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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 139789 matches for " Fiona K Brunton "
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Control of gag-pol gene expression in the Candida albicans retrotransposon Tca2
Elaine M Forbes, Sian R Nieduszynska, Fiona K Brunton, Joanne Gibson, L Anne Glover, Ian Stansfield
BMC Molecular Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2199-8-94
Abstract: The hypothesis was tested that in Tca2, gag stop codon flanking sequences direct translational readthrough and synthesis of a gag-pol fusion protein. Sequence from the Tca2 gag-UGA-pol junction (300 nt) was inserted between fused lacZ and luciferase (luc) genes in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae dual reporter construct. Although downstream of UGA, luc was expressed, but its expression was unaffected by inserting additional stop codons at the 3' end of lacZ. Luc expression was instead being driven by a previously unknown minor promoter activity within the gag-pol junction region. Evidence together indicated that junction sequence alone cannot direct UGA readthrough. Using reporter genes in C. albicans, the activities of this gag-pol junction promoter and the Tca2 long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter were compared. Of the two promoters, only the LTR promoter was induced by heat-shock, which also triggers retrotransposition. Tca2 pol protein, epitope-tagged in C. albicans to allow detection, was also heat-shock induced, indicating that pol proteins were expressed from a gag-UGA-pol RNA.This is the first demonstration that the LTR promoter directs Tca2 pol protein expression, and that pol proteins are translated from a gag-pol RNA, which thus requires a mechanism for stop codon bypass. However, in contrast to most other retroelement and viral readthrough signals, immediate gag UGA-flanking sequences were insufficient to direct stop readthrough in S. cerevisiae, indicating non-canonical mechanisms direct gag UGA bypass in Tca2.Retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements that replicate via an RNA intermediate. Their replication cycles and genome organisation are similar in many respects to those of retroviruses, and retrotransposons form a cytoplasmic virus-like particle during replication. Both groups of retroelements have a genome comprising gag and pol coding sequences. Gag proteins make up the capsid of the viral particle while pol encodes a polyprotein usually made up of
Medical Stakeholders’ Views on the Use of Packaged Charging Based on the Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) in the Proposed Healthcare Reform  [PDF]
Fiona Y. Y. Wong, Frank W. K. Chan, Su Liu
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2013.65032

The second stage consultation of healthcare reform in Hong Kong was launched in late 2010. One of the key features in the healthcare reform is the use of packaged charging based on Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) structure, for reimbursement of medical fees in order to enhance cost certainty and transparency in private healthcare services. The objective of the study was to investigate the comments, concerns and suggestions of medical practitioners and private hospitals about medical pricing based on DRG. A survey completed by 1100 medical practitioners, seven focus groups with 42 medical practitioners and six hospital administrators participated was conducted. Generally, the participants believed that DRG was more applicable to straight-forward and one-off treatment procedures. Those working in the private sector and non-Family Medicine specialists were more concerned about the desirability and feasibility of DRG, and the potential of control of pricing in private market. The practice of DRG-based pricing method in certain specialties and cases which required multiple examinations and procedures for diagnosis were discussed. Concerns about doctors’ selection of cases, upcoding and gaming on the charging system, as well as the high administration cost were also raised.

