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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11106 matches for " Forest Conservation "
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Forest Fragmentation and Its Potential Implications in the Brazilian Amazon between 2001 and 2010  [PDF]
Izaya Numata, Mark A. Cochrane
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2012.24033
Abstract: In recent decades, human development pressures have results in conversions of vast tracts of Amazonian tropical rain forests to agriculture and other human land uses. In addition to the loss of large forest cover, remaining forests are also fragmented into smaller habitats. Fragmented forests suffer several biological and ecological changes due to edge effects that can exacerbate regional forest degradation. The Brazilian Amazon has had greatly contrasting land cover dynamics in the past decade with the highest historical rates of deforestation (2001-2005) followed by the lowest rates of forest loss in decades, since 2006. Currently, the basin-wide status and implications of forest fragmentation on remnant forests is not well known. We performed a regional forest fragmentation analysis for seven states of the Brazilian Amazon between 2001 and 2010 using a recent deforestation data. During this period, the number of forest fragments (>2 ha) doubled, nearly 125,000 fragments were formed by human activities with more than 50% being smaller than 10 ha. Over the decade, forest edges increased by an average of 36,335 km/year. However, the rate was much greater from 2001-2005 (50,046 km/year) then 2006-2010 (25,365 km/year) when deforestation rates dropped drastically. In 2010, 55% of basin-wide forest edges were < 10 years old due to the creation of large number of small fragments where intensive biological and ecological degradation is ongoing. Over the past decade protected areas have been expanded dramatically over the Brazilian Amazon and, as of 2010, 51% of remaining forests across the basin are within protected areas and only 1.5% of protected areas has been deforested. Conversely, intensive forest cover conversion has been occurred in unprotected forests. While 17% of Amazonian forests are within 1 km of forest edges in 2010, the proportion increases to 34% in unprotected areas varying between 14% and 95% among the studied states. Our results indicate that the Brazilian Amazon now largely consists of two contrasting forest conditions: protected areas with vast undisturbed forests and unprotected forests that are highly fragmented and disturbed landscapes.
Deforestation, Forest Fallowing, and Soil Conservation in Shifting Cultivation  [PDF]
Yoshito Takasaki
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2013.35A1005
Abstract:

To design effective policies for rainforest conservation in shifting cultivation systems, it is crucial to have a better understanding of shifting cultivators’ decision making. This paper develops a unified dynamic farm model of shifting cultivation, addressing two lacunae in extant theoretical works: taking into account differences between primary and secondary forests and potential roles of on-farm soil conservation. The model unifies shifting cultivator’s decisions about primary-forest clearing, forest fallowing, and on-farm soil conservation by incorporating new soils acquired from cleared primary/secondary forest land into on-farm soil dynamics. I examine how three distinct policies—forest protection (e.g., protected areas), fallow management (e.g., improved fallow), and on-farm soil management (e.g., biochar in Amazonia)—alter primary-forest clearing (deforestation) and fallow length. The analysis reveals that although all three policies reduce deforestation, only on-farm soil management leads to longer fallow, i.e., sustainable secondary fallow forest.

Ordinary Biodiversity, Local Stakeholders and Forest Management as a Driver for Regional Sustainable Development  [PDF]
Hervé Brédif, Laurent Simon
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2014.43032
Abstract:

The protection of biodiversity which had long been bounded up with emblematic “natural” spaces is now increasingly focusing on ordinary biodiversity and rural agricultural land and forests as well as on urban and peri-urban spaces. Such ordinary biodiversity has its own specific features which make it both a relative and uncertain topic of research. Traditional nature protection instruments do not work on this dimension of the planet’s living tissue and new tools need to be deployed in conjunction with regional and local stakeholders that will provide long-term sustainable solutions for biodiversity and for local and regional development more generally. Research conducted on the Plateau de Millevaches explores the possibilities for shared caring for this biodiversity.

