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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1107 matches for " Fiona Maisels "
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Response to ′Is the Displacement of People from Parks only ′Purported′ or is it Real?′ (Schmidt-Soltau 2009)
Curran Bryan,Sunderland Terry,Maisels Fiona,Asaha Stella
Conservation & Society , 2010,
Abstract:
Are Central Africa′s Protected Areas Displacing Hundreds of Thousands of Rural Poor?
Curran Bryan,Sunderland Terry,Maisels Fiona,Oates John
Conservation & Society , 2009,
Abstract: An ongoing debate over the impacts of protected areas on rural communities in central Africa has become increasingly polarized in recent years, even as definitions of displacement have shifted from outright expulsion to economic dislocation precipitated by lost access to natural resources. Although forcible removal of communities to make way for the creation of National Parks has certainly occurred in the past in some parts of the world, we contend that not a single individual has been physically removed from any of the protected areas created in central Africa over the past decade, despite claims to the contrary of hundreds of thousands of "conservation refugees." Furthermore, we recognize that a scarcity of data precludes impartial evaluation of the potential impacts of economic displacement of local communities living adjacent to protected areas, and we call for a concerted effort by conservationists and the social scientists who criticize conservation efforts, in order to measure the effects of protected areas on livelihoods, and to work towards a more socially responsible conservation paradigm.
Roadless Wilderness Area Determines Forest Elephant Movements in the Congo Basin
Stephen Blake, Sharon L. Deem, Samantha Strindberg, Fiona Maisels, Ludovic Momont, Inogwabini-Bila Isia, Iain Douglas-Hamilton, William B. Karesh, Michael D. Kock
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003546
Abstract: A dramatic expansion of road building is underway in the Congo Basin fuelled by private enterprise, international aid, and government aspirations. Among the great wilderness areas on earth, the Congo Basin is outstanding for its high biodiversity, particularly mobile megafauna including forest elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis). The abundance of many mammal species in the Basin increases with distance from roads due to hunting pressure, but the impacts of road proliferation on the movements of individuals are unknown. We investigated the ranging behaviour of forest elephants in relation to roads and roadless wilderness by fitting GPS telemetry collars onto a sample of 28 forest elephants living in six priority conservation areas. We show that the size of roadless wilderness is a strong determinant of home range size in this species. Though our study sites included the largest wilderness areas in central African forests, none of 4 home range metrics we calculated, including core area, tended toward an asymptote with increasing wilderness size, suggesting that uninhibited ranging in forest elephants no longer exists. Furthermore we show that roads outside protected areas which are not protected from hunting are a formidable barrier to movement while roads inside protected areas are not. Only 1 elephant from our sample crossed an unprotected road. During crossings her mean speed increased 14-fold compared to normal movements. Forest elephants are increasingly confined and constrained by roads across the Congo Basin which is reducing effective habitat availability and isolating populations, significantly threatening long term conservation efforts. If the current road development trajectory continues, forest wildernesses and the forest elephants they contain will collapse.
Forest Elephant Crisis in the Congo Basin
Stephen Blake,Samantha Strindberg,Patrick Boudjan,Calixte Makombo,Inogwabini Bila-Isia,Omari Ilambu,Falk Grossmann,Lambert Bene-Bene,Bruno de Semboli,Valentin Mbenzo,Dino S'hwa,Rosine Bayogo,Liz Williamson,Mike Fay,John Hart,Fiona Maisels
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0050111
Abstract: Debate over repealing the ivory trade ban dominates conferences of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Resolving this controversy requires accurate estimates of elephant population trends and rates of illegal killing. Most African savannah elephant populations are well known; however, the status of forest elephants, perhaps a distinct species, in the vast Congo Basin is unclear. We assessed population status and incidence of poaching from line-transect and reconnaissance surveys conducted on foot in sites throughout the Congo Basin. Results indicate that the abundance and range of forest elephants are threatened from poaching that is most intense close to roads. The probability of elephant presence increased with distance to roads, whereas that of human signs declined. At all distances from roads, the probability of elephant occurrence was always higher inside, compared to outside, protected areas, whereas that of humans was always lower. Inside protected areas, forest elephant density was correlated with the size of remote forest core, but not with size of protected area. Forest elephants must be prioritised in elephant management planning at the continental scale.
Forest Elephant Crisis in the Congo Basin
Stephen Blake ,Samantha Strindberg,Patrick Boudjan,Calixte Makombo,Inogwabini Bila-Isia,Omari Ilambu,Falk Grossmann,Lambert Bene-Bene,Bruno de Semboli,Valentin Mbenzo,Dino S'hwa,Rosine Bayogo,Liz Williamson,Mike Fay,John Hart,Fiona Maisels
PLOS Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0050111
Abstract: Debate over repealing the ivory trade ban dominates conferences of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Resolving this controversy requires accurate estimates of elephant population trends and rates of illegal killing. Most African savannah elephant populations are well known; however, the status of forest elephants, perhaps a distinct species, in the vast Congo Basin is unclear. We assessed population status and incidence of poaching from line-transect and reconnaissance surveys conducted on foot in sites throughout the Congo Basin. Results indicate that the abundance and range of forest elephants are threatened from poaching that is most intense close to roads. The probability of elephant presence increased with distance to roads, whereas that of human signs declined. At all distances from roads, the probability of elephant occurrence was always higher inside, compared to outside, protected areas, whereas that of humans was always lower. Inside protected areas, forest elephant density was correlated with the size of remote forest core, but not with size of protected area. Forest elephants must be prioritised in elephant management planning at the continental scale.
