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This study evaluated the dry matter production
and chemical composition of Brachiaria forage grasses in the offseason after corn harvest in integrated crop-livestock
system. The experiment was conducted at the Federal Institute of Goiás, Rio
Verde Campus, using a randomized complete block experimental design, with four
replications. The treatments consisted of the forages: Brachiaria brizantha cv.
Marandu; Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraes; Brachiaria brizantha cv. Piata; Brachiaria brizantha cv. MG-4; Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria ruziziensis, intercropped in oversown corn for implantation of integrated crop-livestock system. The
results showed that intercropping corn with Brachiaria grasses favors the production of high-quality forage in the offseason, and the
cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha and Brachiaria
Indiscriminate disposal of residues of domestic and/or industrial origin in aquatic ecosystems resulting from urban activities causes concern about their effects on the fauna. Substances absorbed by animals, such as those cited above, are metabolized by the liver, as it is the main target organ of several pollutants and also exercises basic vital functions in the organism. For this reason the liver is used as the main and most reliable biomarker in environmental studies. Thus the objective of the present study was to identify hepatic alterations resulting from exposure to water contaminated by a few commercial brands of biodegradable detergents and their effects when present together with several other contaminants found in nature. For such, a solution of 1 ppm of biodegradable detergents and water from an urban lake were tested on two widely distributed native Brazilian fish (Astyanax altiparanae and Prochilodus lineatus). Several alterations were found on the liver, including cytoplasm vacuolization, nuclear displacement, macrophage recruitment and reduced liver glycogen, showing a degenerative process in the liver of the fish, due to the action of contaminants.