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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 355 matches for " Fairness "
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The Biology of Fairness Revealed
Stephen M. Fleming
Opticon1826 , 2008, DOI: 10.5334/opt.050811
Abstract: Parents of quarrelsome siblings will know that the best rule for dividing up a cake is ‘whoever cuts chooses last’. This rule uses a child’s natural self-interest to engineer a fair outcome for all. As we grow up, such cunning strategies are no longer needed: generally, we seem to see virtue in fairness for its own sake, and share the cake accordingly. But when do we develop these desirable qualities? What is it about our biology or culture that leads us to be fair? Do other animals also tend towards selfless egalitarianism? In the past few years, compelling new evidence from the fields of economics, ethology and neurobiology has begun to provide us with answers to these questions.
Fairness Aware Group Proportional Frequency Domain Resource Allocation in L-SC-FDMA Based Uplink  [PDF]
Irfan Ahmed, Amr Mohamed
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2011.48060
Abstract: This paper presents virtual clusters based proportional fairness and resource allocation scheme for Localized Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (L-SC-FDMA). L-SC-FDMA has been selected as the uplink transmission scheme in 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) due to its low Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) over OFDMA in general and high rate-sum capacity over Interleaved SC-FDMA in particular. Virtual cluster-based proportional fairness (VCPF) scheduler exploits the link adaptation information available at MAC layer to form virtual clusters. The distributed proportional fairness scheduler ensures a minimum throughput for all users in the coverage area by assigning contiguous RBs, proportional to the throughput and the number of users in a particular cluster or group. Simulations have been performed using practical scenario of uniformly distributed users in Rayleigh faded coverage area and design formulas have been devised for network planning to get the best possible fairness with promising level of quality of service (QoS).
Un/Controlling Desire, Becoming Others Negotiating Justice in the Hong Kong Milieu of Mainland Pregnant Women Influx  [PDF]
Man-Chung Chiu
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2012.33012
Abstract: In the article, I attempt to construct a singular perspective of justice by comparing different paradigms of justice— Rawlsian philosophy, Buddhist ideology and Deleuzean theory in the context of Hong Kong where there has been increasing resistance among local people against the influx of Mainland pregnant women, who are regarded as outsiders depriving the local community the much needed local (medical) resources.
Procedural Utility in the Work Place, Evidence from Mexico  [PDF]
André Vargas
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.49104
Abstract: The concept of Utility usually refers to the satisfaction a person acquires by consuming, in general under circumstances bonded to income, and the price of goods. In a psychological vision of personal well-being, happiness and its components, consider the fact that people can value anything. This notion has led to the study of Procedural Utility, that means people not only value the outcome of something, but also values the process and conditions in which the outcome is achieved. Procedural Utility can be obtained from various economic procedures in which individuals are part of, e.g. Work and consumption among others. Evidence has been found that in the work place the fact of being attached to hierarchy generates negative Procedural Utility because it disrupts psychological precepts that determine happiness, well-being, or utility [1]. In other cases it has been found that the process on how a wage cut is done must be considered [2]. In the light of this phenomena, I’ll discuss the concept of Procedural Utility and analyze empirical evidence for the Mexican case with “Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Geografía” INEGI’s self-reported well-being survey (BIARE), with the finality to give suggestions on possible applications of processes to improve the worker’s satisfaction.
Fairness or Not? Health Resources Allocation in Chongqing—Based on Theil Index  [PDF]
Yu Wang, Qing Tu, Qin Lai, