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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2202 matches for " Ferdinand Che "
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Targeted Sensitization as a Strategy to Reducing Loan Default in Microfinance Bank Operations in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Shuaib Jalaludeen, Ferdinand Che, Fatima Jalal-Eddeen
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104275
Abstract:
Background: In Nigeria and other developing countries, the main reason for poverty and uneven income and wealth distribution is low economic growth performance and low labor returns amongst others. The growing gap between the rich and the poor in the developing countries is alarming hence the need for government and policy makers to focus more toward ensuring a fair distribution of wealth among its populace. Although progress has been made toward poverty reduction in Nigeria, still more needs to be done to narrow this unacceptable gap so as to achieve the needed economic and social growth for society to thrive. In an attempt to address this gap, the central bank of Nigeria came up with the microfinance policy in 2004 and the sole purpose was to give micro, small and medium enterprises access to informal financial services to boost their capacity towards economic growth and development. However, the biggest threat to operations of the microfinance institutions is loan default, a situation where the clients do not fulfill payment of their credit facilities when due. Methods: This mixed method cross-sectional study used a questionnaire to collect responses from eligible persons. The participants in the survey are clients from three randomly selected microfinance institutions in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria. The collated data were analyzed using SPSS version 24 and simple Microsoft Excel to look at reasons for defaulting loan repayment and whether targeted sensitization has any significant role in reducing loan default rates. Results: Out of the 150 (100%) questionnaires distributed, 70 (46.7%) were returned and used for the analysis. Reasons for default in repayments revealed short repayment period (40%), multiple loans (11.43%), high-interest rates (2.86%), family obligations (20%) and poor business turnover (25.71). Of the 52.86 percent of the respondents who claim they were contacted by their respective microfinance institutions for sensitization programs, 94.74 percent found the sensitization program helpful. Conclusion: This study has underscored the importance of targeted sensitization as an important strategy in reducing loan defaults in microfinance operations. Similarly, there is the need for further studies to look at the impact of multiple borrowing on loan repayment by the clients.
The Origin of Kurds  [PDF]
Ferdinand Hennerbichler
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2012.22008
Abstract: Kurds are traditionally regarded as Iranians and of Iranian origin, and therefore as Indo-Europeans, mainly, because they speak Iranian. This hypothesis is largely based on linguistic considerations and was predominantly developed by linguists. In contrast to such believes, newest DNA-research of advanced Human Anthropology indicates, that in earliest traceable origins, forefathers of Kurds were obviously descendants of indigenous (first) Neolithic Northern Fertile Crescent aborigines, geographically mainly from outside and northwest of what is Iran of today in Near East and Eurasia. Oldest ancestral forefathers of Kurds were millennia later linguistically Iranianized in several waves by militarily organized elites of (R1a1) immigrants from Central Asia. These new findings lead to the understanding, that neither were aborigine Northern Fertile Crescent Eurasian Kurds and ancient Old-Iranian speaker (R1a1) immigrants from Asia one and the same people, nor represent the later, R1a1 dominated migrating early Old-Iranian-speaker elites from Asia, oldest traceable ancestors of Kurds. Rather, constitute both historically completely different populations and layers of Kurdish forefathers, each with own distinct genetic, ethnical, linguistic and cultural backgrounds. These new insights indicate first inter-disciplinary findings in co-op- eration with two international leading experts in their disciplines, Iranologist Gernot L. Windfuhr, Ann Arbor, and DNA Genealogist Anatole A. Klyosov, Boston, USA.
