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Infra-specific folk taxonomy in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) in Ethiopia: folk nomenclature, classification, and criteria
Firew Mekbib
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-3-38
Abstract: In order to assess folk taxonomy, various research methods were employed, including, focus group interviews with 360 farmers, direct on-farm participatory monitoring with 120 farmers, key informant interviews with 60 farmers and development agents and semi-structured interviews with 250 farmers. In addition, diversity fairs were conducted with over 1200 farmers. Assessment of folk taxonomy consistency was assessed by 30 farmers' evaluation of 44 folk species.Farmers have been growing sorghum for at least 500 years (20 generations). Sorghum is named as Mishinga in the region. Farmers used twenty five morphological, sixty biotic and abiotic and twelve use-related traits in folk taxonomy of sorghum. Farmers classified their gene-pool by hierarchical classifications into parts that represented distinguishable groups of accessions. Folk taxonomy trees were generated in the highland, intermediate and lowland sorghum ecologies. Over 78 folk species have been identified. The folk species were named after morphological, use-related and breeding methodology used. Relative distribution of folk species over the region, folk taxonomy consistency, and comparison of folk and formal taxonomy are described.New folk taxonomy descriptors have been identified and suggested to be used as formal taxonomy descriptors. It is concluded that integrated folk-formal taxonomy has to be used for enhanced collection, characterisation and utilization of on farm genetic resources.Sorghum is one of the main staples for the world's poorest and most food insecure people. The crop is genetically suited to hot and dry agro-ecologies where it is difficult to grow other food crops. Developing countries account for roughly 90% of the world's sorghum area and 77% of the total output [1]. In developing countries, the lion's share of the crop is grown by small scale farming households operating at the margins of subsistence.Sorghum is the most important staple crop in Ethiopia. It is grown on 1,468,070 ha wit
Folksong based appraisal of bioecocultural heritage of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench): A new approach in ethnobiology
Firew Mekbib
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-5-19
Abstract: In order to assess the bioecocultural heritage of sorghum by folksongs various research methods were employed. These included focus group discussions with 360 farmers, direct on-farm participatory monitoring and observation with 120 farmers, and key informant interviews with 60 farmers and development agents. Relevant secondary data was also collected from the museum curators and historians.The crop is intimately associated with the life of the farmers. The association of sorghum with the farmers from seed selection to utilization is presented using folksongs. These include both tune and textual (ballad stories or poems) types. Folksongs described how farmers maintain a number of varieties on-farm for many biological, socio-economic, ecological, ethnological and cultural reasons. Farmers describe sorghum as follows: Leaf number is less than twenty; Panicle hold a thousand seeds; a clever farmer takes hold of it. In addition, they described the various farmers' varieties ethnobotanically by songs. The relative importance of sorghum vis-à-vis others crops is similarly explained in folksong terms.The qualitative description of farmers' characterisation of the crop systems based on folksongs is a new system of appraising farmers' bioecocultural heritage. Hence, researchers, in addition to formal and quantitative descriptions, should use the folksong system for enhanced characterisation and utilization of bioecocultural heritages. In general, the salient characteristics of the folksongs used in describing the bioecocultural heritages are their oral traditions, varied function, communal or individual recreation and message transmissions.Sorghum is one of the main staple crops for the world's poorest and most food insecure people. The crop is genetically suited to hot and dry agro-ecologies where it is difficult to grow other food grains. Developing countries account for roughly 90% of the world's sorghum area and 77% of the total output [1]. In the developing countries, m
Heritability and Correlation among Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) Yield and Some Agronomic and Sugar Quality Traits in Ethiopia  [PDF]
Esayas Tena, Firew Mekbib, Amsalu Ayana
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.710139
Abstract: To assess broad sense heritability and phenotypic and genetic correlations among sugarcane yield components, an experiment was conducted at Wonji and Metehara Sugar Estates of Sugar Corporation of Ethiopia during 2012/2013. High broad sense heritability (h2) was detected for stalk diameter (0.730), single cane weight (0.672), millable cane number (0.624), stalk height (0.624) and pol % (0.608), indicating that these traits could be selected for easily. Expected genetic gain of the yield components was moderate to high. All traits had low to high genetic correlations (rg = -0.005 to 0.884) with cane yield and (rg = 0.027 to 0.999) with sugar yield. On average genetic correlations were higher than phenotypic correlations. High Genotypic Coefficient of Variation (GCV), broad sense heritability and expected genetic advance were recorded for stalk diameter, single cane weight and millable cane number. A selection strategy based on these traits could lead to improvement in cane and sugar yield.