Book reviews
Brunton, Howard
Graellsia , 2006,
The imaging X-ray detector for Lobster-ISS
J. K. Black,A. N. Brunton,N. P. Bannister,P. Deines-Jones,K. Jahoda
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2003.08.015
Abstract: Lobster-ISS is a revolutionary astrophysical X-ray all-sky monitor scheduled for deployment as an attached payload on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2009. Using a new wide field-of-view focusing optic, Lobster-ISS provides an order-of-magnitude improvement in the sensitivity of all-sky monitors in the soft X-ray band (0.1-3.0 keV). This lobster-eye optic presents unique challenges to the imaging X-ray detector at its focus. Micro-patterned imaging proportional counters, with thier mechanical simplicity and high performance, are the most practical means of meeting the requirements. We describe our design for the Lobster-ISS imaging detector based on direct-imaging micro-well proportional counters and the expected performance.
Multifocal Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumour with Intradural Spinal Cord Lipomas: Report of a Case
Richard D. White,Avinash K. Kanodia,Esther M. Sammler,John N. Brunton,Craig A. Heath
Case Reports in Radiology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/734171
Abstract: We report a case of temporal lobe epilepsy and incomplete Brown-Sequard syndrome of the thoracic cord. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed multiple supratentorial masses with the classical radiological appearances of multifocal dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNET). Spinal MR imaging revealed intradural lipomas, not previously reported in association with multifocal DNET. Presentation and imaging findings are discussed along with classification and natural history of the tumour.
The Role of Effective Communication to Enhance Participation in Screening Mammography: A New Zealand Case
Margaret A. Brunton
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph6020844
Abstract: Changes in the organisation of health care have dominated policy initiatives over the past two decades in many countries. An increasing reliance on public health initiatives to prevent or detect disease early has resulted in an increase in programs that screen for cancer in the community. In turn, this accentuates the need to persuasively communicate the value of such initiatives to encourage continued participation. Merely placing screening programs into a community setting is not sufficient to ensure that adequate numbers will voluntarily participate regularly to achieve anticipated cost and mortality savings in the population. In this research the influence of managing communication in a public screening mammography program was investigated. The results revealed that significant opportunities were overlooked for reassurance and information during the physical mammography process. In turn, this highlights the influence of constraints imposed by the structure of the screening program and the resources allocated to the process. This research suggests that it is important to address multiple influences, including ethnic differences, when asking questions about the effectiveness of public health policy, particularly when considering the choices women make about ongoing participation in breast screening programs.
A comparison of microelectrodes for a visual cortical prosthesis using finite element analysis
Emma Brunton,Ramesh Rajan
Frontiers in Neuroengineering , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fneng.2012.00023
Abstract: Altering the geometry of microelectrodes for use in a cortical neural prosthesis modifies the electric field generated in tissue, thereby affecting electrode efficacy and tissue damage. Commonly, electrodes with an active region located at the tip (“conical” electrodes) are used for stimulation of cortex but there is argument to believe this geometry may not be the best. Here we use finite element analysis to compare the electric fields generated by three types of electrodes, a conical electrode with exposed active tip, an annular electrode with active area located up away from the tip, and a striped annular electrode where the active annular region has bands of insulation interrupting the full active region. The results indicate that the current density on the surface of the conical electrodes can be up to 10 times greater than the current density on the annular electrodes of the same height, which may increase the propensity for tissue damage. However choosing the most efficient electrode geometry in order to reduce power consumption is dependent on the distance of the electrode to the target neurons. If neurons are located within 10 μm of the electrode, then a small conical electrode would be more power efficient. On the other hand if the target neuron is greater than 500 μm away—as happens normally when insertion of an array of electrodes into cortex results in a “kill zone” around each electrode due to insertion damage and inflammatory responses—then a large annular electrode would be more efficient.
Economic Evaluation of Early Peach (Prunus Persica L. batsch) Commercial Orchard under Different Irrigation Strategies  [PDF]
Jesus García García, Jose García Brunton
Open Journal of Accounting (OJAcct) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojacct.2013.24014
Abstract: The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the economic response of different irrigation water levels in an early ripening peach variety. In this sense, we evaluate the economics and overall water use efficiency. The test is designed with 4 irrigation water strategies. The economic indices used that use net margin show that all the alternatives are viable although the control with its Net Margin (NM)/Cost (C) of 23.6% is of particular note. This is followed by R50, the highest deficit treatment, with an
NM/C of 16.0%. The mean production cost was almost identical in the optimal treatment (control) and the R50 deficit treatment, €0.69 and €0.70, respectively.
R50 was the most efficient treatment, with a Water Use Efficiency (WUE) of 5.54 kg·m-3. The NM m-3 as economic efficiency index was the greatest in the control (0.74 € m-3), followed by R50 (0.65 € m-3), while the other treatments were far from these figures. Peach cultivation generates a lot of employment and in all cases the Number of Agricultural Jobs (NAJ) ha-1 was around 0.59. As regards the social efficiency of water, the deficit treatments we applied reached high values in this respect, reaching 181 NAJ hm-3 in R50.

Identification and preliminary characterization of novel B3-type metallo-β-lactamases  [PDF]
Manfredi Miraula, Conor S. Brunton, Gerhard Schenk, Nata?a Miti?
American Journal of Molecular Biology (AJMB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajmb.2013.34026
Abstract: Antibiotic resistance has emerged as a major global threat to human health. Among the strategies employed by pathogens to acquire resistance the use of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs), a family of dinuclear metalloenzymes, is among the most potent. MBLs are subdivided into three groups (i.e. B1, B2 and B3) with most of the virulence factors belonging to the B1 group. The recent discovery of AIM-1, a B3-type MBL, however, has illustrated the potential health threat of this group of MBLs. Here, we employed a bioinformatics approach to identify and characterize novel B3-type MBLs from Novosphingobium pentaromativorans and Simiduia agarivorans. These enzymes may not yet pose a direct risk to human health, but their structures and function may provide important insight into the design and synthesis of a still elusive universal MBL inhibitor.
A Consensus-Based Policy Framework on Pharmacist-Led Self-Management Using the Delphi Process  [PDF]
Fiona Y. Y. Wong, Frank W. K. Chan, Joyce H. S. You, Eliza L. Y. Wong, Eng-Kiong Yeoh
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2012.53027
Abstract: Fragmentation of the healthcare system and lack of connectivity between in-hospital and community services, have posed an impact on management of patients with chronic conditions. As self-management is an essential component in chronic disease management model and pharmacists are underutilized in Hong Kong, this study developed a consensus-based policy framework on pharmacist-led self-management using a Delphi panel consisted of medical doctors, pharmacists, Chinese medicine practitioners and dispensers. We had studied a local population survey to understand the use of over-the-counter medication, conducted focus groups and telephone survey to explore the views of the four health professions and the general population, respectively, on pharmacist-led approach in self-management. The find- ings served as the base for developing the self-administered questionnaire in Delphi. A total of 19 experts completed the questionnaires and rated the validity and clarity of each statement in a 9-point scale. The Delphi process was completed in two rounds. Community pharmacists could only play an assisting role in patient self-management. They should focus primarily on drug-related issues and were suggested to work on lifestyle modifications collaboratively with physicians and nurses. The government has to develop supportive measures to enhance pharmacist-led patient self-management in the future.
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