Abstract:
A strong grasp in mathematics is a key factor in ensuring success in
mathematics education. This study tried to identify the difficulties in College
Algebra of freshmen students in the University of Eastern Philippines during
the school year 2013-2014 as basis for modular construction. The performance
level was determined by giving a teacher made test to find out the skill areas
students were deficient. The causes of their deficiencies were traced as basis
for constructing modules. In this study, the descriptive normative method of
research was used where the College of Science freshmen students were the
respondents. The performance level of the students in College Algebra based on
teacher made test given by the researchers was very low, the overall total
score of total score of the given items answered correctly by the students was
324, the average was 77.16 and the mean performance was 26.34. The result
showed that the mean performance was 26.34. The result showed that the mean
performance was very low without mastery. The students had almost no background
on the seven areas which resulted to their very low performance. They lacked
knowledge, competency and skills in answering questions especially in solving the
application of word problems which obtained a mean score of 2.99, followed by
special product and factoring, equations and radicals. The result of the study
showed that the students were deficient in the application of word problems,
special product and factoring, equations and radicals.

Abstract:
a subclinical mastitis study was conducted in nine dairy goat herds in the semi-arid region of paraíba state, northeastern brazil, to determine the occurrence of infection, to evaluate microbiological and cellular profiles of the milk, to test the sensitivity of isolated microorganisms to antimicrobials, and to identify risk factors. one hundred thirty-one dairy goats were used, 261 samples were collected for microbiological culture and 131 samples for somatic cells count (scc). during collection, the california mastitis test (cmt) was conducted and an epidemiological questionnaire was applied for each herd. there was bacterial growth in 30 samples (11.49%), with 25 (83.33%) coagulase-negative staphylococcus and five (16.66%) staphylococcus aureus isolated. the scc mean was 1.39x106 cells/ml. cmt presented low sensitivity (46.7%) and low specificity (60.6%) compared with microbiological culture. gentamicin and the association of neomycin, bacitracin and tetracyclin were the antimicrobials against which the microorganisms isolated showed 100% sensitivity. penicillin and ampicillin had the greatest resistance rates (66.67% and 63.89%, respectively). goat breeding is not the main activity on the farms and do not isolate diseased animals were identified as risk factors for caprine subclinical mastitis. program for the control and prophylaxis of mastitis must be implemented focusing primarily on hygiene cares at milking and correction of the risk factors identified in this study.

Abstract:
One conclusion of the decade-long epidemiological Global Burden of Disease Project is that five of the top 10 disease “burdens” the world will face by 2020 will be related to mental disabilities. Therefore, developing social policy and community responses to the ways that people with mental disabilities are treated is becoming an important focus for community practitioners, political activists and legislators. The author explores some of the dynamics of our culture’s approach to dealing with difference, especially when manifested in disenfranchized individuals. He discusses a community development project created by a New York City advocacy and social policy organization following the 1999 murder of a woman by an individual whose mental health disability was never treated. Parallels are drawn between the civil rights and community mental health movements, which created a precedent for the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act. Also examined are the ways in which community mental health systems manifest social policy that alternately resists, repeats and colludes with power operations. The unexamined assumptions that drive this dynamic are examined as ableism or disability oppression.

Abstract:
It is emphasized that quantum entanglement determined in terms of the von Neumann entropy operator is a stochastic quantity and, therefore, can fluctuate. The rms fluctuations of the entanglement entropy of two-qubit systems in both pure and mixed states have been obtained. It has been found that entanglement fluctuations in the maximally entangled states are absent. Regions where the entanglement fluctuations are larger than the entanglement itself (strong fluctuation regions) have been revealed. It has been found that the magnitude of the relative entanglement fluctuations is divergent at the points of the transition of systems from an entangled state to a separable state. It has been shown that entanglement fluctuations vanish in the separable states.

Abstract:
We investigate the evolution of entanglement in multiple-quantum (MQ) NMR experiments in crystals with pairs of close nuclear spins-1/2. The initial thermodynamic equilibrium state of the system in a strong external magnetic field evolves under the non-secular part of the dipolar Hamiltonian. As a result, MQ coherences of the zeroth and plus/minus second orders appear. A simple condition for the emergence of entanglement is obtained. We show that the measure of the spin pair entanglement, concurrence, coincides qualitatively with the intensity of MQ coherences of the plus/minus second order and hence the entanglement can be studied with MQ NMR methods. We introduce an Entanglement Witness using MQ NMR coherences of the plus/minus second order.