Correlation and Path Coefficient Analyses in Sugarcane Genotypes of Ethiopia  [PDF]
Esayas Tena, Firew Mekbib, Amsalu Ayana
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.710141
Abstract: To study the relations of certain morphological and sugar quality characters with sugarcane yield, an experiment was conducted at Wonji and Metehara Sugar Estates, Ethiopia between March 2012 and October 2013. The experiment, comprising of 400 sugarcane genotypes of which 174 were local that were collected from different regional states of Ethiopia and 226 introduced, was laid out in partial balanced lattice design with two replications. Data was collected on cane yield and its components, sugar yield and sugar quality traits. ANOVA, correlation and path coefficient analysis were done. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences (P < 0.01) for all the characters studied. Cane yield showed strong positive and highly significant (P < 0.01) correlation with millable cane number (r = 0.832), single cane weight (r = 0.528), stalk height (r = 0.517) and sugar yield (r = 0.987). There was also positive significant (P = 0.05) correlation of tiller count and cane diameter with cane yield. Path analysis revealed the highest positive direct effect of millable cane number (0.812) on cane yield followed by single cane weight (0.682) and pol percent (0.550). However, stalk diameter and brix percent had considerable negative direct effects and indirect positive
Genetic Diversity of Quantitative Traits of Sugarcane Genotypes in Ethiopia  [PDF]
Esayas Tena, Firew Mekbib, Amsalu Ayana
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.710142
Abstract: Information about the amount and distribution of genetic variation in germplasm collections is important for their efficient management and effective utilization in plant breeding. Therefore this study was conducted to assess genetic diversity of sugarcane germplasm in Ethiopia. An experiment comprising of 400 sugarcane genotypes (174 local and 226 introduced) was conducted between March 2012 and October 2013 at Wonji and Metehara Sugar Estates using partial balanced lattice design with two replications. Data was recorded on 21 quantitative characters which included cane yield and its components, sugar yield and sugar quality traits. ANOVA portrayed highly significant differences (P < 0.01) among the genotypes for 21 quantitative traits. Cluster analysis revealed intra cluster D2 values ranging from 2.16 - 10.60 and inter cluster from 7.24 - 5864. There were six principal components accounting for 79.26% of the total variation in the tested materials. Millable stalk count, single cane weight, stalk diameter, cane yield, sugar yield and sugar quality traits showed high positive loading on the first two PCs and accounted for most of the variation observed among the genotypes. Therefore, this study suggested that the important characters responsible for diversity in the sugarcane genotypes could be grouped in two principal components namely “Yield” and “Quality” with “Yield” traits being comparatively more important than “Quality”. Genotypes clustered for high mean values of various traits could be exploited for further improvement of the crop either through selection or through hybridization. The clusters having high mean value for yield could be selected for yield per se as well.
