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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 19753 matches for " Fong-Chin Su "
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A New Concept for Quantifying the Complicated Kinematics of the Cervical Spine and Its Application in Evaluating the Impairment of Clients with Mechanical Neck Disorders
Chia-Chi Yang,Fong-Chin Su,Lan-Yuen Guo
Sensors , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/s121217463
Abstract: Mechanical neck disorder (MND) is one of the most common health issues and is characterized by restricted cervical mobility. However, traditional kinematic information often focuses on primary movement in the cardinal plane, which seems insufficient to fully determine the kinematics of the cervical spine because of the complexity of the anatomical structures involved. Therefore, the current investigation aimed to modify the concept of the three-dimensional workspace to propose an objective mathematical model to quantify the complicated kinematics of the cervical spine. In addition, the observation evaluated the characteristics of the cervical workspace in asymptomatic and MND groups. Seventeen healthy volunteers and twenty-five individuals with MND participated in the study and executed the motion of circumduction to establish the cervical workspace using an electromagnetic tracking system. The results produced a mathematical model to successfully quantify the cervical workspace. Moreover, MND groups demonstrated significant reduction in the normalization of the cervical workspace with respect to the length of the head-cervical complex. Accordingly, the current study provided a new concept for understanding the complicated kinematics of the cervical spine. The cervical workspace could be a useful index to evaluate the extent of impairment of the cervical spine and monitor the efficacy of rehabilitation programs for patients with MND.
Effect of the Kinesio tape to muscle activity and vertical jump performance in healthy inactive people
Chen-Yu Huang, Tsung-Hsun Hsieh, Szu-Ching Lu, Fong-Chin Su
BioMedical Engineering OnLine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1475-925x-10-70
Abstract: Thirty-one healthy adults (19 males and 12 females with mean age, body weight and height for 25.3 ± 3.8 years old, 64.1 ± 6.2 kg, and 169.4 ± 7.3 cm, respectively) were recruited. All participants performed vertical jump tests prior to (without taping) and during elastic taping. Two elastic tapes, Kinesio tape and Mplacebo tape from two different manufacturers, were applied to the participants, respectively.The results showed that the vertical ground reaction force increased when Kinesio tape was applied even when the height of jump remained about constant. However, the height of the jump decreased, and there was no difference on the vertical ground reaction force in Mplacebo taping group. Although the EMG activity of medial gastrocnemius tended to increase in Kinesio taping group, we did not see differences in EMG activity for the medial gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior and soleus muscles in either group.Based on the varied effects of Kinesio tape and Mplacebo tape, different intervention technique was suggested for specific purpose during vertical jump movement. Mplacebo tape was demanded for the benefits of stabilization, protection, and the restriction of motion at the ankle joint. On the other hand, the findings may implicate benefits for medial gastrocnemius muscle strength and push-off force when using Kinesio tape.Vertical jumping is a kind of movement often seen in sports and exercise skill tests, and it has been discussed frequently in past related studies [1-4]. In most situations, before the push off movement begins, vertical jumping is carried out by the rapid extension of the hip, knee, and ankle joints [2]. Vertical jumping height is often demanded in the performance of sports and is an ability usually used in the test for basic capability to engage in sports or exercise [5].Motion analysis provides a detailed picture of the muscular effort expended at the joints during the performance of exercise [6]. Several studies have attempted to identify mechan
Complexity of the Tensegrity Structure for Dynamic Energy and Force Distribution of Cytoskeleton during Cell Spreading
Ting-Jung Chen,Chia-Ching Wu,Ming-Jer Tang,Jong-Shin Huang,Fong-Chin Su
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014392
Abstract: Cytoskeleton plays important roles in intracellular force equilibrium and extracellular force transmission from/to attaching substrate through focal adhesions (FAs). Numerical simulations of intracellular force distribution to describe dynamic cell behaviors are still limited. The tensegrity structure comprises tension-supporting cables and compression-supporting struts that represent the actin filament and microtubule respectively, and has many features consistent with living cells. To simulate the dynamics of intracellular force distribution and total stored energy during cell spreading, the present study employed different complexities of the tensegrity structures by using octahedron tensegrity (OT) and cuboctahedron tensegrity (COT). The spreading was simulated by assigning specific connection nodes for radial displacement and attachment to substrate to form FAs. The traction force on each FA was estimated by summarizing the force carried in sounding cytoskeletal elements. The OT structure consisted of 24 cables and 6 struts and had limitations soon after the beginning of spreading by declining energy stored in struts indicating the abolishment of compression in microtubules. The COT structure, double the amount of cables and struts than the OT structure, provided sufficient spreading area and expressed similar features with documented cell behaviors. The traction force pointed inward on peripheral FAs in the spread out COT structure. The complex structure in COT provided further investigation of various FA number during different spreading stages. Before the middle phase of spreading (half of maximum spreading area), cell attachment with 8 FAs obtained minimized cytoskeletal energy. The maximum number of 12 FAs in the COT structure was required to achieve further spreading. The stored energy in actin filaments increased as cells spread out, while the energy stored in microtubules increased at initial spreading, peaked in middle phase, and then declined as cells reached maximum spreading. The dynamic flows of energy in struts imply that microtubules contribute to structure stabilization.