Kar-daKI-ka 21st ce. B.C.E. Karda Land of Valiant Mountain People Central Zagros East Terminological Analysis  [PDF]
Ferdinand Hennerbichler
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2014.43021
Abstract:

The toponym “kar-daKI-ka” (“ma-da kar-daKI-ka”) means land of “Karda”, which derives most likely out of Akkadian “qarda” (“qurda”) for heroic, brave, valiant, and warlike (mountain) people. It was geographically located in ancient heartlands of the Guti(ans) in central Zagros east areas in Northwest Iran of today, and was documented in several late Sumerian UrIII sources at the end of the 3rd millennium B.C.E. from Girsu in south Mesopotamia. Origin and ethnic affiliations of the inhabitants of the land of “Karda” are not known. The term “kar-daKI-ka” was one of the oldest cuneiform expressions used by Mesopotamians to denote various indigenous Zagros hilly/mountain nomads of multi-ethnical origin in the North and the (North-)East, whom they regarded as warlike and also as uncivilized because they were at the time mainly not urban organized in contrast to lowland Mesopotamians. Available cuneiform sources indicated that Mesopotamians saw “kar-daKI-ka” in consecutive connection with Guti(ans): first, because of its location in the center of (former) dominating Guti power coalitions in areas of central Zagros (east); second, because of the image of its population as warlike, similar to Guti(ans) where (who) was (were) portrayed by Mesopotamians; third, because of further suggesting that its society(ies) could have been militarily orsganized, possibly migrating and temporarily prevailing inter-regionally (across the Zagros); and last but not least, because of its obvious geo-strategic importance even for far away late UrIII leaders of south Mesopotamia, regardless whether or not they effectively controlled the area which seems for the time in question unlikely. Mesopotamians used to describe the inter-connected ancestral habitat of various multi-ethnic Zagros mountain coalitions in a vague terminology, and in waxing and waning concepts who were influenced by changing policies. They did not see regions (lands) like “kar-da

Eroticism: Why It Still Matters  [PDF]
Ferdinand Fellmann
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2016.77098
Abstract: This article is about Eroticism as a key-concept in the psychological understanding of the human mind. The meaning of the term can be defined as follows: Eroticism is the way humans experience sexuality as a self-sufficient mental activity. Sexuality underlies different social rules in varying cultural contexts and may lead to different ways of thinking, but there is no evidence that cultural diversity actually leads to fundamentally different ways of feeling. The constant disposition for recreational rather than procreational sex makes eroticism a medium of human creativity. In this sense, eroticism is considered a central factor in the process of hominisation. The crucial cognitive competence which makes for the uniqueness of our species is due to the transformation of sexuality into eroticism and its disposition for social learning. In the animal kingdom, sex contributes to the welfare of the horde, while in human society eroticism contributes to individual self-recognition and paves the way to moral awareness. Methodologically, I plead for a cooperation of psychological and anthropological research, each utilizing and combining the complementary aspects of both approaches.
Memory and the Timeless Time of Eros  [PDF]
Ferdinand Fellmann
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.87063
Abstract: This paper deals with the perception of time. Chronometric time dominates the rhythm of modern daily life. But in the backstage the inner consciousness of time remains nearly unaltered. Hence, the task of phenomenological psychology is to resolve the paradox of the twofold perception of time. The key to the riddle is remembering. For the modern cognitive approach remembering is considered a construction which is made largely on the basis of chronometric time. I would argue instead that remembering is primarily a matter of feeling or affection. A strong affection is that of love, which overwhelms men and women with great intensity. This experience is analogous in structure and function to involuntary memory which surprisingly brings back lost sensations. When one compares the two famous examples of involuntary memory in the works of Marcel Proust and Henry Miller, the first thing that emerges is something of the nature of Epicurean Eros, the complement of Stoic Logos. According to this idea memory throws light on the timeless time of erotic love as the primary source of personal identity.
From Social Psychology to Cultural Psychology: The Redemption of Personality  [PDF]
Ferdinand Fellmann
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.810105
Abstract: This paper is about the relation between personality and society regarding the contrast between Eastern and Western cultures. I first explain the psychological bases for individual differences in general. I then turn to Western individualism, especially in Germany. The historical roots of individualization are discussed in reference to philosophers of life and psychoanalysts. For these thinkers the focus is on sexual life as the pivot of personal identity. Ancestor worship, on the other hand, is the Chinese way (dao) to humanity (ren). Consequently, European individualism and egalitarianism on the level of globalization are found to be the mirror opposite of the call to hierarchy and harmony (hé) in Chinese communitarian society. In the outlook that follows, I propose a new synthesis of the two different patterns of culture. Cultural psychology, as I understand it, occupies an intermediate position between individual psychology and social psychology, saving personality from being nivellized by global consumerism.
