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Public health laboratory systems development in East Africa through training in laboratory management and field epidemiology
Fausta Mosha, Joseph Oundo, David Mukanga, Kariuki Njenga, Peter Nsubuga
Pan African Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Laboratories are integral to the delivery of quality health care and for public health functions; however laboratory systems and services are often neglected in resource-poor settings such as the East African region. In order to sustainably strengthen national laboratory systems in resource-poor countries, there is a need to train laboratory personnel to work in clinical as well as public health laboratories. In 2004,Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, and South Sudan began training public health laboratory workers jointly with field epidemiologists in the Kenya Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP), and later through the Tanzania FELTP, as a strategy to strengthen public health laboratories. These programs train laboratory epidemiologists through a two-year public health leadership development course, and also offer various types of short course training for frontline staff. The FELTP laboratory graduates in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and South Sudan are working in their respective countries to strengthen public health laboratory systems while the short course participants provide a pool of frontline implementers with the capacity to support the lower tiers of health systems, as well as serve as surge capacity for the regions and the national level. Through training competent public health laboratory workers, the East African ministries of health, in collaboration with other regional partners and stakeholders are now engaged in developing and implementing a holistic approach that will guarantee an overall strengthening of the health system by using welltrained public health laboratory leaders to drive the process. Strengthening public health laboratory medicine in East Africa is critical to improve health-care systems. The experience with the FELTP model in East Africa is a step in the right direction towards ensuring a stronger role for the laboratory in public health. Pan African Medical Journal 2011; 10(Supp1):14
Gender differences in HIV disease progression and treatment outcomes among HIV patients one year after starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Fausta Mosha, Victor Muchunguzi, Mecey Matee, Raphael Z Sangeda, Jurgen Vercauteren, Peter Nsubuga, Eligius Lyamuya, Anne-Mieke Vandamme
BMC Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-38
Abstract: We conducted a cohort study involving HIV infected patients scheduled to start ART and followed up to 1 year on ART. Structured questionnaires and patients file review were used to collect information and blood was collected for CD4 and viral load testing. Gender differences were assessed using Kruskal-Wallis test and chi-square test for continuous and categorical data respectively. Survival distributions for male and female patients were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using Cox proportional hazards models.Of 234 patients recruited in this study, 70% were females. At baseline, women had significantly lower education level; lower monthly income, lower knowledge on ARV, less advanced HIV disease (33% women; 47% men started ART at WHO stage IV, p = 0.04), higher CD4 (cells/mul) count (median 149 for women, 102 for men, p = 0.02) and higher BMI (p = 0.002). After 1 year of standard ART, a higher proportion of females survived although this was not significant, a significantly higher proportion of females had undetectable plasma viral load (69% women, 45% men, p = 0.003), however females ended at a comparable CD4 (cells/mul) count (median, 312 women; 321 men) signifying a worse CD4 cell increase (p = 0.05), even though they still had a higher BMI (p = 0.02). The unadjusted relative hazard for death for men compared to women was 1.94. After correcting for confounding factors, the Cox proportional hazards showed no significant difference in the survival rate (relative hazard 1.02).We observed women were starting treatment at a less advanced disease stage, but they had a lower socioeconomical status. After one year, both men and women had similar clinical and immunological conditions. It is not clear why women lose their immunological advantage over men despite a better virological treatment response. We recommend continuous follow up of this and more cohorts of patients to better understand the underlying causes for these differences and whether this
Dengue and Chikungunya Fever among Viral Diseases in Outpatient Febrile Children in Kilosa District Hospital, Tanzania
Beatrice Chipwaza ,Joseph P. Mugasa,Majige Selemani,Mbaraka Amuri,Fausta Mosha,Steve D. Ngatunga,Paul S. Gwakisa
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003335
The Tanzania Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program: building and transforming the public health workforce
Peter Mmbuji, David Mukanga, Janeth Mghamba, Mohamed Ahly, Fausta Mosha, Simba Azima, Sembuche Senga, Candida Moshiro, Innocent Semali, Italia Rolle, Stefan Wiktor, Suzzane McQueen, Peter McElroy, Peter Nsubuga
Pan African Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: The Tanzania Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (TFELTP) was established in 2008 as a partnership among the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, National Institute for Medical Research, and local and international partners. TFELTP was established to strengthen the capacity of MOHSW to conduct public health surveillance and response, manage national disease control and prevention programs, and to enhance public health laboratory support for surveillance, diagnosis, treatment and disease monitoring. TFELTP is a 2-year full-time training program with approximately 25% time spent in class, and 75% in the field. TFELTP offers two tracks leading to an MSc degree in either Applied Epidemiology or, Epidemiology and Laboratory Management. Since 2008, the program has enrolled a total of 33 trainees (23 males, 10 females). Of these, 11 were enrolled in 2008 and 100% graduated in 2010. All 11 graduates of cohort 1 are currently employed in public health positions within the country. Demand for the program as measured by the number of applicants has grown from 28 in 2008 to 56 in 2011. While training the public health leaders of the country, TFELTP has also provided essential service to the country in responding to high-profile disease outbreaks, and evaluating and improving its public health surveillance systems and diseases control programs. TFELTP was involved in the country assessment of the revised International Health Regulations (IHR) core capabilities, development of the Tanzania IHR plan, and incorporation of IHR into the revised Tanzania Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) guidelines. TFELTP is training a competent core group of public health leaders for Tanzania, as well as providing much needed service to the MOHSW in the areas of routine surveillance, outbreak detection and response, and disease program management. However, the immediate challenges that the program must address include development of a full range of in-country teaching capacity for the program, as well as a career path for graduates. Pan African Medical Journal 2011;10(Supp1):9
Per un’“iconografia dell’assedio” nella cultura figurativa padana del XIV secolo For an “iconography of the siege” in the figurative culture of 14th century Po plain
Fausta Piccoli
Reti Medievali Rivista , 2007,
Abstract: Il tema dell’assedio di una città è raffigurato con una certa frequenza in affreschi e soprattutto in miniature o vignette illustrative di manoscritti. Esso sembra obbedire a convenzioni figurative piuttosto precise. Si tratta in genere di raffigurazioni ambientate nella contemporaneità (per quanto illustrino sovente fatti biblici o della classicità o della tradizione cavalleresca) di combattimenti di fronte alle mura, con numerose varianti. Minore attenzione è prestata alla realtà della città assediata, e alle reazioni dei cittadini. Si percepisce anche, verso la fine del Trecento, una maggiore attenzione alla dimensione ‘cortese’ e cavalleresca. The theme of the siege of a city is depicted with a certain frequency in frescoes and above all in miniatures or illustrated cartoons of a manuscript. It seems to obey rather precise figurative conventions. It generally deals with environmental portrayals simultaneously (for that which is frequently illustrated in biblical facts or the classicism or the tradition of chivalry) with battles in front of the walls with numerous variants. Less attention is paid to the reality of the city under siege and the reaction of the citizens. We also perceive that around the end of the fourteenth century, greater attention was paid to the “courteous” and chivalrous dimension.
