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Study of Diffusion through the Skin of Coated L-Ascorbic Acid by Fluid Bed Technology  [PDF]
Ferrándiz Marcela, Capablanca Lucía
Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences (JEAS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jeas.2017.72005
Abstract: Coating protects substances such as L-ascorbic acid from natural processes like oxidation. In this study, L-ascorbic acid was coated by fluid bed technology. A pH-dependent polymer was used as a coating material in order to release L-ascorbic acid (dissolution above pH 5.5) under conditions closest to the skin’s natural condition. Different techniques were used to determine the coating (SEM and size distribution) and to evaluate the percentage of coated L-ascorbic acid and its diffusion through the skin.
Microencapsulation of L-Ascorbic Acid by Spray Drying Using Sodium Alginate as Wall Material  [PDF]
Ferrándiz Marcela, Capablanca Lucía, Franco Esther, Mira Elena
Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences (JEAS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jeas.2016.61001
Abstract: L-ascorbic acid is a water soluble vitamin (vitamin C) widely used as an additive in foods and cosmetics. It has high instability against certain environmental factors; the main cause of its deterioration is oxidation. Microencapsulation is an effective protection technique of L-ascorbic acid from its degradation reactions. This work is focused on the encapsulation of L-ascorbic acid by spray drying technique using sodium alginate as wall material. The microcapsules morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the encapsulation efficiency was determined by spectrophotometric analysis. Results showed that encapsulation efficiency was of 93.48% and after 30 days was of 92.55%; differences were not significant, so that the stability of L-ascorbic acid was not affected. Encapsulation yields obtained were low, at around 30%, but the microcapsules morphology obtained is spherical.
Encapsulation of Almond Essential Oil by Co-Extrusion/Gelling Using Chitosan as Wall Material  [PDF]
Capablanca Lucía, Ferrándiz Marcela, López Ainhoa
Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences (JEAS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jeas.2017.71004
Abstract: Encapsulation confers protection to substances as essential oils from processes like oxidation, evaporation or uncontrolled release. In this study almond oil capsules were obtained by co-extrusion/gelling technique. Chitosan was used as shell material and sodium triphosphate pentabasic as cross linking agent. Different encapsulation process variables were studied: cross-linker concentration, nozzles size and potential. Optical microscopy was used to determine the capsules morphology and degradability tests were performed in order to study capsules degradation over time. Results showed that nozzles size and cross linking concentration are key variables to consider in the encapsulation process. Degradability tests showed rapid weight loss.
Microencapsulation of Lipase and Savinase Enzymes by Spray Drying Using Arabic Gum as Wall Material  [PDF]
Torres Andrea, Ferrándiz Marcela, Capablanca Lucía, Franco Esther, Mira Elena, Moldovan Simona
Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences (JEAS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jeas.2016.64012
Abstract: Enzymes have been used in detergents over the years. They can improve the detergent’s efficiency due to their activities against hard stains. Nevertheless, enzymes cannot maintain their properties indefinitely, since they are exposed to stress factors, like temperature, pH, mechanical processes and others. Consequently, enzymes lose their structure and they are not functional. For this reason, microencapsulating these proteins is a feasible solution to improve their use in industrial processes and commercial products. Spray drying technology has been selected because a lot of scientific literature proved its useful application in a variety of industries. In particular, savinase and lipase are the two encapsulated enzymes in this work. Savinase attacks proteins and lipase removes fats, so they are suitable enzymes for detergent industry. Arabic gum has been used as wall material. Morphology, size and activity of the obtained microcapsules have been analyzed in order to find the best conditions to produce them. In conclusion, useful microcapsules of lipase and savinase can be obtained with the mentioned technology.