In Vitro Screening of Cactus [Opuntia ficus-indicia (L.) Mill] Genotypes for Drought Tolerance  [PDF]
Berhan Mengesha, Firew Mekbib, Eyasu Abraha
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.713163
Abstract: Drought is one of the complex environmental factors affecting growth and yield of crops in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. In this context, this investigation was carried out to select drought tolerance cactus genotypes under in vitro condition. An experiment was carried out at Laboratory of Mekelle Agricultural Research Center, Northern Ethiopia. Six cactus pear genotypes namely, Gerao, Keyih Beles, Shenkor, Limo, Lemats Beles and Suluhna were used. Areoles were used as explants in tissue culture. The non-ionic water soluble polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG) of molecular weight 6000 was used as osmoticum to simulate water stress. In the first culture, the MS medium was supplemented with (2, 4-D (4 mg/l) and BA (0.5 mg/l) for callus induction. In all cultures MS medium was supplemented with 0, 10, 20 and 40 g/l polyethylene glycol (PEG) and was solidified with 0.8% agar and 30 g of sucrose. Significant differences were observed among the genotypes, PEG levels. In the first culture highest number of explants initiated callus on medium supplemented with no PEG but had not shown significant difference with 10 g/l PEG. At 10 g/l PEG, the callus induction frequency, callus fresh weight and plantlet regeneration were recorded highest for Suluhna (83.3%, 5.5 g and 63.3%), respectively. At 40 g/l PEG, callus induction frequency, callus fresh weight and plantlet regeneration were produced highest for Suluhna (41.7%, 2.75 g and 45%), respectively but no significant difference with Gerao, Limo and
Temporal and Spatial Factors Affecting the Nature of Genotype x Environment Interaction in Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) under Ethiopian Agro-Climatic Conditions: An Integrated Approach  [PDF]
Mebrahtom Ftwi, Firew Mekbib, Eyasu Abraha
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.87119
Abstract: Analytical approaches are important for identification the causes of Genotype x environment interaction (GEI) in multi-environment trials (MET). The objectives of this investigation were to explore the nature and causes of the GEI in sugarcane under Ethiopian agro ecological conditions. Data of Cane yield, recoverable sucrose% and sugar yield obtained from 13 test environments were subjected to Additive Main and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI2) for empirical study. For environmental characterization, mean values of twenty seven temporal and spatial factors were subjected to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Moreover, to identify the environmental factors affecting the patterns of GEI and its components, mean values of these factors were correlated with environment AMMI2 IPCA scores of the yield traits studied. Results of the present study indicated that the GEI accounted for larger variation than the genotypic effects which suggested its importance and complexity. The PCA bi-plot successfully identified the environmental factors that most discriminated the test environments (crop years and locations). The correlation analysis between the environmental factors and environmental AMMI2 IPCA scores adequately identified the environmental factors affecting GEI and its components. Soil organic matter% and soil clay%, pan evaporation at establishment, relative humidity at growth stage and harvesting month were the major factors that substantially affect the GEI interaction patterns in cane yield while maximum relative humidity recorded during the growing season, all temperature regimes recorded during the entire growing season and at different crop stages were the major factors that affect GEI in recoverable sucrose%. Moreover, the pattern of GEI in sugar yield was significantly affected by harvest age, percent of clay in soil, altitude, relative humidity at harvest and pan evaporation at establishment. For efficient environmental selection and networks, genotype evaluations and formulation of appropriate sugarcane breeding strategy, f METs should adopt the inclusion of these environmental factors identified as major factors influencing the patterns of GEI. Moreover, more information will be generated if other physiological and soil moisture stress indices are included in future GEI studies in sugarcane.
