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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8582 matches for " Follow-Up Study "
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Natural history of heartburn: A 10-year population-based study
Linda Bjork Olafsdottir,Hallgrimur Gudjonsson,Heidur Hrund Jonsdottir,Bjarni Thjodleifsson
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2011,
Abstract: AIM: To study the natural history and prevalence of heartburn at a 10-year interval, and to study the effect of heartburn on various symptoms and activities.METHODS: A population-based postal study was carried out. Questionnaires were mailed to the same age- and gender-stratified random sample of the Icelandic population (aged 18-75 years) in 1996 and again in 2006. Subjects were classified with heartburn if they reported heartburn in the preceding year and/or week, based on the definition of heartburn.RESULTS: Heartburn in the preceding year was reported in 42.8% (1996) and 44.2% (2006) of subjects, with a strong relationship between those who experienced heartburn in both years. Heartburn in the preceding week was diagnosed in 20.8%. There was a significant relationship between heartburn, dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. Individuals with a body mass index (BMI) below or higher than normal weight were more likely to have heartburn. Heartburn caused by food or beverages was reported very often by 20.0% of subjects.CONCLUSION: Heartburn is a common and chronic condition. Subjects with a BMI below or higher than normal weight are more likely to experience heartburn. Heartburn has a great impact on daily activities, sleep and quality of life.
36-Month Follow-Up Study of Post-Intervention Chronic Heart Failure Patients  [PDF]
Haruka Otsu, Michiko Moriyama
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.67075
Abstract: Aim: Although numerous studies of disease management and case management of chronic heart failure (CHF) have been carried out, length of effectiveness after program commencement has not been examined, so we examined a follow-up study at 36 months after program commencement. Methods: Participants went for follow-up visits to one Japanese clinic which specializes in internal cardiovascular medicine and they were given diagnoses of CHF. 104 outpatients participated in this study and randomized control trial was implemented. An educational program was implemented for 6 months. The data were collected at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12 months from both intervention and control groups and at 24 and 36 months from the intervention group. Results: There was significant improvement in New York Heart Association (NYHA) in the intervention group between baseline and 36 months. Improvement in weight monitoring and activities or exercise in the intervention group continued up to 36 months. Meanwhile, sodium restricted diets and quitting smoking and/or drinking depended on individual preference and it was difficult to make improvements in these areas. Conclusions: The educational program showed promise in preventing CHF outpatients from deteriorating significantly on a long-term basis as self-monitoring of activity and weight continued significantly and there were no participants with CHF who deteriorated in the intervention group at 36 months after program commencement, although the program aimed only to provide illness and self-management knowledge. On the other hand, future work will need to compare participants in this program to a control group over an extended period of time with consideration for relieving the burden of the control group.
Passive versus active follow-up to investigate the efficacy of primary prevention programs
Kron, Martina,Gaus, Wilhelm,H?gel, Josef
GMS Medizinische Informatik, Biometrie und Epidemiologie , 2005,
Abstract: Before general application of a primary prevention program its efficacy has to be demonstrated. For this purpose a randomized controlled trial with active or passive follow-up may be conducted. In the last 5 years, the ratio of controlled trials with passive versus those with active follow-up was 1:13. However, under certain circumstances a passive follow-up may be more appropriate and useful to overcome the drawbacks of an active follow-up, as e.g. high costs and many drop-outs. In a randomized controlled trial, a passive follow-up is based on the reporting of cases by physicians or hospitals instead of actively following up all study participants individually. The statistical evaluation can be carried out using a one-sample chi2-test. Advantages and limitations are discussed. A passive follow-up may be advantageous in situations with low incidence, large number of participants, complete ascertainment of conditions with obligatory notification or effective disease registries and should be preferred in such a context.
