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Evaluating the Importance of Apoptotic Index, Mitotic Index and Turnover Index in Premalignant and Malignant Lesions of Cervix  [PDF]
Subhash Bhardwaj, Farooq Ahmed Wani
Open Journal of Pathology (OJPathology) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpathology.2015.52005
Abstract: Aim: To evaluate the premalignant and malignant lesions of the uterine cervix on light microscopy for apoptosis. To calculate and correlate the apoptotic index (AI), mitotic index (MI) and turnover index of the lesions. Materials and methods: A 2-year retrospective (November 2007 to October 2009) and 1-year prospective study (November 2009 to October 2010). A total of 95 cases of premalignant and malignant lesions of cervix were studied. The hematoxylin-eosin stained slides were screened for apoptosis under oil immersion lens. Apoptotic index (AI) was calculated as the number of Apoptotic cells and Apoptotic bodies, expressed as percentage of total no. of tumour cells counted in each case. Mitotic index (MI) was calculated by counting mitosis among 1000 tumour cells. Turnover index (TOI) was obtained by adding MI and AI, i.e., (TOI = MI + AI). After calculating, all these indices were correlated with different grades of the cervical lesions. Results: Premalignant lesions were divided into four subgroups. On statistical analysis, it was found that the difference in the apoptotic indices and turnover indices in all the four subgroups was not statistically significant. However for mitotic indices, significant statistical difference was found in Subgroup II (mild dysplasia vs. moderate dysplasia) with a p value of 0.03 and in subgroup IV (squamous metaplasia vs. moderate/severe dysplasia) with a p value of 0.0005. Within the malignant group, we compared well differentiated with less well differentiated subgroup. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in TOI between the two subgroups of malignant tumours (p = 0.04). Statistical comparison between premalignant and malignant group of lesions showed a highly significant difference between the AI, MI and TOI with p value of 0.0001. Conclusion: We conclude that proliferative and apoptotic indices are useful in distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions of the cervix. Proliferative activity of a lesion is a reliable indicator of its malignant potential and together with apoptotic count gives an idea about the net growth of a tumour.
Treating Schizophrenia with DOTS in Developing Countries: Author's Reply
Saeed Farooq
PLOS Medicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0040285
Leptochloa fusca cultivation for utilization of salt - affected soil and water resources in Cholistan Desert
Ahmad, Farooq;
Sociedade & Natureza , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1982-45132010000100010
Abstract: in the cholistan desert, 0.44 million hectares are salt - affected low lying and clayey in nature locally known as 'dhars', where rainwater as well as saline groundwater could be utilized for growing salt tolerant grasses like leptochloa fusca as forage during summer. l. fusca is a promising candidate grass for economic utilization and better management of sodic, high ph, saline soil and saline water resources of the cholistan desert. l. fusca is known to be a versatile, halophytic, primary colonizer, easily propagatable, perennial, nutritive and palatable forage plant species. the grass has the good biomass producing potential and can grow equally well both under upland and submerged saline soil environment.
Runoff farming in reducing rural poverty in Cholistan desert
Ahmad, Farooq;
Sociedade & Natureza , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1982-45132008000100012
Abstract: the proposed study strives to provide an overall picture for establishing a relationship of indigenous rainwater harvesting technology and its impact in poverty alleviation. the topographic form and the soil characteristics of cholistan is the best catchment area for rainwater harvesting. different profiles point out that the area is very poorly drained, capable of generating maximum runoff after absorbing minimum water. water intake characteristics of fine textured soils show that infiltration rate is low to very low. findings show that there is direct relationship between water availability and poverty reduction. study also sheds light on both strengths and limitations of the indigenous technology on reducing rural poverty and recommends using this technology along with modern water harvesting techniques.
An Analysis of Tax Buoyancy Rates
Farooq Rasheed
Market Forces , 2006,
Abstract: By using econometric techniques for estimating tax elasticities, this paper findssignificant but low tax buoyancy rates for GDP, M0 and volume of trade. Surprisingly,the theoretically important factor of tax evasion (SFTR) was found to be ineffective. Thisindicates that SFTR is not an adequate measure of tax evasion. There is no significantassociation between tax revenue growth and investment, credit, public debt and inflation.This illustrates the weakness of the tax regime in Pakistan.