Application of Antimicrobial Microcapsules on Agrotextiles  [PDF]
Marcela Ferrándiz, Lucia Capablanca, David García, Ma ángeles Bonet
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2017.61004
The aim of this work was to develop a functional biodegradable nonwoven with antimicrobial microcapsules maintaining the stability and biodegradability of the nonwoven for use in agriculture applications. The nonwoven was obtained using hemp fibers by Wetlaid technology. Microcapsules were prepared by co-extrusion/gelling method with alginate as shell and oregano oil as core material. The microcapsules were developed to protect and control release of oregano oil. Microcapsules were incorporated on the nonwoven by coating method using a natural polymer as a graft material. After incorporating micro-capsules, the nonwoven was subjected to several tests in order to determinate the microcapsules fixation and their functionality. The nonwovens were characterized for their antimicrobial activity against different kinds of bacteria and fungi. Nonwoven loaded with microcapsules was found to show good antimicrobial activity in comparison with nonwoven that was not loaded with microcapsules.
Microencapsulation of Rosemary Essential Oil by Co-Extrusion/Gelling Using Alginate as a Wall Material  [PDF]
Celia Dol?à, Marcela Ferrándiz, Lucia Capablanca, Esther Franco, Elena Mira, Fernanda López, David García
Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences (JEAS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jeas.2015.53010
Abstract: An essential oil is the volatile lipophilic component extracted from plants. Microencapsulation systems protect the essential oil from degradation and evaporation, and at the same time allow a sustained release. This work analyzed and characterized the rosemary essential oil microcapsules prepared by co-extrusion technique using alginate as wall material and calcium chloride as cross linker. Several instrumental techniques were used: optical microscopy, coulter counter, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), termogravimetric analysis (TGA), spectrophotometry, antimicrobial test and chromatography. Results show that rosemary oil has pesticidal properties, and its microencapsulation allows knowing that these properties remain inside the microcapsules.
Microencapsulation of Essential Oils by Interfacial Polimerization Using Polyurea as a Wall Material  [PDF]
Ferrándiz Marcela, Capablanca Lucía, Bou Eva, García David, Bonet Ma ángeles, Bartolome Luis
Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences (JEAS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jeas.2015.54014
Abstract: An essential oil is the volatile lipophilic component extracted from plants. Microencapsulation systems protect the essential oil from degradation and evaporation, and, at the same time, allow a sustained release. This work analyses and characterizes the oregano and sage essential oil microcapsules prepared by interfacial polymerization technique, using polyurea as wall material. Several instrumental techniques are used: optical microscopy, size particle, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Termo gravimetric analysis (TGA), spectrophotometry, antimicrobial test and chromatography. Results show that oregano and sage oil have antimicrobial properties, and their microencapsulation allows knowing that these properties remain inside the microcapsules.
Applicative Study (Part I): The Excellent Conditions to Remove in Batch Direct Textile Dyes (Direct Red, Direct Blue and Direct Yellow) from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorption Processes on Low-Cost Chitosan Films under Different Conditions  [PDF]
Vito Rizzi, Alessandra Longo, Paola Fini, Paola Semeraro, Pinalysa Cosma, Esther Franco, Rocío García, Marcela Ferrándiz, Estrella Nú?ez, José Antonio Gabaldón, Isabel Fortea, Enrique Pérez, Miguel Ferrándiz
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2014.44048
Abstract: In recent years the development of chitosan (CH) based materials as useful adsorbent polymeric matrices is an expanding field in the area of adsorption science. Even though CH has been successfully used for dye removal from aqueous solutions due to its low cost, no considerations have been made about, for example, the effect of changing the pH of chitosan hydrogelor about the dehydrating effect of Ethanol (EtOH) treatment of chitosan film on the dyes removal from water. Consequently in our laboratory we carried out a study focusing the attention, mainly, on the potential use of CH films under different conditions, such as reducing the intrinsic pH, increasing the hydrophobic character by means of ethanol treatment and neutralization of CH films to improve their absorption power. Textile anionic dyes named Direct Red 83:1, Direct Yellow 86 and Direct Blue 78 have been studied with the aim of reducing the contact time of CH film in waste water improving the bleaching efficiency. Neutralized acid CH film and longtime dehydrated one result to be the better films in dye removal from water. Also the reduction of the CH solution acidity during the film preparation determines the decreasing of the contact time improving the results. The effect of initial dye concentration has been examined and the amount of dye adsorption in function of time t, qt (mg/cm2), for each analyzed film has been evaluated comparing the long term effect with the decoloration rate. A linear form of pseudo-first-order Lagergren model has been used and described. The best condition for removing all examined dyes from various dye solutions appears to be the dehydration of a novel projected CH film obtained by means of the film immersion in EtOH for 4 days. Also CH films prepared by well-known literature procedure and neutralized with NaOH treatment appear having an excellent behavior, however the film treatment requires a large quantity of water and time.
