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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3915 matches for " Filip Lim "
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HSV-1 as a Model for Emerging Gene Delivery Vehicles
Filip Lim
ISRN Virology , 2013, DOI: 10.5402/2013/397243
Abstract: The majority of viral vectors currently used possess modest cargo capability (up to 40?kb) being based on retroviruses, lentiviruses, adenoviruses, and adenoassociated viruses. These vectors have made the most rapid transition from laboratory to clinic because their small genomes have simplified their characterization and modification. However, there is now an increasing need both in research and therapy to complement this repertoire with larger capacity vectors able to deliver multiple transgenes or to encode complex regulatory regions, constructs which can easily span more than 100?kb. Herpes Simplex Virus Type I (HSV-1) is a well-characterized human virus which is able to package about 150?kb of DNA, and several vector systems are currently in development for gene transfer applications, particularly in neurons where other systems have low efficiency. However, to reach the same level of versatility and ease of use as that of smaller genome viral vectors, simple systems for high-titer production must be developed. This paper reviews the major HSV-1 vector systems and analyses the common elements which may be most important to manipulate to achieve this goal. 1. Introduction Although horizontal gene transfer has long been recognized as an important factor in microbial evolution (reviewed in [1–3]) it is only recently that it has been recognized as a widespread phenomenon also in multicellular eukaryotes [4–6]. Among the multitude of mechanisms which have been identified, viruses have played and continue to play one of the major roles in horizontal gene transfer, leading to the concept of evolutionary units not being only cellular genomes but rather the sum of these plus their associated viruses [7, 8]. Many different classes of viruses appear to have been implicated in the lateral transfer of transposable elements during eukaryotic evolution [4, 6, 9–11] and together with the fact that a large variety of virus types continue to infect our cells, it is clear that a myriad of molecular mechanisms exist for the genetic modification of mammalian tissues. Taking example from the exquisite specificity and efficiency of viruses to change the phenotype of the cells which they infect, attempts to make gene transfer tools have relied heavily on viral vectors (reviewed in [12–16]). This field of “vectorology” has followed a synthetic biology approach, using both natural and engineered components to construct gene delivery vehicles tailored to specific research or therapeutic aims. Understandably, most eukaryotic viral vectors currently being used are those derived
Neuronal Models for Studying Tau Pathology
Thorsten Koechling,Filip Lim,Felix Hernandez,Jesus Avila
International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease , 2010, DOI: 10.4061/2010/528474
Abstract: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent neurodegenerative disorder leading to dementia in the aged human population. It is characterized by the presence of two main pathological hallmarks in the brain: senile plaques containing -amyloid peptide and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), consisting of fibrillar polymers of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein. Both of these histological characteristics of the disease have been simulated in genetically modified animals, which today include numerous mouse, fish, worm, and fly models of AD. The objective of this review is to present some of the main animal models that exist for reproducing symptoms of the disorder and their advantages and shortcomings as suitable models of the pathological processes. Moreover, we will discuss the results and conclusions which have been drawn from the use of these models so far and their contribution to the development of therapeutic applications for AD. 1. Introduction: Alzheimer’s Disease, Neuropathology, and Clinical Characteristics Senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are the two main histopathological characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease. They were described for the first time by Alois Alzheimer in 1907, who discovered both structures in the autopsy of a brain from a patient who had exhibited severe cognitive impairment and memory loss. Although these hallmarks of the disease were established as long as a hundred years ago, the illness was not fully recognized as such due to the social dismissal of dementia as a normal part of the human ageing process [1]. From the late 1970s onwards however, extensive neurobiological research has been in progress to understand the disease and to develop therapeutic approaches. Today it is widely accepted that the basis for AD is biological and that senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are responsible for the inception of the disorder and also that especially the number of NFTs is proportionally related to the severity of the accompanying symptoms, such as memory loss, confusion, and cognitive failure. Plaques and tangles can be found post mortem mainly in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex but also in other areas of the brain important for cognitive functioning. Early and late onset AD as well as familial and sporadic AD are distinguished based on the time in life of the patient when symptoms first occur and the involvement of gene mutations or chromosomal aberrations that can be related to the disease, respectively. Nevertheless, in all cases the development of histopathological and behavioral symptoms is similar to
The 2nd Step by Step International Spinal Cord Repair—Combining research Step by Step into multi-pronged approaches for spinal cord repair  [PDF]
Maria Teresa Moreno-Flores, Francois Ferón, Victor Arvanian, Armin Blesch, Armin Curt, David J. Fink, Marina Mata, Kinichi Nakashima, Xavier Navarro, Francisco Javier Rodríguez, Michal Schwartz, Mikael Svensson, Erik Sundstrom, Joan Romero, Filip Lim
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.67A2003
Abstract: On April 26-27, 2013, the Step by Step Foundation hosted the Second International Spinal Cord Repair Meeting at the Fira Barcelona Convention Center in Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain, highlighting some of the exciting research including clinical trials which show promise for treatments for this devastating disorder. This meeting brought together clinicians, clinical scientists and molecular biologists from more than 10 countries to evaluate current knowledge on clinical, cellular, and biomolecular aspects of spinal cord injury. A major goal of the conference in advancing the translation of research data to the clinic was to promote multi-pronged approaches for therapy of this complex problem.
OPTIMASS: A Package for the Minimization of Kinematic Mass Functions with Constraints
Won Sang Cho,James S. Gainer,Doojin Kim,Sung Hak Lim,Konstantin T. Matchev,Filip Moortgat,Luc Pape,Myeonghun Park
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Reconstructed mass variables, such as $M_2$, $M_{2C}$, $M_T^\star$, and $M_{T2}^W$, play an essential role in searches for new physics at hadron colliders. The calculation of these variables generally involves constrained minimization in a large parameter space, which is numerically challenging. We provide a C++ code, OPTIMASS, which interfaces with the MINUIT library to perform this constrained minimization using the Augmented Lagrangian Method. The code can be applied to arbitrarily general event topologies and thus allows the user to significantly extend the existing set of kinematic variables. We describe this code and its motivation and demonstrate its use in the analysis of the fully leptonic decay of pair-produced top quarks using the $M_2$ variables.
A Local Currency in a Dollarized Economy  [PDF]
Sokchea Lim
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.35086
Abstract: The paper uses a dual-currency search theoretic approach to demonstrate that it is possible to induce the acceptance of a local currency in a dollarized economy. In the model, we assume that a foreign currency is in full circulation and the government policy tool is the convertibility of the local currency to the foreign currency. We show that the economy can achieve equilibria where two monies are in circulation if the government can raise a sufficiently high probability of exchange between the two currencies.
Taijin-Kyofu-Sho: A subtype of social anxiety  [PDF]
Leslie Lim
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.34042

Taijin-Kyofu-Sho (TKS) has long been considered as a Japanese culture-bound form of social anxiety disorder, although subsequent case-reports from countries outside Japan have dispelled this notion. There are subtle yet distinct differences between TKS and DSM-defined social anxiety disorder (SAD). For instance, the TKS subject fears causing offence to others, whereas the SAD subject is more fearful of causing embarrassment to him/herself. Four sub-categories of TKS have been recognised of which the Jikoshu-kyofu variety resembles the olfactory reference syndrome (ORS) known to Western psychiatrists. There are two TKS subtypes, general (or simple) and offensive (delusional). The general subtype resembles social anxiety disorder, whereas the offensive subtype is characterised by delusions. True community-wide prevalence is unknown, although clinic studies estimate between 7.8% to 45.5% patients have a diagnosis of TKS, with a slight male preponderance. Cultural and societal norms engendering guilt, shame, and embarrassment are likely etiological factors. Treatment may consist of antidepressant and/or antipsychotic medications, while some patients may also benefit from cognitive behavior therapy.

