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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1915 matches for " Fat "
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Treatment of Steroid Induced Lipoatrophy with Structural Fat Grafting  [PDF]
Russell B. Stokes
Modern Plastic Surgery (MPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/mps.2012.21002
Abstract: Background: Systemic corticosteroid injections are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. Inaccurate placement of intramuscular injections of corticosteroid can result in local lipoatrophy, and a resultant cosmetic deformity. Objective: Describe the condition, and a simple, reproducible method of correcting the volume deficiency and skin changes associated with steroid induced lipoatrophy Methods: A retrospective chart review was undertaken of all patients treated by the author for steroid induced lipoatrophy between June of 2005 and March of 2011. Results: Structural fat grafting was used to treat 11 patients with steroid induced lipoatrophy during this time period. 10 patients were female and one was male. 9 of the patients had atrophy of the buttock or hip, and 2 had atrophy of the upper extremity. All patients had satisfactory correction of their deformities, and only one of the patients required a second grafting session to achieve an adequate volume for complete correction. Conclusions: Structural fat grafting can eliminate the volume deficiency and skin changes associated with steroid induced lipoatrophy. It is a straightforward, well tolerated method for correcting a problem which can be quite cosmetically deforming.
Changes in protein tyrosine phosphatase activity in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rats  [PDF]
Takayuki Yamaguchi, akeshi Ohta, Hisayo Morinaga, Takahiro Hata, Eimei Sato, Mutsuyoshi Matsushita
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2012.24035
Abstract: The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rat is a nonobese type 2 diabetic model, showing the overt hyperglycemia after about 16 weeks of age. In this study, we investigated the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) activities in insulin-sensitive tissues in SDT rats. PTPase activities in the liver, muscle, and fat were examined at 8 weeks (pre-diabetes), 16 weeks (onset-diabetes), and 24 weeks (diabetes). SDT rats showed glucose intolerance at 8 weeks and hyperglycemia after 16 weeks. The PTPase activities in fat increased at 8 weeks and the increase was sustained to 24 weeks. In the liver, PTPase activities increased only at 24 weeks. On the other hand, the PTPase activities in muscle did not change. The increase of PTPase activity in fat might be related to progression of glucose intolerance and diabetes in SDT rats.
Flaws, Fallacies and Facts: Reviewing the Early History of the Lipid and Diet/Heart Hypotheses  [PDF]
J. Elliott
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.519201
Abstract: The lipid hypothesis of coronary heart disease proposes that a high total cholesterol level has a causative role in coronary heart disease (CHD), specifically in the development of atherosclerosis. It forms the basis for formulating target levels of serum cholesterol and hence the widespread use of statins for lowering cholesterol. An extension of the lipid hypothesis is the diet/heart hypothesis of coronary heart disease. This theory combines two ideas—that saturated fat raises cholesterol levels, and that a reduced saturated fat intake will lower cholesterol levels, thereby inhibiting the development of atherosclerosis and manifestations of CHD. Those who make diet recommendations or prescribe medication to reduce cholesterol may be unaware of the underpinning science. The original research behind these recommendations has given us “healthy heart” guidelines and preventive measures we assume to be true. While the lipid and diet/heart hypotheses are often presented as fact, they remain inadequately proven theories that have little agreement from experts. Historical perspectives can help us understand the basis of current-day beliefs. In the lipid hypothesis case, research from the 1950s and 60s was instrumental in its formation. This early work should not be considered irrelevant, outdated or obsolete because current recommendations from national heart associations in many countries continue to be shaped by these studies. This paper examines evidence used to formulate the lipid hypothesis and, subsequently, the diet/ heart hypothesis. By critically evaluating steps in the formation of the theory, inconsistencies, mistakes and alternate explanations become apparent and cast doubt on its validity.