Mass Graves, Landscapes of Terror
Ferrándiz, Francisco
Revista de Dialectología y Tradiciones Populares , 2009,
Abstract: The recent exhumation of mass graves from the Spanish Civil War and the Post-War years, mostly involving the largely abandoned graves of the Francoist rearguard, have become a central element in contemporary debates about the conflict and the regime following it. In this paper, the complexity and dynamism of this process is analysed, including from political and legal initiatives of great social and media impact to local actions on the ground, at times failed, ephemeral or almost imperceptible, but no less crucial. From the point of view of many of the people involved in the pro-exhumation associations, opening up the graves is part of a basic exercise in justice and ‘dignification’, showing the scope and systematic nature of repression while reverting the ‘infrahuman’ disposition of the executed corpses, a feeling crystallised in the common expression ‘thrown’ or ‘buried like dogs’, used very often to justify the need of carrying out exhumations. Politics of dignification and ‘rehumanization’ of these ‘incorrectly’ buried bodies are incorporating, in the last few months, elements drawn from international law, such as the concept of ‘crimes against humanity’. Las exhumaciones de fosas comunes de la Guerra Civil espa ola y la posguerra de la última década, muy especialmente de fosas abandonadas de la retaguardia franquista, se han colocado en un lugar central de los debates contemporáneos sobre la naturaleza y alcance de la contienda y el régimen que surgió de ella. En este artículo, se analiza la complejidad y dinamismo del proceso, que incluye desde iniciativas políticas y judiciales de enorme proyección pública y mediática, como la Ley de la Memoria o el controvertido auto de Garzón sobre los crímenes del franquismo, hasta acciones locales a veces fallidas, imperceptibles o efímeras, pero no menos cruciales. Desde el punto de vista de muchos de los actores sociales implicados en las exhumaciones, reabrir las fosas forma parte de un ejercicio básico de justicia y ‘dignificación’, al mostrar la magnitud y sistematicidad de la represión y revertir una situación insostenible de disposición ‘infrahumana’ de los cadáveres de las personas fusiladas, cristalizada en la expresión ‘tirados’ o ‘enterrados como perros’, usada con frecuencia para justificar las exhumaciones. Las políticas de dignificación o ‘rehumanización’ de estos muertos mal enterrados están incorporando en los últimos meses elementos provenientes del derecho transnacional, como el concepto de ‘crímenes contra la humanidad’.
Reference prices: The Spanish way
Jorge Mestre Ferrándiz
Investigaciones Económicas , 2003,
Abstract: El objetivo de este artículo es analizar los efectos de las políticas recién instauradas en el mercado farmacéutico espa ol: la promoción de medicamentos genéricos y la introducción de precios de referencia. Los principales objetivos de estas reformas son aumentar la competencia en precios y reducir el gasto público farmacéutico. El método espa ol para implementar precios de referencia alcanza estos objetivos, en comparación a un sistema de copago, si el precio de referencia se sitúa en un cierto intervalo. Además, los beneficios de las empresas productoras de medicamentos de marca y genéricos pueden reducirse.
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