Correlation and Path Coefficient Analyses of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) Landraces in Ethiopia  [PDF]
Tesfaye Walle, Firew Mekbib, Berhanu Amsalu, Melaku Gedil
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2018.913202
Abstract: Understanding the nature and extent of association between yield and yield related traits is the prerequisite study for any underutilized crop improvements of sustainable genetic enhancement. However, there is a lack of sufficient information on seed yield and related trait correlation and path coefficient analysis of cowpea in Ethiopia. To fill the existing knowledge gap, the present study was conducted to determine the nature and extent of phenotypic and genotypic correlation and path coefficient analysis among 18 quantitative traits. A total of 324 cowpea landraces were tested in 18 × 18 simple lattice design at Melkassa Agricultural Research Center and Miesso sub center during 2016 cropping season. The magnitude of genotypic correlations was higher than phenotypic correlations in most traits at both locations; this implies that the traits under consideration were genetically controlled. Seed yield was positively and highly significantly correlated with most of the traits at phenotypic and genotypic levels, indicating the presence of strong inherited association between seed yield and the other 17 traits. Almost all traits genotypic direct and indirect effects were higher than the phenotypic direct and indirect effects; this indicated that the other traits had a strong genetically inherited relationship with seed yield. Genotypic path coefficient analysis revealed that days to flowering, biomass and harvest index at Miesso, and seed thickness, plant height, days to maturity and biomass at Melkassa had relatively high positive direct effect on seed yield. However, seed width and hundred seed weight had exerted negative direct effect on seed yield at each location. Phenotypic path coefficient analysis showed that biomass and harvest index had exerted high positive direct effect on seed yield at both locations. From these results it can be concluded from this study that seed yield in cowpea can be improved by focusing on traits pod length, seed length, seed thickness, seed width, biomass and harvest index at both locations. The information obtained from this study can be used for genetic enhancement of cowpea
Agromorphological Traits Variability of the Ethiopian Lentil and Exotic Genotypes
Fikru Mekonnen,Firew Mekbib,Shiv Kumar,Seid Ahmed,Tilak R. Sharma
Advances in Agriculture , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/870864
Abstract: Understanding the genetic relationships and diversity of Ethiopian lentil in relation to lentil from other countries is important in attempting to widen the genetic base of germplasm in the country. The objectives of this study were to generate information on agromorphological variability, to estimate PCV, GCV, heritability, and expected genetic advance of quantitative traits of lentil. 228 genotypes with different population types were studied for 11 agromorphological traits and rust disease severity score for two seasons (2011-2012) over three locations. The analysis of variance showed highly significant variations ( ) among genotypes for all characters studied. As per genetic parameter values, four groups of character were deduced. It is inferred that the exotic genotypes introduced from ICARDA showed rich genetic bases for 100-seed weight, number of seeds per plant, seed weight per plant, resistance source for rust, and high yielder in high yielding environment, where rainfall is not a major problem. Use the Ethiopian accessions for developing cultivars that could be used in double cropping and drought prone areas. 1. Introduction Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. subsp. culinaris) is a short, slender annual cool-season food legume. The center of origin of lentil is the Near East where it was first domesticated in the Fertile Crescent around 7000 BC [1]. According to Barulina [2], two varietal types based on seed size were recognized: the small-seeded microsperma and the macrosperma with relatively large flattened pods. The largest lentil producer is India, followed by Canada and Turkey, accounting for 68% of the global production [3]. In Africa, Ethiopia, Morocco, and Tunisia are the leading producers, but 61% of the areas and 68% of the production belong to Ethiopia [4]. Lentil is an important dietary source of macro- and micronutrients for both rural and urban dwellers. It provides sufficient amounts of the most essential amino acids to meet nutrient requirements. It is a cash crop fetching the highest price in domestic market compared to all other food legumes and major cereal crops [5]. Global, African, and Ethiopian lentil productivity is about 887?kg/ha, 644?kg/ha [3], and 1168?kg/ha, respectively [6]. Biotic and abiotic factors limit lentil productivity and seed quality. The major yield gap contributing factors are insect pests, diseases, low yielding landraces grown by farmers, and the narrow genetic base [7, 8]. Prior knowledge of genetic variability and characterization of genetic resources within the germplasm available at a gene bank has an
Efficacy and mode of action of yeast antagonists for control of Penicillium digitatum in oranges
Mekbib, Sissay B.;Regnier, Thierry J.C.;Korsten, Lise;
Tropical Plant Pathology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1982-56762011000400004
Abstract: three yeast antagonists (two strains of cryptococcus laurentii and one of candida sake) from orange trees reduced incidence of green mold by 80 to 95% when tested in wounded orange fruits inoculated with penicillium digitatum and incubated at 7oc for 30 days. the yeasts inhibited conidial germination of the pathogen, but did not kill the spores. effectiveness of the three yeasts as antagonists was associated in part with their ability to rapidly colonize wound sites, despite low nutrient availability. observations suggested that production of extracellular matrix by the yeasts may have facilitated rapid wound colonization. germination of p. digitatum conidia was significantly inhibited when the pathogen and antagonists were in direct physical contact in a culture suspension. the results supported the view that competition for nutrients is also a mode of action of yeasts against p. digitatum.
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