Follow-Up Study of a Multiple Myeloma Patient Successfully Treated with Clarithromycin (CAM), Low-Dose Lenalidomide and Low-Dose Dexamethasone: Significance and Possible Mechanism of Action of CAM as an Add-On Therapy  [PDF]
Nobuo Takemori, Toshio Fukuda, Masaru Kojima
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2014.312142
Background: Recently, high efficacy of the chemotherapeutic regimen combining clarithromycin (CAM) with lenalidomide (Len) and dexamethasone (Dex) (BiRD) in treating multiple myeloma (MM) patients has been reported. However, the exact mechanism of added CAM has not been fully elucidated. This case report will provide helpful information for understanding the significance and the mechanism of action of CAM as an add-on therapy. Patient: A 78-year-old female patient with IgA-λ type MM was treated with low-dose Len coupled with low-dose Dex (low Rd), and excellent response was achieved for long term, but she later became refractory to this treatment. Then, CAM was added to low Rd (low Rd-CAM, i.e., modified BiRD therapy). This add-on-therapy was found to be effective, but later suspended because of pneumonitis. Then, low-dose Len coupled with CAM (low R-CAM) treatment was applied; but effect of this Dex-free treatment was insufficient. Thus, low Rd-CAM was reapplied and satisfactory reduction of IgA was achieved. This fact suggests that low Rd-CAM is the favorable combination, Dex is requisite and CAM might have enhanced the effect of Dex. In this case, various serum cytokines were examined during the course of illness. Only interleukin-6 showed apparent increase, and tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β, soluble IL-2 receptors and C-reactive protein showed the slight increase during low Rd-CAM treatment. The results seem somewhat conflicting, but it seems that intricate cytokine response due to immune activation might have occurred during low Rd-CAM treatment.
Prevalence rate, predictors and long-term course of probable posttraumatic stress disorder after major trauma: a prospective cohort study
Juanita A Haagsma, Akkie N Ringburg, Esther MM van Lieshout, Ed F van Beeck, Peter Patka, Inger B Schipper, Suzanne Polinder
BMC Psychiatry , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-12-236
Abstract: A prospective cohort study was conducted of 332 major trauma patients with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 16 or higher. We used data from the hospital trauma registry and self-assessment surveys that included the Impact of Event Scale (IES) to measure probable PTSD symptoms. An IES-score of 35 or higher was used as indication for the presence of probable PTSD.One year after injury measurements of 226 major trauma patients were obtained (response rate 68%). Of these patients 23% had an IES-score of 35 or higher, indicating probable PTSD. At two years after trauma the prevalence rate of probable PTSD was 20%. Female gender and co-morbid disease were strong predictors of probable PTSD one year following injury, whereas minor to moderate head injury and injury of the extremities (AIS less than 3) were strong predictors of this disorder at two year follow-up. Of the patients with probable PTSD at one year follow-up 79% had persistent PTSD symptoms a year later.Up to two years after injury probable PTSD is highly prevalent in a population of patients with major trauma. The majority of patients suffered from prolonged effects of PTSD, underlining the importance of prevention, early detection, and treatment of injury-related PTSD.Major trauma, which can be defined as an injury with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 16 or higher, has a large impact, not in the least because of the relatively young age of the average severely injured patient [1]. A large proportion of the severely injured patients report significantly reduced health-related quality of life with functional limitations years after trauma [2-4]. In rehabilitation, the main focus lies in the treatment of physical injuries. Nonetheless, over the past decades the importance of psychological morbidity continued to gain attention, specifically concerning posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).PTSD may result from any event that involves an injury, or threatened or actual death (of others). PTSD symptoms are characte
