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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 12078 matches for " Food security "
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Food insecurity: How to orchestrate a global health crisis  [PDF]
John Quinn, Vladimir Bencko
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.56141

In 2007-2008, the world experienced over 1 billion people going hungry. This complex food security and public health crisis have many levels, actors and stakeholders. There lacks equity in access food markets, unbalanced consumption of nutrients and poor state institutions that, all negatively impact food security. Global financial products and regimes can greatly influence food prices, and if not properly regulated, this can lead to whole market manipulation and starvation. This paper discusses the basics of food security in a public health framework and describes the legal and financial mechanisms that lead to food insecurity.

Food Is Security: The Nexus of Health Security in Fragile and Failed States  [PDF]
John Quinn, Tomas Zeleny, Vladimir Bencko
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.519197
Abstract: Global food security is a major development challenge dictated by state stability, resilience to geopolitical and economic shocks and is linked to health security. Fragile and failed nation-states are at risk of extreme poverty and lead to war and conflict. Fragile states experience, corrupt financial regimes and are influenced by skewed global market systems and reduced equitable market access that decrease food and health security. This qualitative review describes the critical cross sections of food security, the influence of global market systems and state stability and institutions that form the nexus of global health security. We outline how the manipulation of free market systems and decreased state capacity not only decrease food and health security but also contribute to state fragility and failure. Improved public health policy mechanisms, decreased dependence on foreign financial structures and extractive mechanisms are crucial to improving food and health security at present, and to further increase state stability in the future.
The likely impact of genetically modified soybeans in the Brazilian collective feeding service  [PDF]
Silvia Magalh?es Couto, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira Coelho, Marina de Figueiredo Ferreira, Victor Augustus Marin, Regina Serr?o Lanzillotti, Haydée Serr?o Lanzillotti
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.412098

Objective: To expose the likely impact of genetically modified foods in Collective Feeding. Methods: This was a case study conducted on a steel company (SC) in Rio de Janeiro State. The likely impact recognition began with the preparation of a soy food products’ list. Then, we verified these products’ frequency on the Food and Nutrition Unit (FNU) menu from the SC, outlining the offer profile. We calculated odds ratios and binomial distribution probability for assessing exposure to soy that may be transgenic. Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) regarding soy products was applied. The convergence of daily products’ relative frequency of this population and the population from a reference study about FFQ validation in Rio de Janeiro was verified. Confrontation took place between the classification of foods by the consumers’ likely exposure to soy and the percentage deviation between observed relative frequency of products’ intake offered on the FNU and on the reference study. Results: A list of 51 products were created and 16 of them integrated the menu, e.g. flour, chicken, sausage, maize, instant pudding, bologna, hot dogs and peanuts. Food usually consumed by FNU users and concomitantly consumed in reference study were cookies, flour, spaghetti, bread, cake, instant pudding, sausage and hot dogs. By the classification and percentage deviations results, cookies, breads and pasta were the “villains” of soy’s susceptibility. Coclusion: It was possible to show the likely impact of genetically modified foods in Collective Feeding, confirming that these consumers were exposed to soybeans that may be transgenic.