The Professional Medical Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Objectives: .To assess the safety, potential efficacy, morbidity andmortality of a small tidal volume mechanical ventilation strategy designed to reduce stretch induced lung injury in ARDS.Design: A prospective interventional experimental Setting: CMH Rawalpindi:..Period: .1st Sept 2001 to 30th June2002. Material & Methods: ARDS is a disease associated with high rate of mortality. It was a prospective interventionalexperimental study of 50 patients who underwent ventilatory support at intensive care unit of a tertiary care teachinghospital Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Results: In both the Traditional Tidal Volume(TTV) and Small TidalVolume (STV) groups 15 of 26 patients [58%] achieved Reversal of Respiratory Failure (RRF). Of the patients whoachieved RRF, the mean number of days on positive pressure ventilation were 11.9±1.9 and 11.3 ± 2.2 days for theTV and STV patients respectively [not significant]. The mean number of days from the first day that weaning from MVwas allowed (when FI 02 was Keywords acute respiratory distress syndrome --- ARDS --- small tidal volume --- STV --- traditional tidal volume --- TTV --- reversal of respiratory failure --- RRF --- multiple organ dysfunction syndrome --- MODS
The Professional Medical Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Objectives To compare the combination of propofol ketamine , propofolfentanyl and propofol vs midazolam for TIVA in terms of haemodynamic changes, analgesia and recoverycharacteristics. Design A randomized clinical control trial. Setting CMH Rawalpindi. Period. September 2002 toAugust 2003.Material and Methods. The present study consisted of 75 patients of both sexes between the age groupof 18-55 years belonging to ASA grade I and II, who were scheduled for various short surgical procedures. Results.Combination of propofol and ketamine provides better haemodynamic stability throughout the procedure, whencompared to propofol fentanyl. Induction time was significantly shorter in the propofol group. Mean recovery time wassignificantly faster with propofol (12.3 min) compared to midazolam (20.4 min).. Conclusion. Combination of propofoland ketamine gives better haemodynamic stability during induction and maintenance of total intravenous anaesthesia.Both propofol and midazolam are safe and effective for TIVA in children. Recovery was faster and more comfortablefollowing propofol
The Professional Medical Journal , 2005,
Abstract: Superficial or total parotidectomy with preservation of the facialnerve has been commonly used for many years in the surgical treatment of parotid gland tumors. Objective: Duringdissection of the parotid gland variations are observed. The operating surgeon should be familiar with these variations,to reduce the incidence of post operative facial nerve paralysis. Setting: The study was conducted in the departmentof Anatomy, Quaid-e-Azam Medical College and Department of Surgery Bahawal Victoria Hospital Bahawalpur duringthe year 2001 to 2003. Material & Methods: Facial nerve was dissected in a total fifty seven specimens, 21 cadavers(bilateral) and 15 patients (unilateral). Their ages were between 25 to 65 years. Of these 9 were females and the restwere males. Results: In this study fifty seven parotid glands were dissected. Out of fifty seven patients, 89.5% hadfacial nerve configuration that could be classified into five main types & 10.5% did not fit into any of these categories.Type III was the commonest (36.7%) while type II & V were not present in any of the case dissected. Type I & IV wereseen in 26.3% of the dissected cases each. Conclusion: In parotid gland surgery if the branching variations are keptin mind, the surgeon will be safe from unpleasant surprises.
Farooq Ahmad
The Professional Medical Journal , 1997,
Abstract: Typhoid enteric perforation is a common surgical problem in our country and various methods of itstreatment are unsatisfactory. OBJECTIVES: 1. To compare the results of simple closure and wedge reaction.2. To evaluate and compare the post-operative complications. DESIGN: Prospective study SETTING:Bahawal Victoria hospital, Bahawalpur. PERIOD: June 1994 to March 1996. PATIENTS: 49 Laparotomyproven patients of single typhoid PERFORATIN. Methods: Sequentially one patient was treated b simpleclosure and other by wedge resection. Repair failure, intestinal fistula, burst abdomen, superficial woundinfection and intra-peritoneal abscess formation were compared following these two procedures. RESULTS:Complications after simple closure were wound infection 33%, leakage from repair 21% wound dehiscence37% and residual abscess 25% as compared to wedge resection where these complications were 8%, 4%,an4% and 8% respectively. Conclusions: Wedge resection is superior to simple closure and is recommendedas the procedure of choice in solitary typhoid perforation.
Muhammad Farooq
The Professional Medical Journal , 1999,
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To find out the incidence of post dural puncture headache in elderly patients after spinalanaesthesia with 25 gauge Quincke needle with Midline and Para-median approach. DESIGN: Retrospectivestudy. SETTING: Mayo, Hospital, Lahore General Hospital and Jinnah Hospital Lahore. PERIOD: Jan1996 to Sep 1998. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Elderly patients aging between 52 to 92 years. Patientswere divided ubti twi groups of 125 patients. (1) Group I Received 4 ml 0.5% bupivacaine /midline approach(2) Group II. Received 4 ml 0.5% bupivacaine/para-median approach. RESULTS: Thirty out of 250 patientsin group I versus 17/125 (13.6%) in para-median group had typical puncture headache.
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