of the storm effect is caused by the two-days-shock activity and the lowest by the one-day-shock activity. During the solar decreasing phase, the highest amplitude provoked by the storm is due to the three-days-shock activity and the lowest by the one-day-shock activity.
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