The association between body composition and self-reported co-morbidity in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  [PDF]
Erica P. A. Rutten, Per S. Bakke, Sreekumar G. Pillai, Scott Wagers, Thomas B. Grydeland, Amund Gulsvik, Emiel F. M. Wouters
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2012.22019
Abstract: Background: Differences in body composition are extensively investigated in subjects with COPD as low muscle mass was independently associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Also cardio-vascular co-morbidity is often reported in COPD and the contribution of fat mass in COPD related co-morbidity is gaining interest. We hypothesized that the prevalence of low muscle mass and high fat mass is higher in subjects with COPD compared to a group of current and former smokers without COPD, which result in higher reported cardiovascular co-morbidity in the COPD group. Methods: In 954 subjects with COPD and 955 subjects without COPD, body composition was assessed by bio-electrical impedance analysis and information on self-reported co-morbidity was collected. Participants were stratified for low fat free mass index and high fat mass index (resp. fat free mass index <10th percentile=\"\" and=\"\" fat=\"\" mass=\"\" index=\"\">50th percentile of the subjects without COPD). Results: Subjects with COPD were more likely to have low fat free mass index than current and former smokers without COPD. The prevalence of high fat mass index was comparable between the groups. The percentage of self-reported co-morbidity was higher in subjects with COPD, but only reports of myocardial infarction were disease specific. Conclusion: Low fat free mass index was more common in COPD, but the prevalence of high fat mass index was comparable between subjects with and without COPD. Nevertheless, subjects with COPD reported more myocardial infarction, implying that other factors than the amount of fat mass are involved in the increased co-morbidity in COPD.
STIR, SPIR and SPAIR techniques in magnetic resonance of the breast: A comparative study  [PDF]
M. Margarida Ribeiro, Liliana Rumor, Marta Oliveira, J. Goiry O’Neill, J. Cruz Maurício
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.63A050

The amount of fat is a component that complicates the clinical evaluation and the differential diagnostic between benign and malign lesions in the breast MRI examinations. To overcome this problem, an effective erasing of the fat signal over the images acquisition process, is essentials. This study aims to compare three fat suppression techniques (STIR, SPIR, SPAIR) in the MR images of the breast and to evaluate the best image quality regarding its clinical usefulness. To mimic breast women, a breast phantom was constructed. First the exterior contour and, in second time, its content which was selected based on 7 samples with different components. Finally it was undergone to a MRI breast protocol with the three different fat saturation techniques. The examinations were performed on a 1.5 T MRI system (Philips?). A group of 5 experts evaluated 9 sequences, 3 of each with fat suppression techniques, in which the frequency offset and TI (Inversion Time) were the variables changed. This qualitative image analysis was performed according 4 parameters (saturation uniformity, saturation efficacy, detail of the anatomical structures and differentiation between the fibroglandular and adipose tissue), using a five-point Likert scale. The statistics analysis showed that anyone of the fat suppression techniques demonstrated significant differences compared to the others with (p > 0.05) and regarding each parameter independently. By Fleiss’ kappa coefficient there was a good agreement among observers P(e) = 0.68. When comparing STIR, SPIR and SPAIR techniques it was confirmed that all of them have advantages in the study of the breast MRI. For the studied parameters, the results through the Friedman Test showed that there are similar advantages applying anyone of these techniques.

Development and Body Composition of Quarter Horse Foals during Nursing  [PDF]
Monica Miranda Hunka, Helena Emília Cavalcanti da Costa Cordeiro Manso, Ramona Bastos Bernardo, Elizabeth Regina Rodrigues da Silva, Lúcia Maia Cavalcante Ferreira, Hélio Cordeiro Manso Filho
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2014.411033
Abstract: The monitoring and development of foals, based on biometric indices, and the determination of body composition could be important for genetic improvement and the elaboration of nutritional plans for horses. Considering that little information was available, the aim of the present study was to assess the growth and determine the body composition of suckling Quarter Horse foals. Animals (n = 46) of both sexes were monitored monthly from birth until the fifth month of age, using an ultrasound device and the following measurements: Wither Height (WH); Chest Perimeter (CP); Cannon Bone Circumference (CBC) Cannon Bone Girth (CG); Body Mass (BM); and Rump Fat Thickness (RFT). These tests determined the Fat-Free Mass (FFM), BM, Fat Percentage (FP) and Fat Thickness (FT). The data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s test, with differences considered statistically significant when P ≤ 0.05. The results demonstrated that the parameters analyzed changed significantly during the study period. The BM was ~41 at birth and ~177 kg at the point of weaning. Conversely, the FM was ~3.8 at birth and 18.1 kg at the point of weaning. The FFM was ~37 and ~160 kg at the time of birth and weaning, respectively. The FP varied from 9.3 at birth to 9.54 at weaning. The mean FT was ~1.39 and ~1.91 cm at birth and weaning, respectively. The WH measured ~91 at birth and 116 cm at weaning. In conclusion, suckling foals gain BM quickly from the time of birth to the time of weaning. The main cause of this gain is FFM. Therefore, due to the significant changes in the parameters studied herein, it is important to monitor these values in order to prevent nutritional imbalances.