Programa Madre Canguro: primeros resultados de una cohorte de ni?os seguidos desde la unidad neonatal hasta la semana 40 de edad postconcepcional
Torres,Javier; Palencia,Diana; Sánchez,Diana Margarita; García,Jorge; Rey,Humberto; Echandía,Carlos Armando;
Colombia Médica , 2006,
Abstract: introduction: low birth weight is a health problem in non-developed countries, with a neonatal mortality rate 35 times higher in latin america than the expected one. at the neonatal care unit of the university hospital in cali, colombia, 75% of all live newborn infants are <2,500 g. objectives: to evaluate the infants who were followed up until 40 weeks of postconceptional age in the kangaroo mother program. methodology: a cohort study was performed in newborns infants <2,001 g who were admitted to the neonatal unit of the hospital universitario del valle, cali, colombia, if they had overcome all major adaption problems to extrauterine life and had a family willing to follow the instructions. exclusion criteria were lethal or major malformations, early detected major conditions arising from perinatal problem (severe hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopaty, pulmonary hypertension and intracerebral hemorrage iii or iv), and either abandoned children or those who were given for adoption. all patients were monitored in physical growth, length of breast-feeding, morbility, mortality, readmissions, hospital stay and bed turn. measurement were made at discharge, at 40 weeks of postconceptional age. results: a total of 66 infants reached term, 40 (61%) were girls and 26 (39%) were boys, with a mean birth gestational age of 32 weeks (27-38) and mean birth weight of 1,434 g (700-1,950). infants were discharged with mean gestational age of 34 weeks (31-39), mean postconceptional age of 19 day (4-48) and mean weight of 1,552 g (1,359-2,239). during the following they had a mean weight-gain of 18 g/kg/day. a large proportion of infants received breast-feeding: 96% at discharge and 94% at term. exclusive breast-feeding: 67% at discharge and 51% at term. anemia and gastroesophageal reflux disease after discharge were the main causes of morbidity. only three (4.5%) infants were readmissed before the 40 week, two for criotherapy and one for apnea, none died. the hospital stay at neonatal un
The Effects of Toluene Plus Noise on Hearing Thresholds: An Evaluation Based on Repeated Measurements in the German Printing Industry
Michael Sch per, Andreas Seeber, Christoph van Thriel
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health , 2008, DOI: 10.2478/v10001-008-0030-z
Abstract: Objectives: The ototoxicity of occupational exposure to toluene plus noise was investigated in a longitudinal study in rotogravure printing and existing findings in the literature were evaluated. Material and Methods: The study comprised four repeated examinations during 5 years and started with 333 male workers. Lifetime weighted average exposures (LWAE) to toluene and noise were determined from individual work histories and historic recordings; recent individual exposures were measured 10 times during the study (toluene, active sampling; noise, stationary measurements). Auditory thresholds were measured with pure tone audiometry at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 kHz. Results: Mean LWAE exposures to toluene and noise were 45±17 ppm plus 82±7 dB(A) for high toluene exposed and 10±7 ppm plus 82±4 dB(A) for low toluene exposed subjects, mean current exposures were 26±20 ppm plus 81±4 dB(A) and 3±3 ppm plus 82±4 dB(A). Mean exposure duration was 21.3±6.5 years for long exposed and 5.9±2.2 years for short exposed subjects. Repeated measurement analyses of variance did not reveal effects of toluene intensity, exposure duration and interactions between toluene intensity and noise intensity. Noise intensity [79±3 dB(A) vs. 84±1 dB(A)] was significant for auditory thresholds. A case concept utilising developments of individual auditory thresholds did not reveal significant toluene effects. Logistic models including age, exposure duration, toluene in ambient air, current noise and either hippuric acid or ortho-cresol (o-cresol) found only age to be significant for elevated OR of high frequency hearing loss. Conclusions: Due to missing toluene effects, it was concluded that the threshold level for developing hearing loss as a result of occupational exposure to toluene plus noise might be above the current limit of 50 ppm toluene.
