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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 63 matches for " Fawzia Gharghar "
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11B NMR Spectroscopy of Lead Borate Glasses: Additive Effect of Cerium Oxide  [PDF]
Gomaa El-Damrawi, Fawzia Gharghar, Rawia Ramadan, Mohamed Aboelez
New Journal of Glass and Ceramics (NJGC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/njgc.2016.64007
Abstract: Glasses and glass ceramics in the system xCeO2·(50?-x)PbO·50B2O3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 50) have been studied, for the first time, by NMR and FTIR techniques. Effect of CeO2 substitution with PbO on NMR parameters has been discussed in terms of changing both boron and cerium coordination. The quantitative fraction of four coordinated boron (N4) has been simply determined from 11B NMR spectroscopy. On the other hand, the fraction of total tetrahedral structural units B4 (BO4 + PbO4 + CeO4) is obtained from FTIR spectral analysis. It is not possible to get the fraction of cerium oxide directly from the applied spectroscopic tools. Therefore, a simple approach is applied, for the first time, to determine CeO4 fraction by using the different criteria of both 11B NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The fraction of B4 species is equal to N4, within the experimental error, of the same glasses in the composition region of up to 10 mol% CeO2. On the other hand, there is a clear difference between both N4 and B4 values in glasses of higher CeO2 content (>10 mol%). The related difference showed a linear increasing trend with increasing the content of CeO2 in the glass. This was discussed on the bases of structural role of CeO2 which acts as a glass former in the region >10 mol%, while, at lower concentration, it consumed as a glass modifier.


More Insight on Structure of New Binary Cerium Borate Glasses  [PDF]
Gomaa El-Damrawi, Fawzeya Gharghar, Rawya Ramadan
New Journal of Glass and Ceramics (NJGC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/njgc.2018.81002
Abstract: The structure of glasses in the system of xCeO2(100?-x)B2O3, x = 30, 40, 50 mol% CeO2 has been explored for the first time by correlation between data obtained from XRD, FTIR and 11B NMR analyses. NMR spectroscopy andFTIR spectroscopy have confirmed that transformation rate of BO3 to BO4 groups is reduced by CeO2 addition.The concentration of Ce4-O-Ce4 is increased at the expense of
ADDRESSING THE SPECTRE OF CYBER TERRORISM: A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE
Fawzia Cassim
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad , 2012,
Abstract: This article looks at the definition of cyber terrorism and terrorist use of the Internet. The article evaluates cyber terrorist threats facing countries such as the United States of America, the United Kingdom, India and South Africa. The article also examines measures introduced by the respective governments in these countries to counteract cyber terrorist threats. Finally, the article will propose a way forward to counteract such possible threats in the future.The face of terrorism is changing. The convergence of the physical and virtual worlds has resulted in the creation of a “new threat” called cyber terrorism. Cyber terrorism is one of the recognised cyber crimes. The absence of suitable legal frameworks to address cyber terrorism at national and regional levels, the lack of adequate safeguards, the lack of cyber security strategies and the pre-occupation of countries with internal factors have all contributed to the creation of an environment that can be easily infiltrated by cyber terrorists. The horrific events of 9/11 provided the impetus for many countries to introduce anti-terrorist legislation. The United States of America, United Kingdom, India and South Africa have introduced legislation to address the threat of cyber terrorism.
Addressing the Challenges posed by Cybercrime: A South African Perspective
Fawzia Cassim
Journal of International Commercial Law and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: The South African common law has proven to be ineffective in addressing cybercrime. The Electronic Communications and Transactions Act, Act 25 of 2002 (“ECT”) was introduced to address inter alia cybercrime in South Africa. Whilst the advent of the ECT is lauded, there is room for improvement. To illustrate this, section 15 of the ECT which facilitates the admission of information in electronic format is laudable, but the criminal sanctions in the Act appear to be inadequate. Recent case law also reveals that the courts are adopting a cautious approach towards cybercrime cases. A call for a more clear and concise judicial guidance is required. The South African banking sector is also vulnerable to cybercrime. However, the establishment of organisations such as SABRIC to combat cybercrime in the banking industry is welcomed. Although South Africa has adopted the Council of Europe’s Convention in Cybercrime, it has not ratified the treaty. It is recommended that South Africa should ratify the treaty to avoid becoming an easy target for international cybercrime. This paper will deal with measures addressing cybercrime in South Africa and the way forward.