- , 2017, DOI: 10.13982/j.mfst.1673-9078.2017.11.030
Abstract: 当前,兽药残留已成为食品安全的源头问题之一,养殖户缺乏鉴别假兽药的能力,兽药质量风险较大,为了提高养殖户的辨假能力,减少不合格兽药的使用,降低兽药使用风险,通过整理中国兽医药品监察所的抽检数据,运用SPSS Modeler软件,以C5.0、Logistic、神经网络构建数据挖掘的分类预测模型,对兽药质量进行分类预测。发现三种分类模型的整体分类精度偏低,对此,选用组合分类器对模型进行了优化,并对神经网络、二元逻辑回归-神经网络及决策树-神经网络进行了比较,发现从分类精度以及泛化性能上来讲,决策树-神经网络的整体表现最好,最后,本文构建了决策树-神经网络的兽药质量风险预测模型,并对之进行了进一步的优化,预测准确率能达到74.34%,可为养殖户的购买决策提供参考。
Veterinary drug residues had become one of the source problems for food security at present. It was difficult for farmers to identify the fake veterinary drugs, which resulted in the risks of veterinary drugs quality. To improve the identification ability of the farmers and reduce the utilization of unqualified veterinary drugs, the data mining classification prediction model, established by C5.0, Logistic, neural network, was used to classify and predict the quality of veterinary drugs by sorting the sampling data of Chinese Veterinary Drug Administration based on SPSS Modeler software. Results showed that the classification accuracy of the three models was low, which resulted in optimizing the model by combination of classifier, and the neural network, binary logic regression - neural network, decision tree-neural network were compared. The overall performance of decision tree - neural network was the best in classification accuracy and generalization performance. Finally, the model for predicting the veterinary drugs quality in decision tree-neural network was established and further optimized, and the prediction accuracy reached 74.34%..
Impact of Irrigation on Food Security in Bangladesh for the Past Three Decades  [PDF]
M. Wakilur RAHMAN, Lovely PARVIN
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2009.13027
Abstract: Bangladesh has made impressive progress in agriculture sector in the last three decades and has almost be-come self-sufficient in food grain production. This is a tremendous achievement owing to its small territory and huge population and this was achieved through agricultural mechanization and modernization. Irrigation is one of the leading inputs has direct influence to increase yield, food grains production and plays vital role for ensuring food security in Bangladesh. The present study examined the growth of irrigated area and its impact on food grain production during last three decades. Time series data were used for the study. Differ-ent statistical methods such as mean, percentage, linear and exponential growth model were applied for get-ting meaningful findings. Various technologies have been used for irrigating crops which have contributed to rapid expansion of irrigated area. The conventional irrigation methods (Low Lift Pump, Dhone, Swing Bas-ket, Treadle Pump etc.) were replaced by modern methods (i.e Deep Tube Well and Shallow Tube Well). In addition, surface water irrigation also sharply declined, losing its importance due to lack of new surface irri-gation project and the ineffectiveness of earlier project. Groundwater covered 77 percent of total irrigated area and major (62%) extractions occurred through Shallow Tube Wells (STWs). The rapid expansion of ground water irrigation in respect to STWs irrigation was due to government’s withdrawal on restrictions on tube well setting rule, encouraging private sector and the cost effectiveness of Chinese engine which have been affordable to the small and medium farmers. Irrigated area thus, increased by about three times and cropping intensity also increased from 154 to 176 percent. Boro rice, an irrigated crop, consumed 73 percent of the total crop irrigation and contributed to a greater extent in total rice production in Bangladesh. Boro rice alone contributed to 55 percent of total food grain and was also highest (3.44 MT per hectare) compared to aus rice (1.66 MT per hectare) and aman rice (1.99 MT per hectare) per unit production. Consequently, the cultivated area of boro rice increased by 1168 to 4068 thousand hectares. The higher productivity of boro rice has almost helped the nation to meet her food requirements (about 24 Million MT). Boro rice production was highly correlated (r = .978) with irrigated area. Expansion of one hectare of irrigated area added 3.22 MT of boro rice in Bangladesh. Finally, the study suggested for expansion of irrigated areas (ground water and surface water),
A Quantitative Factorial Component Analysis to Investigate the Recent Changes of Japan’s Weight-Based Food Self-Sufficiency Ratio  [PDF]
Kunihisa Yoshii, Tatsuo Oyama
American Journal of Operations Research (AJOR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajor.2016.61007

We investigate the weight-based food self-sufficiency ratio (WSSR) for Japan over a 50-year period (1961-2011) by applying factorial component analysis technique in order to measure the changes of the WSSR quantitatively. Quantitative data analysis is employed to determine the drivers of those changes. Numerical results show that Japan experienced a drastic decline in its food self-sufficiency ratio (FSSR) during the above period. The factorial component analysis shows that such a decline was caused by the changes in the FSSR of the food groups/items, not in the quantity of the food supply. A number of characteristics of those changes are presented and a list of major food groups that have major impacts on the changes is constructed. The findings in this paper reiterate the alarming food security problem in Japan and provide clear insight into the causes of this problem. The findings in this study pick up where previous studies have left off, aid the food-related policy-making process and identify new ideas for future food research.

Have You Considered Eating Your Weeds?  [PDF]
Willem Sternberg Jansen van Rensburg, Michele Cloete, Abe Shegro Gerrano, Patrick Olusanmi Adebola
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.58123

In most parts of the developed world, Pigweed, Spider plant, Lambs amongst others are regarded as weeds. But in Africa and other developing countries, these plants form part of the daily diets of many rural households. The oldest inhabitants of South Africa have harvested leaves from wild plants to supplement the meat from hunted animals. Over 100 different species of plants are cooked as a potherb/relish with corn meal. These species include indigenous species as well as indigenized, mostly weedy, species. These species became part of the African culture and heritage and were collectively known as morogo or imifino. The popularity of specific species is a function of many factors, including availability, ease of preparation, taste, consistency and appearance. Some popular genera are Amaranthus, Cleome, Solanum and