Creatine HCl and Creatine Monohydrate Improve Strength but Only Creatine HCl Induced Changes on Body Composition in Recreational Weightlifters  [PDF]
Elias de Fran?a, Bruno Avelar, Caroline Yoshioka, Jeferson Oliveira Santana, Diana Madureira, Leandro Yanase Rocha, Cesar Augustus Zocoler, Fabrício Eduardo Rossi, Fabio Santos Lira, Bruno Rodrigues, érico Chagas Caperuto
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.617167
Abstract: Background: Creatine supplementation is a subject that is very well studied. New forms of creatine are suggesting improvements in this supplement performance. Creatine HCl is supposed to have better solubility and absorption than creatine. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two different doses of creatine HCl with creatine monohydrate on the strength and body composition in recreational weightlifters and to verify the relationship between strength and body composition. Methods: 40 subjects were divided in four groups: Creatine Monohydrate (CMG) 5 g/daily; Creatine HCl-1 (HCl-1) 5 g/daily, Creatine HCl-2 (HCl-2) 1.5 g/daily and Control group (CG) = 5 g of resistant starch/daily. All groups performed a resistance training program during 4 weeks. Body composition and strength were evaluated pre and post intervention. Results: The 1 RM at the Leg press was increased significantly in all groups (CMG: pre = 264.4 ± 83.8 × post = 298.1 ± 90.9; HCl-1: pre = 295.0 ± 88.3 × post = 338.3 ± 86.8 and HCl-2: pre = 274.3 ± 57.1 × post = 305.7 ± 59.4; p< 0.05), Bench press 1 RM was increased significantly only in HCl-2 (pre = 72.4 ± 25.7 × post = 76.0 ± 25.0; p = 0.003), however, there was no statistically significant difference between groups. Fatmass was significantly decreased in HCl-1 (pre = 14.5 ± 8.0 × post = 13.3 ± 8.3; p = 0.034) and HCl-2 (pre = 13.8 ± 5.8 × post = 12.7 ± 5.6; p = 0.005) but fat-free mass was increased only in HCl-1 (pre = 52.2 ± 8.9 × post = 53.8 ± 8.9; p = 0.031), with no differences between groups again. We observed strong correlations between upper limb strength and fat mass (r = 0.93, p < 0.05), and between lower limb strength and FFM (r = 0.93, p < 0.05) only in HCl-1 group. Conclusions: We concluded that creatine HCl and creatine Monohydrate improve performance but only creatine HCl induces changes on body composition in recreational weightlifters with differences between creatine HCl doses.