Diversity of Ethnomedicinal Plants in Boridand Forest of District Korea, Chhattisgarh, India  [PDF]
Ramesh Kumar Ahirwar
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.62047
Abstract: Present study deals with an extensive ecological assessment of natural forest areas under several in-situ conservation plots which have resulted from high rate of grazing and biotic pressure. Over-exploitation of forest and unwanted incidental fire cases decreased the diversity of several ethnomedicinally and economically valuable plants species from the Boridand forest region in Korea district, Chhattisgarh. The total number of plants reported in all three study sites, 41 plants species belonging to 26 families and 37 plant genera were identified. A field survey was conducted at three different study sites in Boridand forest, district Korea, Chhattisgarh as Plot A, Plot B and Plot C, during months March 2013 to February 2014 to identify the diversity of ethnomedicinal plants.
Floristic Composition, Diversity and Stand Structure of Tropical Forests in Popa Mountain Park  [PDF]
Yu Ya Aye, Savent Pampasit, Chanin Umponstira, Kanita Thanacharoenchanaphas, Nophea Sasaki
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.517150
Abstract: Safeguarding biodiversity is an important component of the REDD+ scheme of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Information on tree species and their distribution is therefore needed for successful implementation of forestry carbon projects. Forest inventory data were collected in four natural forests located in Popa Mountain Park, Myanmar. Based on the data from 4-ha sample plots, average stem density ranges from 1293 trees ha-1 in dry dipterocarp forest to 804 tree ha-1 in dry evergreen forest. According to the Jackknife estimator for species richness (trees with DBH ≥ 5 cm), the highest number of species was recorded in dry mixed deciduous forest—74 species ha-1, and the lowest number of species recorded in dry forest—40 species ha-1. Dry mixed deciduous forest occupied the highest value on the Shannon-Wiener index and Simpson diversity index while the lowest was in dry forest, indicating that dry mixed deciduous forest is the most complex whereas dry forest is the simplest community. Not only does this study provide useful information on the current status of vegetation type but the information is important for designing forestry management systems that could result in biodiversity conservation and carbon emission reductions.
Heterogeneidade florística e estrutural de remanescentes florestais da área de Prote??o Ambiental ao Sul da Regi?o Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte (APA Sul-RMBH), Minas Gerais, Brasil
Spósito, Tereza Cristina;Stehmann, Jo?o Renato;
Acta Botanica Brasilica , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-33062006000200010
Abstract: the apa sul was created to conciliate economic activities and natural resource conservation of forest, savanna, and grasslands of the metropolitan area of belo horizonte, se brazil. the aim of this study was to characterize the floristic composition and structure of the tree community of some forest remnants from apa sul. we studied eight sites with distances among them up to 60 km, using the point-centered quarter method. in each area, we sampled 30 points, and measured circumference (> 15 cm) and height of trees. we found 55 families, 121 genera and 221 species. the number of families varied from 24 to 36 and, the number of species from 40 to 68. mean height ranged from 9.1 to 11.5 m and, mean diameter from 10.8 to 17 cm. floristic similarity indexes (jaccard) among areas ranged from 5.8 to 23.4%, showing that the areas were very different. there was no significant relationship between geographic distance and similarity index. shannon diversity indexes varied from 3.11 to 4.04 nats/individual. biodiversity conservation in apa-sul will depend on the public policies that guarantee the conservation of the largest possible number of forests and of the riparian forests that maintain the connectivity among preserved areas.
EXTENSION DEL LIMITE SUR PARA NOTHOFAGUS GLAUCA (PHIL.) KRASSER
Le-Quesne,Carlos; Sandoval,Luis;
Gayana. Botánica , 2001, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-66432001000200005
Abstract: nothofagus glauca (hualo) is an endangered tree from the mediterranean region of central chile, whose natural habitat is currently undergoing severe fragmentation. this brief communication reports an outlier population located in the andean foothills, 100 km south of the previously recognized southern distributional limit. stand structure is briefly described, and the importance of conserving this marginal population is highlighted
Comunidade de aves no Parque Estadual da Fonte Grande, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brasil
Simon, José E.;Lima, Saulo R.;Cardinali, Thais;
Revista Brasileira de Zoologia , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-81752007000100015
Abstract: this paper provides the avifauna composition recorded between january and december 2003 in the fonte grande state park (pefg), municipality of vitória, state of espírito santo, brazil. we obtained a total of 120 species belonging to 37 families, after 450 hours of field work. we estimated a richness of 146 species (129 < ic(95%) < 163), according to jackknife 1 method. however, the species accumulation curve has not reached its assintotics. four species out of 120 recorded are endemic to the brazilian atlantic forest (leucopternis lacernulatus, phaethornis idaliae, thamnophilus ambiguus and attila rufus), and one of them (l. lacernulatus) is included in the list of brazilian birds threatened with extinction. the comparison among the three basic inventory methods (auditive, sightseeing and net capture) revealed that the sightseeing method detected the largest number of species (x2 = 17.55, p < 5%), of which 26 (22%) were recorded exclusively by this method. this result is explained by the dominance of open landscape species in the park, associated with the type of field work employed in this study.