Morphology and Morphometry of the Lingual Nerve in Relation to the Mandibular Third Molar  [PDF]
Isaac Kipyator Bokindo, Fawzia Butt, Jameela Hassanali
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2015.51002
Abstract: The position and branching of the lingual nerve (LN) in the mandibular third molar region were documented in 30 head hemi-sections (16: right and 14: left). In all the dissections, the LN was found below the level of the posterior alveolar crest (PAC). Branching was observed in 26 (86.7%) of the 30 specimen in which one branch was most frequently given per hemi-section. All branches were located superior to the main trunk of the LN. The mean vertical distance of the LN from the PAC was 10.3 ± 5.2 mm (range: 2.8 - 19.9 mm) whereas the mean antero-posterior distance was 7.1 ± 2.8 mm (range: 1.3 - 15.6 mm). The mean mandibular height from the PAC was 28.7 ± 4.0 mm (range: 23.3 - 40.7 mm). The vertical distance and mandibular height correlated positively giving a ratio of 1:2.7 between the two parameters. There was no significant difference between the two sides of the head. Position of the LN differed from previous studies suggesting that ethnicity may have a role in morphometry of the nerve. Use of different methodology may also contribute to this. Branches of the LN being closer to the PAC may be more prone to injury than the main trunk during surgical treatment.
Effects of ethanol on the proteasome interacting proteins
Fawzia Bardag-Gorce
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2010,
Abstract: Proteasome dysfunction has been repeatedly reported in alcoholic liver disease. Ethanol metabolism end-products affect the structure of the proteasome, and, therefore, change the proteasome interaction with its regulatory complexes 19S and PA28, as well as its interacting proteins. Chronic ethanol feeding alters the ubiquitin-proteasome activity by altering the interaction between the 19S and the 20S proteasome interaction. The degradation of oxidized and damaged proteins is thus decreased and leads to accumulation of insoluble protein aggregates, such as Mallory-Denk bodies. Ethanol also affects the immunoproteasome formation. PA28a/b interactions with the 20S proteasome are decreased in the proteasome fraction isolated from the liver of rats fed ethanol chronically, thus affecting the cellular antigen presentation and defense against pathogenic agents. Recently, it has been shown that ethanol also affects the proteasome interacting proteins (PIPs). Interaction of the proteasome with Ecm29 and with deubiquitinating enzymes Rpn11, UCH37, and Usp14 has been found to decrease. However, the two UBL-ubiquitin-associated domain (UBA) PIPs p62 and valosin-containing protein are upregulated when the proteasome is inhibited. The increase of these UBL-UBA proteins, as well as the increase in Hsp70 and Hsp25 levels, compensated for the proteasome failure and helped in the unfolding/docking of misfolded proteins. Chronic alcohol feeding to rats causes a significant inhibition of the proteasome pathway and this inhibition results from a decreases of the interaction between the 20S proteasome and the regulatory complexes, PIPs, and the ubiquitin system components.
Nuclear effects of ethanol-induced proteasome inhibition in liver cells
Fawzia Bardag-Gorce
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2009,
Abstract: Alcohol ingestion causes alteration in several cellular mechanisms, and leads to inflammation, apoptosis, immunological response defects, and fibrosis. These phenomena are associated with significant changes in the epigenetic mechanisms, and subsequently, to liver cell memory. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is one of the vital pathways in the cell that becomes dysfunctionial as a result of chronic ethanol consumption. Inhibition of the proteasome activity in the nucleus causes changes in the turnover of transcriptional factors, histone modifying enzymes, and therefore, affects epigenetic mechanisms. Alcohol consumption has been associated with an increase in histone acetylation and a decrease in histone methylation, which leads to gene expression changes. DNA and histone modifications that result from ethanol-induced proteasome inhibition are key players in regulating gene expression, especially genes involved in the cell cycle, immunological responses, and metabolism of ethanol. The present review highlights the consequences of ethanol-induced proteasome inhibition in the nucleus of liver cells that are chronically exposed to ethanol.