Metabolic syndrome in men and women with upper or lower types of body fat distribution  [PDF]
Boris B. Pinkhasov, Vera G. Selyatitskaya, Ani R. Karapetyan, Elvira L. Astrakhantseva
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.412A200

The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome as a cluster of risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus and its individual components in groups of men and women with primary obesity having different types of fat distribution. The study involved 142 men and 185 women with primary alimentary-constitutional obesity. The study participants were divided into 2 groups depending on waist-to-hip ratio value. Standardized criteria were used to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its individual components among the examined men and women. The ratios of the number of participants with lower or upper type of fat distribution in men and women were 28:114 and 84:101, respectively. Hence the frequency of lower type of fat distribution was 19.7% in men and 45.4% in women (p < 0.000). Men with lower type of body fat distribution as compared to upper type were characterized by a lower prevalence of abdominal obesity (1.9 times), hypertriglyceridemia (1.4 times), low HDL-C (1.6 times), and hypertension (2 times). The frequency of metabolic syndrome in men with lower type of fat distribution was lower by 2.7 times than that of men with upper type of fat distribution. Women with lower type of fat distribution as compared to upper type had a lower prevalence of abdominal obesity (1.2 times), hypertriglyceridemia (1.8 times), low HDL-C (1.2-fold), and hypertension (in 1.5 times). The frequency of metabolic syndrome in women with lower type of fat distribution was lower by 1.9 times than that of women with upper type of fat distribution. Both men and women in the groups with lower type of fat distribution were missing such a component of metabolic syndrome as hyperglycemia i.e. they had the minimal risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Computed Tomographic Assessment of Body Fat in Dach-shunds: A Pilot Study  [PDF]
Jeffrey F. Comstock, Jennifer L. Wardlaw, Erin L. Brinkman-Ferguson, Dennis E. Rowe
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2013.31001

Obesity has not been linked to causing intervertebral disc degeneration, but has been shown to influence time to ambulation, a strong long-term prognostic indicator in dogs with intervertebral disc disease. However, monitoring obesity to date is imprecise and subjective in the clinical setting. Having an objective formula based on morphometric measurements would potentially be more precise to track our patients’ weights. Dogs have been shown to gain weight along their lumbar spine more rapidly than other areas. Varying body conformations make extrapolation from nonchondrodystrophic dogs to Dachshunds difficult. This study aimed to establish the region of fat accumulation along the thoracolumbar spine in Dachshunds. Retrospective computed tomographic (CT) analysis was performed on healthy Dachshunds that presented for intervertebral disc disease (IVDD). Fat area measured at L3 and L5 using attenuation ranges ﹣135/﹣105 Hounsfield units (HU) was the most dependent on body weight (p = 0.05). There appeared to be no difference between subcutaneous, visceral or total percent body fat with weight agreement. T13, L3 and L5 all had linear relationships with patient weight and will likely be helpful for body mass index (BMI) formula creation (p < 0.01). This study indicates that any consistent location between L3 and L5 will give an accurate representation of the abdominal circumference and most obese area of the Dachshund with the umbilicus used as a landmark.

The Effects of a Hyperinsulinemic-Euglycemic Clamp on Milk Fat Synthesis and the Expression of Fat Synthesis-Related Genes in the Mammary Gland Tissues of Lactating Goats  [PDF]
Xueyan Lin, Guimei Liu, Yabin Zhang, Zhengui Yan, Qiuling Hou, Kerong Shi, Yun Wang, Zhonghua Wang
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2016.74020
Abstract: To determine whether insulin exerts an effect on milk fat yield through the direct regulation of milk fat synthesis in the mammary gland, the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure was performed in lactating goats in the present study. The effects of the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp on milk yield, milk composition, milk fatty acid yield and the expression levels of mRNAs of milk fat synthesis-related genes were examined. The results revealed that the hyperinsulinemiceuglycemic clamp had no significant effect on the milk yield, the milk protein yield, the yield and content of lactose or the yield and content of solids-not-fat (SNF) (P > 0.05). In contrast, the milk fat percentage and milk fat yield were decreased by 35.3% and 33.6%, respectively (P < 0.01). Among the 19 fatty acids examined, the yields of 9 fatty acids were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) following the clamp procedure, including C16:0 (hexadecanoic acid), 3 fatty acids derived from blood (>C16) and 5 fatty acids synthesized de novo in the mammary gland ( 0.05), including acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), fatty acidbinding protein (FABP), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT). However, the expression level of the SCD gene was significantly reduced during the post-procedure period (P < 0.05) but returned to a normal level at 48 h after termination of the clamp procedure. It was concluded that the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp exerted a direct effect on milk fatty acid desaturation.
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