Application of High Carbon:Nitrogen Material Enhanced the Formation of the Soil A Horizon and Nitrogen Fixation in a Tropical Agricultural Field  [PDF]
Masato Oda, Kenji Tamura, Hiroko Nakatsuka, Miki Nakata, Yukimi Hayashi
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.512127
Abstract: It is known that cropping causes soil carbon loss, which is a critical issue, especially in tropical agriculture. Nitrogen input generally increases net primary production but does not increase soil carbon content because nitrogen input enhances soil organic carbon mineralization by microorganisms. A farmer conducted a trial in which he applied material with a high carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio without additional nitrogen fertilizer, and achieved a higher productivity than that of conventional farms. Based on his results, we conducted a survey to evaluate the effects of high C:N ratio organic material on the productivity, soil profile, microbial activity, and carbon and nitrogen balance of soil. Results demonstrate that high C:N ratio organic material enhanced the formation of the soil A horizon and increased soil carbon and nitrogen content. Approximately, 15 - 20 t·ha-1·crop-1 of fresh waste mushroom bed was applied to 15 crops over 4.5 years, and the total input of carbon and nitrogen were 5014 and 129 g·m-2, respectively. The soil nitrate nitrogen concentration was the same as that of the neighboring forest soil, which was lower than the standard limit for conventional agriculture; however, the average productivity of crops was approximately four times that of the national average. The soil Ap horizon increased in thickness by 7 cm, and aggregates reached a thickness of 29 cm in 4.5 years. The output/input ratios of total soil nitrogen and carbon were approximately 2.68 - 6.00 and 1.30 - 2.35, respectively, indicating that this method will maintain the carbon and nitrogen balance of the system. The observed soil microbial activity was one order of magnitude higher than that of a fallow field. The results indicate that this agricultural method remediates soil degradation, and improves food production.
Climate Change Adaptation and Vulnerability: A Case of Rain Dependent Small-Holder Farmers in Selected Districts in Zambia  [PDF]
Cuthbert Casey Makondo, Kenneth Chola, Blesswell Moonga
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2014.34034
Abstract: Food crop production by small-holder farmers in Africa is particularly vulnerable to climate change, given high dependence on rainfall coupled with limited adaptive capacity. In Zambia, smallholder farmers contribute about 79% of national stable food requirements particularly maize. This paper attempted to establish levels of food security in each of the three agro-ecological zones of Zambia, and evaluated the current adaptive measures of rain dependent small-holder farmers against climate change risks. The challenges farmers are facing in adapting to the change risks were identified and livelihood vulnerability assessed. The findings indicate that rain dependent small-holder farmers in Zambia are highly vulnerable to weather related shocks which impact greatly on their food production; and that the levels of vulnerability vary across gender and per agro-ecological zone. After the evaluation of scenarios including staple food crop yields (maize), the authors conclude that most rain-fed small-holder farmers in Zambia (about 70%) are facing considerable hardships in adapting to the changing climate, which in turn, undermines their contribution to food security. While efforts by government have been made to assist farmers towards climate change adaptation, there still remains many challenges to achieve the desired outcomes. Most farmers (66%) are unable to afford certain alternatives, such as those of agro-forestry or conservation. Difficulties in accessing markets, poor road infrastructure, fluctuating market prices, high costs and late deliveries of farming in-puts were found to be among the major challenges that farmers are facing in Zambia. There are also no systematic early warning systems in place against natural hazards and disasters. This makes farming a difficult undertaking in Zambia.
Impact of Environment Conditions on Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): To Optimal Production and Sustainability, Achieving Food Security and Increasing the Palestinian Economy  [PDF]
Jehad M. H. Ighbareyeh, Eusebio Cano Carmona
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2018.62005
Abstract: Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of important economic fruit crops found in Hebron of Palestine. Climate is one of the key controlling factors in grape and wine production. Materials & Method: We analyzed grape production in Hebron region, and studied the correlation analyses between productions and climatic, bioclimatic factors. The bioclimate, climatic factors were obtained according to Rivas-Martinez to classification of the earth. However, the independent variables were examined: the bioclimate factors as compensated thermicity index, annual ombrothermic index, water deficit and simple continentality index; and following climate factors: mean monthly temperature, precipitation and soil water reserve. The data used were from one meteorological station of the Palestinian Meteorological Department for the years 1993 to 2009 (16 years), and to the same years of grape production (rain-fed) from the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS).?Result & Discussion: When we applied a Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and observed that the Hebron type plots are located at the left of axis 1 during 1999-2004 negatively affected by the bioclimate factors as compensated thermicity index, with a large proportion of the variance explained by axes 1 (76.66%), but precipitation was positive influenced on grape yield for the years (2004-2009), with a proportion of the variance explained by axes 2 (23.34%); Hebron type plots are located at the right of axis1during 1993-1999 positive affected by the bioclimate factor as a simple continentality index and annual ombrothermic index, and climate factors as water deficit, soil water reserve and mean monthly temperature, with a large proportion of the variance explained by axes 1 & 2 (100%). Conclusions: Grapes are sensitive climate and the surrounding environment factors, and in order to get a high production and high-quality grapes, mean monthly temperature must be between 15°C - 20°C, and 20°C - 30°C (27
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