The Relationships between Foot Arch Volumes and Dynamic Plantar Pressure during Midstance of Walking in Preschool Children
Hsun-Wen Chang, Hsiao-Feng Chieh, Chien-Ju Lin, Fong-Chin Su, Ming-June Tsai
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094535
Abstract: Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between the foot arch volume measured from static positions and the plantar pressure distribution during walking. Methods A total of 27 children, two to six years of age, were included in this study. Measurements of static foot posture were obtained, including navicular height and foot arch volume in sitting and standing positions. Plantar pressure, force and contact areas under ten different regions of the foot were obtained during walking. Results The foot arch index was correlated (r = 0.32) with the pressure difference under the midfoot during the foot flat phase. The navicular heights and foot arch volumes in sitting and standing positions were correlated with the mean forces and pressures under the first (r = ?0.296~?0.355) and second metatarsals (r = ?0.335~?0.504) and midfoot (r = ?0.331~?0.496) during the stance phase of walking. The contact areas under the foot were correlated with the foot arch parameters, except for the area under the midfoot. Conclusions The foot arch index measured in a static position could be a functional index to predict the dynamic foot functions when walking. The foot arch is a factor which will influence the pressure distribution under the foot. Children with a lower foot arch demonstrated higher mean pressure and force under the medial forefoot and midfoot, and lower contact areas under the foot, except for the midfoot region. Therefore, children with flatfoot may shift their body weight to a more medial foot position when walking, and could be at a higher risk of soft tissue injury in this area.
Clinical application of computerized evaluation and re-education biofeedback prototype for sensorimotor control of the hand in stroke patients
Hsiu-Yun Hsu, Cheng-Feng Lin, Fong-Chin Su, Huan-Ting Kuo, Haw-Yen Chiu, Li-Chieh Kuo
Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1743-0003-9-26
Abstract: The CERB prototype was constructed to detect momentary pinch force modulation for 14 sub-acute and chronic stroke patients with sensory deficiency and 14 healthy controls. The other ten chronic stroke patients (ranges of stroke period: 6–60?months) were recruited to investigate the effects of 4-weeks computerized biofeedback treatments on the hand control ability. The biofeedback procedures provide visual and auditory cues to the participants when the interactive force of hand-to-object exceeded the target latitude in a pinch-up-holding task to trigger optimal motor strategy. Follow-up measurements were conducted one month after training. The hand sensibility, grip forces and results of hand functional tests were recorded and analyzed.The affected hands of the 14 predominant sensory stroke patients exhibited statistically significant elevation in the magnitude of peak pinch force (p?=?0.033) in pinching and lifting-up tasks, and poor results for hand function tests (p?=?0.005) than sound hands did. In addition, the sound hands of patients were less efficient in force modulation (p?=?0.009) than the hands of healthy subjects were. Training with the biofeedback system produced significant improvements in grip force modulation (p?=?0.020) and better performances in the subtests of pin insertion (p?=?0.019), and lifting of lightweight objects (p?=?0.005).The CERB prototype can provide momentary and interactive information for quantitative assessing and re-educating force modulation appropriately for stroke patients with sensory deficits. Furthermore, the patients could transfer the learned strategy to improve hand function.