Fototerapia para la ictericia neonatal
M. Jeffrey Maisels,Antony F. McDonagh
Revista del Hospital Materno Infantil Ramón Sardá , 2008,
Abstract: Este artículo del Journal comienza con un caso de ejemplo que incluye una recomendación terapéutica. A continuación, se presenta una discusión del problema clínico y del mecanismo de beneficio de este tipo de tratamiento. También se comentan los principales estudios clínicos, el uso clínico de este tratamiento y sus posibles efectos adversos. Se presentan pautas formales relevantes, de existir. El artículo finaliza con las recomendaciones clínicas de los autores.
Parcerias entre Estado e Sociedade Civil para promover a seguran?a do cidad?o no Brasil
Macaulay, Fiona;
Sur. Revista Internacional de Direitos Humanos , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1806-64452005000100007
Abstract: this article examines the different modes of engagement between civil society and the state in the area of citizen security in brazil. it begins by considering both the progress made in opening up new spaces for civil society interventions (in the role of advisor, watchdog and even service deliverer) across a number of policy areas, and the specific difficulties posed by the criminal justice system. it continues by analyzing the activities of non-state organizations in two fields: policing and the prison system. it concludes that the danger of producer capture is much greater in the former, because police are suspicious of civil society monitoring of their role, and the culture of community policing has not yet taken hold. however, the prison system has been more open to change, with some very creative partnerships between the state and local ngos transforming the management and ethos of some small prisons.
Evaluating the Use of Optical Coherence Tomography in Optic Neuritis
Fiona Costello
Multiple Sclerosis International , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/148394
Abstract: Optic neuritis (ON) is an inflammatory optic nerve injury, which is strongly associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Axonal damage in the optic nerve manifests as retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) deficits, which can be readily quantified with optical coherence tomography (OCT). The RNFL represents the most proximal region of the afferent visual pathway; and, as such, is a unique region of the central nervous system (CNS) because it lacks myelin. Changes in retinal integrity can be correlated with reliable and quantifiable visual outcomes to provide a structural-functional paradigm of CNS injury. Because the eye provides a unique “view” into the effects of CNS inflammation, the ON “system model” may provide greater understanding about disease mechanisms, which underpin disability in MS. This review addresses the applications of OCT in study of ON patients, with specific reference to the published reports to date. The future role of OCT is discussed, both in terms of the potential gains and certain challenges associated with this evolving technology. 1. Optic Neuritis: An Overview Optic neuritis (ON) is an inflammatory optic nerve injury, which causes subacute onset vision loss in children and young adults. Much of our understanding regarding the clinical presentation of ON has been derived from the Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial (ONTT) [1]. This randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial compared the visual benefits of treatment with either intravenous methylprednisolone (250?mg every 6 hours for 3 days followed by oral prednisone (1?mg/kg per day) for 11 days), oral prednisone (1?mg/kg per day for 14 days), or oral placebo (for 14 days) in 457 patients with acute ON [1]. From the ONTT, we learned that most ON patients are young (mean age 32 years) Caucasian (85%) women (77%) [1]. Over ninety percent of ON patients report pain at the onset of vision loss [1] which is often characterized as an “ache” made worse with eye movements. Vision loss is generally acute, to sub-acute in onset progressing over a period of hours to days. The severity of vision loss may range from mild (Snellen equivalent of 20/20 vision) to no light perception (NLP) [2]. Dyschromatopsia or decreased color vision is quite common [2], and this finding can help localize the diagnosis in patients with relatively mild visual acuity deficits. Patients with unilateral ON often manifest a relative afferent pupil defect, unless there is coexisting optic nerve damage in the contralateral eye [2]. Visual field defects in ON correspond to the topography of the retinal nerve fiber layer
Managing Cardiovascular Risk Factors: The Gap between Evidence and Practice
Fiona Turnbull
PLOS Medicine , 2005, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0020131
Abstract:
Un acto más de la agricultura: Nostalgia y crítica del pasado franquista en Tranvía a la Malvarrosa de Manuel Vicent
Schouten,Fiona;
Olivar , 2008,
Abstract: the novel tranvía a la malvarrosa (1994) by manuel vicent evokes a nostalgic image of the past: the smells, colours, and sounds of 1950s valencia make the sentimental, professional and moral education of the protagonist appear highly attractive. however, while the novel's narrator remembers those days nostalgically, he simultaneously criticises the francoist regime that formed their background. the combination of a critical sentiment with a nostalgic one seems slightly paradoxical, but it can be supposed that criticism of the past contains and controls the emotional force of nostalgia. nonetheless, in this case it turns out that nostalgia ends up undermining the critical tone. in fact, the emphasis the narrator places on the dark sides of the past heightens his nostalgia, since it suggests a decadence that is attractive and intriguing.
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