Abstract:
This paper concerns the problem of the high probability state transfer among $2^s$ symmetrically placed nodes of the $N$-nodes spins 1/2 chain with the ${XXZ}$ Hamiltonian. We consider examples with $(N,s)=(4,4)$, $(N,s)=(6,4)$ and $(N,s)=(8,8)$.

Abstract:
We extend the picture of a transfer of nuclear spin-1/2 polarization along a homogeneous one-dimensional chain with the XY-Hamiltonian to the inhomogeneous chain with alternating nearest neighbour couplings and alternating Larmor frequencies. To this end, we calculate exactly the spectrum of the spin-1/2 XY-Hamiltonian of the alternating chain with an odd number of sites. The exact spectrum of the XY-Hamiltonian is also applied to study the multiple quantum (MQ) NMR dynamics of the alternating spin-1/2 chain. MQ NMR spectra are shown to have the MQ coherences of zero and $\pm$ second orders just as in the case of a homogeneous chain. The intensities of the MQ coherences are calculated.

Abstract:
A quantum information processing device, based on bulk solid state NMR of the quasi-one dimensional material hydroxyapatite, is proposed following the magnetic resonance force microscopy work of Yamamoto et al (quant-ph/0009122). In a macroscopic sample of hydroxyapatite, our solid state NMR model yields a limit of 10^8 qubits imposed by physics, while development of current technological considerations should allow an upper bound in the range of hundreds to thousands of qubits.

Abstract:
Reported in this paper is the impact of the fluctuations of the geometry of the nano-meter gas containers in the medium on the NMR line shape of the gas inside of the nano-containers. We calculate exactly the NMR line shape of the gas of spin-1/2 carrying molecules for two typical dynamics of the nano-container volume and the orientation with respect to the external magnetic field: (i) for a Gaussian stochastic dynamics, and (ii) for the regular harmonic vibrations. For the Gaussian ensemble of static disordered containers having an infinite correlation time, $\tau_{\sf c} \to \infty $, the overall line shape is shown to obey a logarithmic low frequency asymptotics, $ I(\omega) = {const} \times \ln (\frac{1}{\omega})$, at $\omega \to 0$, and exponentially decaying asymptotics in a high frequency domain. For the Gaussian ensemble of the rapidly fluctuating containers of a finite $\tau_{\sf c}$, the overall line shape has a bell-shaped profile with $\sim \omega^{-4}$ far wing behaviour. In addition, we calculate exactly a satellite structure of the NMR line shape when the nano-bubbles in a liquid are affected by the harmonic deformations due to the acoustic waves.

Abstract:
Recently, it has been observed that the effective dipolar interactions between nuclear spins of spin-carrying molecules of a gas in a closed nano-cavities are independent of the spacing between all spins. We derive exact time-dependent polarization for all spins in spin-1/2 ensemble with spatially independent effective dipolar interactions. If the initial polarization is on a single (first) spin,$P_1(0)= 1$ then the exact spin dynamics of the model is shown to exhibit a periodical short pulses of the polarization of the first spin, the effect being typical of the systems having a large number, $N$, of spins. If $N \gg 1$, then within the period $4\pi/g$ ($2\pi/g$) for odd (even) $N$-spin clusters, with $g$ standing for spin coupling, the polarization of spin 1 switches quickly from unity to the time independent value, 1/3, over the time interval about $(g\sqrt{N})^{-1}$, thus, almost all the time, the spin 1 spends in the time independent condition $P_1(t)= 1/3$. The period and the width of the pulses determine the volume and the form-factor of the ellipsoidal cavity. The formalism is adopted to the case of time varying nano-fluctuations of the volume of the cavitation nano-bubbles. If the volume $V(t)$ is varied by the Gaussian-in-time random noise then the envelope of the polarization peaks goes irreversibly to 1/3. The polarization dynamics of the single spin exhibits the Gaussian (or exponential) time dependence when the correlation time of the fluctuations of the nano-volume is larger (or smaller) than the $<(\delta g)^2 >^{-1/2} $, where the $<(\delta g)^2>$ is the variance of the $g(V(t))$ coupling. Finally, we report the exact calculations of the NMR line shape for the $N$-spin gaseous aggregate.