Proteasome inhibitor treatment in alcoholic liver disease
Fawzia Bardag-Gorce
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2011, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v17.i20.2558
Abstract: Oxidative stress, generated by chronic ethanol consumption, is a major cause of hepatotoxicity and liver injury. Increased production of oxygen-derived free radicals due to ethanol metabolism by CYP2E1 is principally located in the cytoplasm and in the mitochondria, which does not only injure liver cells, but also other vital organs, such as the heart and the brain. Therefore, there is a need for better treatment to enhance the antioxidant response elements. To date, there is no established treatment to attenuate high levels of oxidative stress in the liver of alcoholic patients. To block this oxidative stress, proteasome inhibitor treatment has been found to significantly enhance the antioxidant response elements of hepatocytes exposed to ethanol. Recent studies have shown in an experimental model of alcoholic liver disease that proteasome inhibitor treatment at low dose has cytoprotective effects against ethanol-induced oxidative stress and liver steatosis. The beneficial effects of proteasome inhibitor treatment against oxidative stress occurred because antioxidant response elements (glutathione peroxidase 2, superoxide dismutase 2, glutathione synthetase, glutathione reductase, and GCLC) were up-regulated when rats fed alcohol were treated with a low dose of PS-341 (Bortezomib, Velcade ). This is an important finding because proteasome inhibitor treatment up-regulated reactive oxygen species removal and glutathione recycling enzymes, while ethanol feeding alone down-regulated these antioxidant elements. For the first time, it was shown that proteasome inhibition by a highly specific and reversible inhibitor is different from the chronic ethanol feeding-induced proteasome inhibition. As previously shown by our group, chronic ethanol feeding causes a complex dysfunction in the ubiquitin proteasome pathway, which affects the proteasome system, as well as the ubiquitination system. The beneficial effects of proteasome inhibitor treatment in alcoholic liver disease are related to proteasome inhibitor reversibility and the rebound of proteasome activity 72 h post PS-341 administration.
Prevalence and Comparative Morphological Study of Four Eimeria sp. of Sheep in Jeddah Area, Saudi Arabia
Fawzia H . Toulah
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: A total number of 100 sheep (Ovis aries) from Jeddah were scanned for their intestinal coccidian infection. Four Eimeria sp. were detected in 41% of the examined sheep. The Eimeria species detected were E. parva (31.7%), E. intricate (26.8%), E. arloingi (22%) and E. ovina (17.1%). Mixed infection with two Eimeria species was most common (36.59%), followed by multiple infection with three species (34.15%). Multiple infections with four Eimeria species (17.07%) while a single species (12.20%) were less common.
Patterns of salivary tumours at a university teaching hospital in Kenya  [PDF]
Jyoti Bahra, Fawzia Butt, Elizabeth Dimba, Francis Macigo
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2012.24049
Abstract: Salivary gland tumours (SGT) are rare, comprising about 5% of head and neck tumours with a higher incidence reported in the western compared with the African centres. There are few studies on SGTs that have been conducted in Africa. A descriptive retrospective study was done to describe the demographic characteristics, site distribution and histological patterns of SGT at a University teaching hospital in Kenya over a 12-year-duration. There were 132 SGTs out of 2426 biopsies of head and neck tumours, the age range was between 8 to 80 years (mean = 43.6 yrs) and the modal age was 50 yrs. The percentage of tumours arising from minor salivary glands (MiSG) (67%) were twice than that from the major salivary glands (MaSG) (33%). The sites most affected for the Misg was the palate and for the MaSG was the submandibular gland. Pleomorphic salivary adenoma (PSA) (40.2%) was the most common benign SGT while adenoid cystic carcinoma) (ACC) (20.5%) was the most frequent amongst the malignant type. The overall male: female ratio was almost 1:1. However, there were more females than males with benign SGTs, whereas an equal gender distribution was noted in malignant SGT. Benign and malignant SGT occur at a younger age. MiSGs of the palate were most frequent site of tumour and the least frequent is the sublingual gland. More than 50% of SGT were malignant and hence any SGT should raise a high index of suspicion.
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