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OALib Journal期刊

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Three New Species and New Records of Dennstaedtia Bernh. from Mesoamerica  [PDF]
Alexander Francisco Rojas-Alvarado, Federico Villalobos-Brenes
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105020
Abstract:
Navarrete & Ollgaard [1] indicated the presence of a “C” group within Dennstaedtia Bernh. that contains D. obtusifolia (Willd.) T. Moore, which is the type material of the genus Patania C. Presl and indicated that it could require taxonomic recognition. They also discussed the situation generated by other authors including D. cornuta (Kaulf.) Mett. and D. obtusifolia as synonyms for D. dissecta (Sw.) T. Moore and then separated them as valid species; however, they insist on mentioning variables within the mentioned species and indicated that other species could be included. As a result of this group’s review from Costa Rica, it was found that there are three easily distinguishable new species: D. axillaris A. Rojas, D. rectangularis A. Rojas and D. riparia A. Rojas. Also, D. cornuta is registered from Mexico and Guatemala, and D. sprucei T. Moore is registered from Costa Rica.
Viabilidad poblacional de Alouatta palliata (Primates: Atelidae) y Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae) en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal, Sarapiquí, Heredia, Costa Rica Population viability of Alouatta palliata (Primates: Atelidae) and Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae) at Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal, Sarapiquí, Heredia, Costa Rica
Jorge Rodríguez-Matamoros,Federico Villalobos-Brenes,Gustavo A Gutiérrez-Espeleta
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2012,
Abstract: La destrucción del hábitat conlleva a la fragmentación de poblaciones de especies silvestres y se considera como uno de los principales factores en la extinción de especies A medida que las poblaciones se vuelven más peque as, surgen amenazas hacia su estabilidad y persistencia, como resultado de factores estocásticos demográficos, ambientales y genéticos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar los efectos de la fragmentación de poblaciones en la viabilidad de Alouatta palliata y Cebus capucinus en el Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal (RVSPN), Sarapiquí, Heredia. Para esto se uso el programa VORTEX para correr un análisis de viabilidad de poblaciones (PVA) para ambas especies. La información utilizada en el PVA proviene de la estructura demográafica de las poblaciones del RVSPN, literatura sobre la historia natural de las especies y artículos relacionados con PVA. Los resultados sugieren que tanto A. palliata como C. capucinus pueden sobrevivir en fragmentos boscosos aislados. Sin embargo, si se incorporan factores como depresión por endogamia, catástrofes o perdida de hábitat, las peque as poblaciones fragmentadas se vuelven inestables y aumenta el riesgo de que desaparezcan. Las poblaciones continuas fueron más robustas ante las amenazas incorporadas, por lo que se recomienda continuar con la reforestación para unir los fragmentos boscosos. Es importante darle seguimiento a las poblaciones de ambas especies y tener un manejo de su hábitat para disminuir los efectos negativos de diferentes eventos estocásticos provocados por el ambiente. Population viability of Alouatta palliata (Primates: Atelidae) and Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae) at Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal, Sarapiquí, Heredia, Costa Rica. Habitat destruction may cause wildlife population fragmentation and is considered an important factor in small population species extinction. As wildlife populations become smaller, threats to their stability and persistence arise as a result of demographic, environmental and genetic stochastic factors. The aim of this work was to study the effects of population fragmentation on the long term viability of Alouatta palliata and Cebus capucinus populations, at Refugio de Vida Silvestre Privado Nogal, Sarapiquí (RVSPN), Heredia. For this we used the computer software VORTEX to run a population viability analysis (PVA) for both species. The input data of the PVA were taken from the demography structure of the RVSPN, literature sources from the species and from PVA related papers. We evaluated two sets of scenarios: small fragmented populati
Situaciones de salud bucal en personas adultas mayores: problemas y desafíos
Brenes,William; Hoffmaister,Federico;
Revista Costarricense de Ciencias Médicas , 2004,
Abstract: situation of oral health in elderly people: problems and challenges. the goal of the investigation is to identify the condition of oral health on elderly people. the research was developed by the recognition of personal oral health care, also evaluating the quality of dental prosthesis and the use of dental medical services on elderly people who attends clubs of social interaction in costa rica. the inquiry was developed through a prevalence study with the participation of 234 elderly people, male and female. all the participants are active members of 15 social clubs. the groups-or social clubs- where stratified by geographic and social conditions, related with the surroundings conditions, especially location. the results reveled by the investigation are: a) from the studied population elderly people, 53% has been lost the totality of their teeth, 38,4% has partial dental loss that requires a rehabilitation dental prosthesis for satisfy the chew capacity, b) from the elderly people who conserve a tooth at least, the active decay is prevalent in 77,7% and 52,9% have periodontal illness, 83,5% have a deficient control of the dental plaque, c) the evaluation of dental prosthesis results are that 63,9% of the superior dental prosthesis and 74,2% of the inferior dental prosthesis, need repairmen or being replaced. the most relevant conclusion of the research is elderly people oral healthcare can be catalogued as serious problem of public health. the accumulation of injuries by oral and dental problems reveled on the research, indicates that elderly adults require an expansion of dental medical service as well as preventing education actions of reduce the factors of risk of the oral diseases and stomatology prevalence in the elderly population.