Feasibility of a Novel Functional Sensibility Test as an Assisted Examination for Determining Precision Pinch Performance in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Hsiu-Yun Hsu, Li-Chieh Kuo, Yao-Lung Kuo, Haw-Yen Chiu, I-Ming Jou, Po-Ting Wu, Fong-Chin Su
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072064
Abstract: To understand the feasibility of a novel functional sensibility test for determining precision pinch performance in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome, this study investigates the validity, sensitivity and specificity of functional sensibility derived from a pinch-holding-up activity (PHUA) test. Participants include 70 clinically defined carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients with 119 involved hands and 70 age- and gender-matched controls. To examine the discriminating ability of the functional sensibility test, the differences in the ability of pinch force adjustments to the inertial load of handling object between CTS and control subjects are analyzed. The results of functional sensibility are correlated with the severity of CTS to establish concurrent validity. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is constructed to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed test. The functional sensibility score significantly discriminates the patients and control groups (respectively, 12.94±1.72 vs. 11.51±1.15N in peak pinch force (FPPeak), p<0.001; 2.92±0.41 vs. 2.52±0.24 in force ratio, p<0.001) and is moderately correlated (r = 0.42–0.54, p<0.001) with the results of traditional sensibility tests (touch-pressure threshold and two-point discrimination test). In addition, there is a statistical difference in the results of functional sensibility (p<0.001) among the subgroups of CTS severity based on electrophysiological study. The sensitivity and specificity are 0.79 and 0.76, respectively, for the functional sensibility test. The areas under the ROC curve are 0.85 and 0.80 for the force ratio and FPPeak, respectively. In conclusion, the functional sensibility test could be feasibly used as a clinical tool for determining both the sensibility and precision pinch performance of hands for the patients with CTS.
One Digit Interruption: The Altered Force Patterns during Functionally Cylindrical Grasping Tasks in Patients with Trigger Digits
Po-Tsun Chen, Chien-Ju Lin, I-Ming Jou, Hsiao-Feng Chieh, Fong-Chin Su, Li-Chieh Kuo
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083632
Abstract: Most trigger digit (TD) patients complain that they have problems using their hand in daily or occupational tasks due to single or multiple digits being affected. Unfortunately, clinicians do not know much about how this disease affects the subtle force coordination among digits during manipulation. Thus, this study examined the differences in force patterns during cylindrical grasp between TD and healthy subjects. Forty-two TD patients with single digit involvement were included and sorted into four groups based on the involved digits, including thumb, index, middle and ring fingers. Twelve healthy subjects volunteered as healthy controls. Two testing tasks, holding and drinking, were performed by natural grasping with minimal forces. The relations between the force of the thumb and each finger were examined by Pearson correlation coefficients. The force amount and contribution of each digit were compared between healthy controls and each TD group by the independent t test. The results showed all TD groups demonstrated altered correlation patterns of the thumb relative to each finger. Larger forces and higher contributions of the index finger were found during holding by patients with index finger involved, and also during drinking by patients with affected thumb and with affected middle finger. Although no triggering symptom occurred during grasping, the patients showed altered force patterns which may be related to the role of the affected digit in natural grasping function. In conclusion, even if only one digit was affected, the subtle force coordination of all the digits was altered during simple tasks among the TD patients. This study provides the information for the future studies to further comprehend the possible injuries secondary to the altered finger coordination and also to adopt suitable treatment strategies.
The Force Synergy of Human Digits in Static and Dynamic Cylindrical Grasps
Li-Chieh Kuo, Shih-Wei Chen, Chien-Ju Lin, Wei-Jr Lin, Sheng-Che Lin, Fong-Chin Su
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0060509
Abstract: This study explores the force synergy of human digits in both static and dynamic cylindrical grasping conditions. The patterns of digit force distribution, error compensation, and the relationships among digit forces are examined to quantify the synergetic patterns and coordination of multi-finger movements. This study recruited 24 healthy participants to perform cylindrical grasps using a glass simulator under normal grasping and one-finger restricted conditions. Parameters such as the grasping force, patterns of digit force distribution, and the force coefficient of variation are determined. Correlation coefficients and principal component analysis (PCA) are used to estimate the synergy strength under the dynamic grasping condition. Specific distribution patterns of digit forces are identified for various conditions. The compensation of adjacent fingers for the force in the normal direction of an absent finger agrees with the principle of error compensation. For digit forces in anti-gravity directions, the distribution patterns vary significantly by participant. The forces exerted by the thumb are closely related to those exerted by other fingers under all conditions. The index-middle and middle-ring finger pairs demonstrate a significant relationship. The PCA results show that the normal forces of digits are highly coordinated. This study reveals that normal force synergy exists under both static and dynamic cylindrical grasping conditions.