Well-Being East and West  [PDF]
Ferdinand Fellmann
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.67008
Abstract: In this paper, I will give the concept of well-being its broadest meaning possible. First, the external conditions of well-being will be listed. In a next step I shall analyze the internal presuppositions of a good life. Then ethical principles are considered in light of the natural pursuit of happiness. Finally I shall discuss how positive psychology will have to proceed to secure well-being for people even in difficult situations. The topic will be considered from two perspectives: from that of western philosophy, relying on Aristotle, and from that of eastern thinking, relying on Confucius. In Aristotle’s theory of virtue ethics, mesotes or golden mean is the desirable middle way between two extremes, that of excess and that of deficiency. Confucius taught a way of living in the middle that he called Zhongyong. Zhong means “bent neither one way nor the other”; yong means “unchanging.”
Future Options of the Kurds.1 Part I: The Current Situation  [PDF]
Ferdinand Hennerbichler
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2018.83009
Abstract: The Iraqi Kurdistan independence referendum on September, 25, 2017, initiated by Masoud Barzani, former elected President of the Kurdistan Region Iraq (KRI) (in office: June 13, 2005 to August 19, 2015) was not intended as the basis for a declaration of an independent Kurdish state in Northern Iraq in the foreseeable future. It was, rather, aimed at strengthening his own domestic political position as well as that of other leading politicians of the Barzani family and of the Kurdistan Democratic Party Iraq, currently leading the Kurdish Regional Government (KRG). The referendum aggravated the persisting constitutional crisis in Iraq since 2005 over as-yet unresolved crucial questions, above all regarding the status of Kirkuk and other “disputed territories”. The Iraqi Kurds lost to a great extent their influence over Kirkuk and about 40% of other “disputed territories” they were controlling before. On the regional domestic front, it polarized antagonisms among rivalling Kurdish parties, threatened to split the KRI again into two separate administrations and also deepened the ongoing severe economic KRG crisis. In geostrategic terms, it enabled the Islamic Republic of Iran to further extend its influence on Iraq and beyond effectively towards the eastern Mediterranean via pro-Iranian Shia-proxy-militias and, last but not least, it also intensified various crises in the Middle East and Eurasia2.
Future Options of the Kurds. Part II: Historical Background  [PDF]
Ferdinand Hennerbichler
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2018.83010
Abstract: The following second part of our analysis provides historical background information in order to better understand future options of the Kurds. We explain here in some detail why so far in contemporary history, virtually all efforts failed to achieve legitimate national rights for the Kurds and why they could and should not be repeated in the future. We basically show in sketched small historical chapters that Kurds to date could only win limited national rights, like some forms of autonomous regional self-rule. The reasons for that are in many aspects. Firstly, because they were used over centuries both by dominant central as well as foreign powers as proxies for their interests and also cooperated with them for own split aims. Second, because Kurds are chronically divided, constantly at loggerheads, disunited (Sheikhmous, 1992 & 2013: “united in disunity”) and fragmented. Thirdly, although they remain a considerable force of stability in Eurasia and the Middle East and are indeed underway to democracy they are still unable to come true majority rule of Western democracies. And last but not least, because they lack experience governing themselves and diplomacy to secure their own national rights with one strong united voice.
Social Research in the Light of the German Sociologist Georg Simmel in Comparison with Chinese Sociology  [PDF]
Ferdinand Fellmann
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.612020
Abstract: The German sociologist and philosopher Georg Simmel (1858-1918) is internationally known as the founder of Formal Sociology. I take the centenary of his death as a welcome opportunity to remember the beginning of modern social sciences. The current state of European and American relational sociology can be interpreted as a revival of Simmel’s method and principles of social research directed to a phenomenology of genesis. From the genetic point of view Simmel considers individuality, creativity, fragmentation and conflict the typical characteristics of modern society. Consequently, his Formal Sociology should be called “Genetic Sociology” instead of Relational Sociology. This paper has the aim to make Simmel’s legacy known to Chinese sociologists and cultural philosophers. Concluding, I highlight the essential differences between the German and the Chinese way of seeing the world of social life, and I propose issues for change.
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