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Experimental Approach to the Transmission of Information in Hypnosis  [PDF]
Edoardo Casiglia, Federica Albertini, Valérie Tikhonoff, Federica Gasparotti, Jacopo Favaro, Francesco Finatti, Panagiota Rempelou, Antonio Maria Lapenta, Paolo Spinella
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2018.91001
Abstract: The means by which information can be transmitted in hypnosis are debated. Aim of this pilot study was to induce and maintain hypnosis without the hypnotist and the subject being in the same room. In other words, we wanted to clarify, using measurable outcomes, if the hypnotic message could be conveyed through an electronic device. We studied 6 young healthy highly hypnotizable volunteers. After a session aimed at creating the rapport, each participant underwent an experimental session consisting in the execution of a cold pressor test (CTP) in basal awake condition, during hypnotic focused analgesia in the presence of the hypnotist (HFA-P) and during hypnotic focused analgesia suggested via transceiver (HFA-R). Cardiovascular monitoring was performed throughout the session. Perceived pain intensity and hemodynamic parameters during the CPT (baseline, 1st minute, end of the test) in the three phases of the experimental session were compared with paired t-test. During both HFA-P and HFA-R, perceived pain was nullified. The times of permanence in icy water significantly increased in comparison to non-hypnotic condition by 369.2% in HFA-P and by 394.3% in HFA-R. The systolic blood pressure × heart rate product increased in non-hypnotic conditions (+27.8%, p < 0.01, at the 1st minute; +35.3%, p = 0.01, at the end) but not during HFA-P (-1% and -0.2%, NS) or HFA-R (+7.3% and -1.6%, NS). In conclusion, hypnosis induced and maintained via transceiver was equivalent to that in the presence of the hypnotist. The hypnotic information therefore turned out to be more important than the means chosen to transmit it.
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Demonstrates That Hypnosis Is Conscious and Voluntary  [PDF]
Edoardo Casiglia, Francesco Finatti, Federica Gasparotti, Maria Rosaria Stabile, Micaela Mitolo, Federica Albertini, Antonio M. Lapenta, Enrico Facco, Valérie Tikhonoff, Annalena Venneri
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2018.97095
Abstract: Hypnosis is a condition of modified consciousness (monoideism) resulting from a mental representation able to produce psychological and physical effects. The general belief is that hypnosis is conscious and voluntary, but the practical demonstration of this hypothesis is far to be demonstrated. Twenty healthy highly hypnotizable volunteers were studied during through functional magnetic resonance imaging during a task. The task was necessary because functional magnetic resonance imaging gives no interesting results in neutral hypnosis. During the hypnotic task, the prefrontal dorso-lateral cortex, genual cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and orbital portion of the inferior frontal convolution (i.e. the Broadmann areas 9, 25, 32 and 47) were activated. Such areas are associated to egoic consciousness and voluntary processes. The results show that the hypothesis that hypnosis is conscious and voluntary is correct.
Granone’s Plastic Monoideism Demonstrated by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)  [PDF]
Edoardo Casiglia, Francesco Finatti, Valérie Tikhonoff, Maria R. Stabile, Micaela Mitolo, Federica Gasparotti, Federica Albertini, Antonio M. Lapenta, Annalena Venneri
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2019.104030
Abstract: Plastic monoideism is the supposed basis of hypnosis, but has never been experimentally demonstrated. The aim of the paper presented herein is to demonstrate that plastic monoideism exists and can be put in evidence by functional magnetic resonance (fMRI). To this aim, fMRI brain areas activation was examined in 20 highly hypnotizable young participants during a task represented by hypnotic analgesia. Inhibition of pain transmission from periphery to brain cortex was demonstrated during hypnotic analgesia by lack of activation of central somatosensory areas. At the same time, the Brodmann areas 9, 25, 32 and 47 were highly activated. This indicates that during a hypnotic task the iper-activity of certain brain areas inhibits the other ones. This is just, for the neurobiologist, what plastic monoideism is for the clinic hypnotist. The hyper-activated areas represent the physiological basis of the monoideism, which was therefore confirmed by brain imaging.
The Mysterious Hypnotic Analgesia: Experimental Evidences  [PDF]
Edoardo Casiglia, Edoardo Casiglia, Valérie Tikhonoff, Federica Albertini, Antonio M. Lapenta, Federica Gasparotti, Francesco Finatti, Augusto M. Rossi, Gastone Zanette, Margherita Giacomello, Nunzia Giordano, Jacopo Favaro, Enrico Facco
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2018.98112
Abstract: In the last years, the Laboratory of Experimental Hypnosis of the University of Padova and of the Institute Franco Granone of Torino, also in collaboration with the Foundation Hospital San Camillo in Venice, studied the effectiveness and the mechanisms of hypnotic analgesia in non-trigeminal an trigeminal pain. In this paper, the results of our work are summarized, starting from what was already known on the topic and exploring experimentally many different aspects of hypnotic analgesia. All the studies described in the present paper were conducted following scientific protocols and using the methods and means of Galilean science, employing in particular many instruments pertaining to human physiology and belonging to cardiology and neurology. This leads to the demonstration that hypnotic analgesia is an objective, real and measurable phenomenon.