INVENTARIO PRELIMINAR DE AVES EN DOS FRAGMENTOS DE BOSQUE EN LA CORDILLERA ORIENTAL DE LOS ANDES COLOMBIANOS
Gomez,Yudy Cristina; Rivera Diaz,Adelmo; Gomez,Jose Roberto; Vargas,Nelcy Patricia;
Revista U.D.C.A Actualidad & Divulgación Científica , 2008,
Abstract: the alteration in the colombian forests is constantly increasing in areas where no registers of its biodiversity exist. when carrying out a preliminary ornithological inventory in two forest fragments in the south of the eastern colombian andes mountains on the florencia-suaza road, on the limit of the departments of huila and caquetá, the negative environmental impact made by mankind was evident. the avifauna of this study was registered by direct observation and net captures. 229 individuals, grouped into 73 species were registered; the families thraupidae, trochilidae and tyrannidae were the most diverse ones. the ecological analysis, through the use of habitat and niche, showed that the majority of species were found in the primary forest, and regarding the kind of diet, the most abundant ones were the insectivores and frugivores of sot forest. the altitudinal distribution range of four species was increased: heliodoxa schreibersii, tangara xanthogastra, xiphorhynchus erythropygius and myiobius barbatus. the state of conservation of forests is good, but its constant fragmentation can cause the restriction and local migration of the fauna that depends on this ecosystem. the information presented here is the first inventory of avifauna done for this zone.
The effects of four types of anthropogenic disturbances on composition and abundance of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea)
Magrini, Mariana J;Freitas, André V. L;Uehara-Prado, Marcio;
Zoologia (Curitiba) , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1984-46702011000100010
Abstract: the brazilian atlantic forest is currently reduced to about 12% of its original range. among the components that make up its great diversity, there are species with the potential to be bioindicators, which can be very important for conservation-oriented studies. this study compares the species composition, abundance and sex ratio of terrestrial isopods in sites that show different anthropogenic disturbance histories and are located within four reserves in the atlantic forest of southwestern brazil. our study explores these crustaceans as indicators of anthropogenic disturbance. the influence of one of the following factors was explored in each protected area: 1) history of vegetation harvesting, 2) trail management, 3) eucalyptus planting, and 4) edge effect. a total of 2,217 individuals of six species (atlantoscia sp., benthana werneri lemos de castro, 1958, pseudodiploexochus tabularis (barnard, 1932), pudeoniscus obscures lemos de castro, 1973, styloniscus spinosus (patience, 1907), and trichorhina sp.) were captured in pitfall traps. the composition of isopod species was different between most of the contrasting sites within reserves, and was similar among the less disturbed sites of different reserves. the total number of isopod individuals and the sex ratio were not different between the contrasting sites within most of the reserves and only the sex ratio of atlantoscia sp. differed between contrasting sites of one protected area. upon an individual analysis of each species, s. spinosus (an exotic species) was most abundant in more disturbed sites. the distributions of b. werneri and atlantoscia sp. over time were relatively synchronous, except where s. spinosus was abundant. our results also indicate that the exotic species s. spinosus may benefit from the vegetation mosaic produced by disturbance, so differences in abundance of this species may be useful for bioindication. a change in the spatial and temporal structure of oniscidea communities caused by anth
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