Nueva visión de la conciliación en materia de familia y su relación con el interés superior del ni?o (a)
Escalante Barboza,Kattia; Brenes Villalobos,Maria Esther;
Medicina Legal de Costa Rica , 2004,
Abstract: in this essay we try to recognize that the conciliation model to apply in family matters is very complex, because it pretends to generate changes in the way that the family has been functioning up to certain moment, but it may result in benefits for the child?s superior interest. furthermore, we have to recognize that there is no room for improvisation in conciliating family matters. the operationalization of this procedure necessarily requires the realization of an strategic negotiation process and a conciliator?s profile with experience and knowledge in family conciliation matters. we have to consider that in order to make conciliations on this subject, there has to be a representation of the interests of the members that are to be affected with the decisions that are made, this implies the active participation of all the family members.
Nueva visión de la conciliación en materia de familia y su relación con el interés superior del ni o (a)
Kattia Escalante Barboza,Maria Esther Brenes Villalobos
Medicina Legal de Costa Rica , 2004,
Abstract: En este ensayo se intenta reconocer que el modelo de conciliación a aplicar en materia de familia es muy complejo, ya que pretende generar cambios en la forma en que ha funcionado la familia hasta ahora, pero que puede resultar beneficioso para el interés superior del ni o. Además hay que reconocer que no se puede improvisar una conciliación en materia de familia. La operacionalización de este procedimiento requiere necesariamente de la puesta en marcha de un proceso estratégico de negociación así como de un perfil de conciliador (a) con formación y experiencia en la materia de conciliación familiar. También se considerará que para hacer conciliación en ésta materia, debe existir representación de los intereses de los miembros que van a resultar afectados con las decisiones que se tomen, lo que implica la participación activa de todos los miembros de la familia. In this essay we try to recognize that the conciliation model to apply in family matters is very complex, because it pretends to generate changes in the way that the family has been functioning up to certain moment, but it may result in benefits for the child’s superior interest. Furthermore, we have to recognize that there is no room for improvisation in conciliating family matters. The operationalization of this procedure necessarily requires the realization of an strategic negotiation process and a conciliator’s profile with experience and knowledge in family conciliation matters. We have to consider that in order to make conciliations on this subject, there has to be a representation of the interests of the members that are to be affected with the decisions that are made, this implies the active participation of all the family members.
Abortos de semillas de Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Mimosoideae): efecto de la posición relativa dentro del fruto
Villalobos,Federico; Bianchi,Guillermo;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2000,
Abstract: we examined if seed abortion in guanacaste tree fruits (enterolobium cyclocarpum) is related to position within fruits by establishing the abortion ratio in 150 fruits from 10 trees, collected in santa rosa national park (guanacaste, costa rica). fruits were divided in basal, central and distal sections. we found marginal differences in abortion ratio between these sections (andeva, p= 0.058), and also among trees (p= 0.01). in general, the distal section had the greatest abortion ratio in relation to other sections. this abortion pattern could be caused by resource competition within siblings and not by genetic differences among them.
Abortos de semillas de Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Mimosoideae): efecto de la posición relativa dentro del fruto
Federico Villalobos,Guillermo Bianchi
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2000,
Abstract: We examined if seed abortion in Guanacaste tree fruits (Enterolobium cyclocarpum) is related to position within fruits by establishing the abortion ratio in 150 fruits from 10 trees, collected in Santa Rosa National Park (Guanacaste, Costa Rica). Fruits were divided in basal, central and distal sections. We found marginal differences in abortion ratio between these sections (ANDEVA, p= 0.058), and also among trees (p= 0.01). In general, the distal section had the greatest abortion ratio in relation to other sections. This abortion pattern could be caused by resource competition within siblings and not by genetic differences among them.
Cría de murciélago en la dieta de Trachops cirrhosus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) en Costa Rica
Vernun Arias,Federico Villalobos,José M Mora
Revista de Biología Tropical , 1999,
Abstract:
A phylogeny of howler monkeys (Cebidae: Alouatta) based on mitochondrial, chromosomal and morphological data
Villalobos,Federico; Valerio,Alejandro A; Retana,Axel P;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2004,
Abstract: the current taxonomic status of the species and subspecies belonging to the genus alouatta is addressed by combined phylogenetic analysis using morphological, kariotipyc and molecular data (mitochondrial genes cytocrome oxidase ii and cytochrome b). our result demonstrated that alouatta palliata is the most basal taxon for the genus in concordance with previous studies, as well as showing the validity of the taxon alouatta sara as a species. also our analysis shows that the sex chromosome has evolved from a xy/xx system to a x1x2y1y2/x1x1x2x2 system within the genus, as well as an increase in the size and complexity of the hioideal bone. rev. biol. trop. 52(3): 665-677. epub 2004 dic 15.
Panbiogeographical analysis of Costa Rican freshwater fishes
Herrera-Vásquez,Jonathan; Bussing,William; Villalobos,Federico;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2008,
Abstract: track analysis and parsimony analysis of endemicity (pae) were performed to analyze the distribution pattern of costa rican freshwater fishes. a basic matrix (presence/absence) was prepared using the distribution of 77 freshwater fish. the data were analyzed with clique software in order to find generalized tracks (cliques). data also were analyzed with the software nona and winclada version 1.00.08 in order to perform the parsimony analysis of endemicity (pae). fourteen equally probable cliques were found with 31 species in each and the intersection of the amount was selected as a generalized track dividing the country in two main zones: atlantic slope from matina to lake nicaragua and pacific slope from the coto river to the basin of the tempisque river connected with some branches oriented to the central part of the country. pae analysis found ten cladogram areas (72 steps, ci=0.45, ri=0.64), using the "strict consensus option" two grouping zones were identified: atlantic slope and pacific slope. both pae and track analysis show the division of the two slopes and the orientation of the generalized track suggests new biogeographical evidence on the influence of both old and new southern elements to explain the migrations of freshwater fish into central america during two different geological events. rev. biol. trop. 56 (1): 165-170. epub 2008 march 31.
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