Site Selection for an Earth Dam in Mbeere North, Embu County—Kenya  [PDF]
Fausta Mbura Njiru, David N. Siriba
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2018.67009
Abstract: Choosing a suitable site for dam is a crucial phase in dam construction. A successful outcome of this effort is initiated by taking into consideration some watershed properties and characteristics. This study aimed to investigate hydrological information for dam site selection by integrating GIS with AHP Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis to establish hydrologic characteristics of the region suitable for a dam construction. The method used was based on consideration of seven criteria which included topographic factors (slope), geological factors, soil type, catchment size, land cover, proximity to river and proximity to roads. Data from ASTER GDEM was utilized for generating various topographic parameters while Geological Maps from Kenya Department of Mines were used for depicting rock formation/structure. Soil data from ILRI was used to show the distribution of the various soil categories. Land cover, roads and river centrelines were also used. This data was processed in ArcGIS to generate thematic layers of each criterion, on which weight was assigned depending on the most important factor. Weighted overlay analysis was applied to obtain layers showing suitable sites for dam construction. A final suitability map was established showing four possible sites of highly suitable areas for dam construction, with a capacity of 8.3 million m3 to North East, 14.9 million m3 to West, 26.9 million m3 to North West and 269.2 million m3 to North East of the study area. The larger site was the most recommended due to its narrow formation of contour troughs and ridges allowing for various dam options.
La inconformidad subversiva: entre el pronunciamiento y el bandidaje: Un acercamiento a los movimientos rebeldes durante el tuxtepecanismo, 1876-1888
Gantús, Fausta;
Estudios de historia moderna y contemporánea de México , 2008,
Abstract: this article analyzes the porfirian universe, characterized by discontent, disagreement, criticism and protest, in other words, the other side of reality against which the regime engaged in a permanent struggle since its presence belied its attempts at modernization based on order and progress. the study focuses on 1888, regarded as a breakwater in the porfiriato, bearing in mind the fact that díaz shifted from the defense of the precept of non-reelection to the idea of the "necessary man" and the achievement of indefinite re-election. the author focuses on the ideas wielded by various sectors of society, in relation to the various corridors of power and the means used by actors to express their positions and claims. on the basis of the information obtained from newspapers of the day and the consultation of certain documentary collections, the author establishes an initial classification whereby it is possible to distinguish at least two forms of expression. the first group includes those within the framework of legality and respect for institutions while the second comprises those that go beyond this border, becoming subversive, which are those dealt with in this article.
La validità degli atti giuridici
Maria Fausta Maternini
Stato, Chiese e Pluralismo Confessionale , 2011,
Abstract: La voce è destinata alla pubblicazione, in lingua spagnola, nel Diccionario general de Derecho canónico edito dall’Instituto Martìn de Azpilcueta, Universidad de Navarra. SOMMARIO: 1. La validità dell’ atto giuridico in ambito privato - 2. Gli atti giuridici pubblici e il procedimento amministrativo che concorre alla loro formazione - 3 Le anormalità dell’atto.
Sospensione di potestà
Maria Fausta Maternini
Stato, Chiese e Pluralismo Confessionale , 2011,
Abstract: La voce è destinata alla pubblicazione, in lingua spagnola, nel Diccionario general de Derecho canónico edito dall’Instituto Martìn de Azpilcueta, Universidad de Navarra. SOMMARIO: 1. Il concetto di potestà nella Chiesa – 2. La sospensione di potestà quale atto amministrativo - 3. … in relazione al munus santificandi - 4. … in relazione alla potestà di magistero - 5 … in relazione alla potestà di governo.
Atti insanabili
Maria Fausta Maternini
Stato, Chiese e Pluralismo Confessionale , 2011,
Abstract: La voce è destinata alla pubblicazione, in lingua spagnola, nel Diccionario general de Derecho canónico edito dall’Instituto Martìn de Azpilcueta, Universidad de Navarra.
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