An Analysis of the Jonsei and Purchase Prices in the Korean Housing Market  [PDF]
Gieyoung Lim
Modern Economy (ME) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/me.2015.61007
Abstract: The primary purpose of this paper is to construct and estimate an econometric model for the Jonsei-to-Purchase price ratio (JPR), and to draw implications for the development in the Korean housing market. In particular, we are interested in: a) identifying regimes across which the ratio shows markedly different dynamic behavior; and b) drawing implications from the model for the recent increases in the ratio. Estimation of the model for the period 1987:Q1-2011:Q3 confirms the presence of two different regimes: one with the zero trend in the JPR, and the other with positive trend. Furthermore, it is found that cyclical variations play nontrivial role only in the first regime, while the movements of the JPR in the other regime are mostly governed by the trend component. We also find that the cyclical deviations of the ratio from its trend are corrected, if any, by the changes in the future purchase price.
The Growing Evidence for Photobiomodulation as a Promising Treatment for Alzheimer’s Disease  [PDF]
Lew Lim
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2018.612010
Despite the current belief that there is no effective treatment for Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), one emerging modality may change this belief: Photobiomodulation (PBM). It has credible mechanisms and growing evidence to support its case. Transcranial PBM for AD is a single intervention with multiple pathway mechanisms stemming from delivering low energy near infrared (NIR) light to the mitochondria in brain cells. The mechanisms involve the activation of gene transcription that lead to neuronal recovery, removal of toxic plaques, normalizing network oscillations that can lead to improved cognition and functionality. When PBM is delivered at 810 nm wavelength and pulsed at 40 Hz, early evidence suggests that very significant outcomes are possible. Literature related to PBM and AD has covered in vitro cellular, animal and human case reports, with promising results. They warrant robust randomized trials which are either ongoing or ready to start. The evidence in human studies is manifested in assessment scales such ADAS-cog, MMSE, and ADAS-ADL, and are supported by fMRI imaging and EEG.
Effects of Valine and Leucine on Some Antioxidant Enzymes in Hypercholesterolemic Rats  [PDF]
Elena Cojocaru, Nina Filip, Carmen Ungureanu, Cristiana Filip, Mihai Danciu
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.617266
Abstract: Objective: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the endothelial-mediated disorders within atherosclerosis. Considering that an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance might be a key factor in the damaging ROS-mediated effects, the present study intends to determine the influence of a high-fat diet, associated with essential amino acids—valine and leucine, upon the experimental animals, through evaluation of plasmatic level of some antioxidant enzymes. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 32 male Wistar rats, which were fed with cholesterol, valine and leucine, for 60 days. The animals were divided into four groups, according to the received diet: the first group—standard diet; the second group—cholesterol (C); the third group—cholesterol and valine (C + V); the fourth group—cholesterol and leucine (C + L). Evaluations of the oxidative status, through plasma levels of the antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidise (GPx), were made for the four mentioned groups of animals, at the beginning of the study (R0), after one (R1) and two months (R2). Results: The average values of SOD and GPx in group of animals fed exclusively with cholesterol (C) were significantly higher compared to the third group where cholesterol was supplemented with valine (C + V) or fourth group fed with cholesterol and leucine (C + L) (p < 0.001), after one month as well at the end of the experiment (two months). There were no significant differences in the levels of SOD and GPx between group III and group IV (p < 0.05) at the end of the experiment. Conclusion: Our results showed that valine and leucine decreased the serum levels of SOD and GPx and therefore they were useful antioxidants, which could improve the endothelial dysfunctions associated with atherosclerosis. Moreover, analysis of the oxidative status in the context of atherosclerotic mediated endothelial damage suggests that deviation from normal to alter endothelial status may be conditioned by an oxidants/antioxidants imbalance.
Porosity of Convex Nowhere Dense Subsets of Normed Linear Spaces
Filip Strobin
Abstract and Applied Analysis , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/243604
Abstract: This paper is devoted to the following question: how to characterize convex nowhere dense subsets of normed linear spaces in terms of porosity? The motivation for this study originates from papers of V. Olevskii and L. Zajíček, where it is shown that convex nowhere dense subsets of normed linear spaces are porous in some strong senses.
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