Eiros JM,Ortega MP,Mayo A,Labayru C
Electronic Journal of Biomedicine , 2006,
Abstract: ABSTRACTObjectives: To describe the evolution of a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) infected patient cohort monitored for over 1,000 days.Methods: HIV-1 Viral Load (VL), CD4/l lymphocyte values and antiretroviral therapies given to the patients were evaluated throughout the follow-up period. We present a retrospective descriptive study of the HIV-1 VL determinations performed on 369 individuals followed-up for over 1,000 days.Results: The "non-detectable" VL (< 400 RNA copies/ml) percentage increased inversely with the decrease in VL above the detection limit (> 100.000 copies/ml) from the interval of 0-75 days up to the interval of 501-1,000 days (t-test, p=0.005); at that point, results switched to the opposite.Conclusions: Both CD4/ cell count lower than 200x106 and patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) were related to "non-detectable" VL levels. In our series the time period between 700 and 1,000 days can be the maximum interval for benefits from therapy and virology evaluation.RESUMENObjetivo: Describir la evolución de una cohorte de pacientes con infección por el Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH) monitorizados durante más 3 a os.Métodos: Durante el período de seguimiento se han evaluado en 396 individuos con infección VIH, seguidos durante más de 1000 días los parámetros de carga viral, valores de linfocitos CD4 y terapia antirretroviral.Resultados: Las porcentajes de carga viral no detectable (<400 copias/ARN/ml) se incrementaron de manera proporcional a cómo descendieron los valores de carga viral elevada (>100.000 copias/ARN/ml), y su rango adquirió significación desde el intervalo de 0-75 días de seguimiento al de 501-100 días (t-test, p=0.005). Los recuentos de CD4 bajos (<200) en pacientes que recibieron Terapia antirretroviral de alta eficacia se asociaron a valores indetectables de carga viral.Conclusiones: En nuestra serie el período situado entre 700-100 días representó el intervalo de máximo beneficio para la evaluación virológica y terapéutica.
The Effect of Age of Cochlear Implantation on the Improvement of the Auditory Performance in the Children Undergoing Cochlear Implantation
H Norouzpour,HR Tabatabaei,AR Rajaeifard,B Hashemi
Journal of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: Introduction: Hearing is one of the premier human senses. Being deprived from hearing is not only being unable to hear the sounds, but it is also the disability to gain a lot of helpful experiences. Cochlear implantation is introduced worldwide in order to treat the severe to profound hearing loss. Therefore, the present study aims to determine the effect of age of cochlear implantation on improvement of the auditory performance. Methods: The present follow-up study was conducted on 96 children who had referred to Fars Cochlear Implantation Center. The patients’ information was gathered from their profiles both before and after the operation. In addition, the auditory performance score was obtained in 3 stages – 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after the implantation – through the Cap test. Also, non-parametric tests of Fridman, Willcoxon, and Mann-Withney U were utilized in order to analyze the data of the study. Results: The mean of the children’s auditory performance 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after the implantation was measured as 2.8+1.03, 4.36+1.04, and 5.34+1.02, respectively. Besides, the median of their auditory performance 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after the implantation was calculated as 3, 5, and 5, respectively. Also, a statistically significant relationship was observed between the independent variable of age of cochlear implantation and the auditory performance score 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after the implantation. Conclusion: In line with other studies conducted on the issue, the present study showed the improvement of the auditory performance in the children who benefited from cochlear implantation. Moreover, the results of the present study revealed that the age of cochlear implantation can be of great help in determining the candidates of cochlear implantation. In other words, it can be a major prognostic factor of the response to the treatment
Delayed measles mortality among exposed children who survived the epidemic of 1714–15 in New France
Ryan Mazan
Canadian Studies in Population , 2012,
Abstract: This follow-up study examines delayed mortality of children under age 5 who were exposed to measles and survived the acute phase ofthe 1714–15 epidemic in Quebec. The objective of the study was to assess whether exposed children had higher long-term mortality thanunexposed children, by following them for 25 months past the estimated date of infection. Overall, children exposed before age 3 had higher long-term mortality than unexposed children. The difference remained significant while assessing other risk factors. Delayed mortality also varied by age and sex. Only exposed female infants had a significantly higher risk of dying, while both exposed male and female toddlers had higher mortality. No significant difference was found among children exposed after age 3. Findings are explained in terms of modern post-measles studies in Africa and of previous measles studies in New France.
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