Mechanical ventilation and volutrauma: study in vivo of a healthy pig model
Pastore,Camilla V; Pirrone,Federica; Mazzola,Silvia; Rizzi,Manuela; Viola,Manuela; Sironi,Giuseppe; Albertini,Mariangela;
Biological Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-97602011000300002
Abstract: mechanical ventilation is essential in intensive care units. however, it may itself induce lung injury. current studies are based on rodents, using exceptionally large tidal volumes for very short periods, often after a "priming" pulmonary insult. our study deepens a clinically relevant large animal model, closely resembling human physiology and the ventilator setting used in clinic settings. our aim was to evaluate the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in alveolo/capillary barrier damage due to mechanical stress in healthy subjects. we randomly divided 18 pigs (sedated with medetomidine/tiletamine-zolazepam and anesthetised with thiopental sodium) into three groups (n=6): two were mechanically ventilated (tidal volume of 8 or 20 ml/kg), the third breathed spontaneously for 4 hours, then animals were sacrificed (thiopental overdose). we analyzed every 30' hemogasanalysis and the main circulatory and respiratory parameters. matrix gelatinase expression was evaluated on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after surgery and before euthanasia. on autoptic samples we performed zymographic analysis of lung, kidney and liver tissues and histological examination of lung. results evidenced that high vt evoked profound alterations of lung mechanics and structure, although low vt strategy was not devoid of side effects, too. unexpectedly, also animals that were spontaneously breathing showed a worsening of the respiratory functions.
Effectiveness and Efficiency of Educational Measures: Evaluation Practices, Indicators and Rhetoric  [PDF]
Federica Cornali
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2012.23034
Abstract: In recent years, evaluating the performance of educational organizations has sparked increasing interest and debate. Many expectations ride on the smooth operation of school systems. It is widely believed that countries’ social and economic well-being will depend to an ever greater extent on the quality of their citizens’ education: the emergence of the so-called “knowledge society”, the transformation of information and the media, and increasing specialization on the part of organizations all call for high skill profiles and levels of knowledge. Today’s education systems are required to be both effective and efficient, or in other words, to reach the goals set for them while making the best use of available resources. This paper, by presenting and discussing a case study, will analyze several dimensions of schools’ effectiveness and efficiency, highlighting the importance of selecting evaluation procedures that can provide representations that reflect the actual situation to the greatest possible extent.
Reich e a possibilidade do bem-estar na cultura
Albertini, Paulo;
Psicologia USP , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-65642003000200006
Abstract: in an interview given in 1952 reich declared that freud's civilization and its discontents had been written as a reply to one of his conferences at freud's house on the prophylaxis of neurosis. inspired by reich's words, this paper aims at investigating which of his thesis could be put against freud's thought in civilization and its discontents. freud and reich's points of view are differentiated based on the notions of inevitable conflict (freud) and possibility of harmony (reich). the paper focuses on the notions of sexuality, aggressiveness and reactive formation.
Mafia links between the Balkans and Scandinavia. State of affairs
Matteo Albertini
Revista Romana de Studii Baltice si Nordice , 2012,
Abstract: The last twenty years has seen an increasing presence of Balkan organized crime groups in security reports and newspapers' headlines. This does not mean that mafia groups did not exist during Socialist Yugoslavia – even if its collapse and the following war made criminals and smugglers useful for politicians and leaders to maintain their power; it rather means that Balkan organized crime came outside its traditional areas of action in Serbia, Montenegro and Albania: less territorial and nationalist than it was before, it is now gaining prominence in an international scenario, making agreements with Italian and South American mafias – the so-called Holy Alliance – to manage drug routes towards Western Europe. One of the most interesting factors concerning Balkan mafia groups today is their presence in countries which traditionally do not have a history of organized crime, such as the Scandinavian states. One of the reasons lies in the wide percentage of immigrants moving from Balkan countries to Sweden or Norway. Since the wars of the 1990s in the former Yugoslavia, war-crimes fugitives were able to become common criminals in these countries, such as the infamous eliko Raznjatovi (“Arkan”). However, year by year, these gangs grew larger, taking advantage of the “expertise” and the resources gained during the war. In particular, the most spectacular case – the V stberga helicopter robbery in 2009 – showed how these groups operate with military-style precision, utilize a wide number of participants, and have at their disposal laerge amounts of weapons and money. This paper will draw on the importance of Scandinavian – Balkan mafia relations in relation to three main criminal areas: drug and weapon smuggling and human trafficking, in order to underline the role of diasporas in enforcing organized crime groups and the extent to which these mafias could be a threat for the stability in both Eastern and Western Europe.
Fateev-Zamolodchikov spin chain: excitation spectrum, completeness and thermodynamics
Giuseppe Albertini
Physics , 1993, DOI: 10.1142/S0217751X94001977
Abstract: The sector of zero $Z_{N}$-charge is studied for the ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) version of the $Z_{N}\times Z_{2}$ invariant Fateev-Zamolodchikov quantum spin chain. We conjecture that the relevant Bethe ansatz equations should admit, beside the usual string-like solutions, exceptional multiplets, and a number of non-physical solutions. Once the physical ones are identified, we show how to get completeness and the gapless excitation spectrum. The central charge is computed from the specific heat and found to be $c=2\frac{N-1}{N+2}$ (FM) and $c=1$ (AFM).
Direction dependent free energy singularity of the asymmetric six-vertex model
Giuseppe Albertini
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1023/A:1023285222161
Abstract: The transition from the ordered commensurate phase to the incommensurate gaussian phase of the antiferroelectric asymmetric six-vertex model is investigated by keeping the temperature constant below the roughening point and varying the external fields $(h,v)$. In the $(h,v)$ plane, the phase boundary is approached along straight lines $\delta v=k \delta h$, where $(\delta h,\delta v)$ measures the displacement from the phase boundary. It is found that the free energy singularity displays the exponent 3/2 typical of the Pokrovski-Talapov transition $\delta f \sim const (\delta h)^{3/2}$ for any direction other than the tangential one. In the latter case $\delta f$ shows a discontinuity in the third derivative.
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