How the Impact of Median Neuropathy on Sensorimotor Control Capability of Hands for Diabetes: An Achievable Assessment from Functional Perspectives
Haw-Yen Chiu, Hsiu-Yun Hsu, Li-Chieh Kuo, Fong-Chin Su, Hui-I Yu, Shih-Che Hua, Chieh-Hsiang Lu
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094452
Abstract: To comprehend the sensorimotor control ability in diabetic hands, this study investigated the sensation, motor function and precision pinch performances derived from a pinch-holding-up activity (PHUA) test of the hands of diabetic patients and healthy subjects. The precision, sensitivity and specificity of the PHUA test in the measurements of diabetic patients were also analyzed. We hypothesized that the diabetic hands would have impacts on the sensorimotor functions of the hand performances under functionally quantitative measurements. One hundred and fifty-nine patients with clinically defined diabetes mellitus (DM) and 95 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included. Semmes-Weinstein monofilament (SWM), static and moving two-point discrimination (S2PD and M2PD), maximal pinch strength and precision pinch performance tests were conducted to evaluate the sensation, motor and sensorimotor status of the recruited hands. The results showed that there were significant differences (all p<0.05) in SWM, S2PD, M2PD and maximum pinch strength between the DM and control groups. A higher force ratio in the DM patients than in the controls (p<0.001) revealed a poor ability of pinch force adjustment in the DM patients. The percentage of maximal pinch strength was also significantly different (p<0.001) between the DM and control groups. The sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.85, 0.51, and 0.724, respectively, for the PHUA test. Statistically significant degradations in sensory and motor functions and sensorimotor control ability were observed in the hands of the diabetic patients. The PHUA test could be feasibly used as a clinical tool to determine the sensorimotor function of the hands of diabetic patients from a functional perspective.
Cloning and characterization of a 9-lipoxygenase gene induced by pathogen attack from Nicotiana benthamiana for biotechnological application
Fong-Chin Huang, Wilfried Schwab
BMC Biotechnology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6750-11-30
Abstract: A LOX gene which is expressed after treatment of the viral vectors was isolated from Nicotiana benthamiana. As the encoded LOX has a high amino acid identity to other 9-LOX proteins, the gene was named as Nb-9-LOX. It was heterologously expressed in yeast cells and its enzymatic activity was characterized. The yeast cells expressed large quantities of stable 9-LOX (0.9 U ml-1 cell cultures) which can oxygenate linoleic acid resulting in high yields (18 μmol ml-1 cell cultures) of hydroperoxy fatty acid. The product specificity of Nb-9-LOX was examined by incubation of linoleic acid and Nb-9-LOX in combination with a 13-hydroperoxide lyase from watermelon (Cl-13-HPL) or a 9/13-hydroperoxide lyase from melon (Cm-9/13-HPL) and by LC-MS analysis. The result showed that Nb-9-LOX possesses both 9- and 13-LOX specificity, with high predominance for the 9-LOX function. The combination of recombinant Nb-9-LOX and recombinant Cm-9/13-HPL produced large amounts of C9-aldehydes (3.3 μmol mg-1 crude protein). The yield of C9-aldehydes from linoleic acid was 64%.The yeast expressed Nb-9-LOX can be used to produce C9-aldehydes on a large scale in combination with a HPL gene with 9-HPL function, or to effectively produce 9-hydroxy-10(E),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid in a biocatalytic process in combination with cysteine as a mild reducing agent.Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are nonheme iron-containing enzymes that catalyze the dioxygenation of fatty acids with a 1,4-pentadiene structure and are ubiquitous among eukaryotes [1]. Hydroperoxidation products derived from LOX enzymes can be further converted into other oxylipins through the activity of diverse enzymes downstream in the pathways, including hydroperoxide lyase (HPL), allene oxide synthase, divinyl ether synthase, epoxy alcohol synthase, and peroxygenase [2,3]. These oxylipins include jasmonates, octadecanoids, 6- and 9-carbon aldehydes, oxoacids and divinyl ether fatty acids which are involved in plant defence, senescence, seed germin
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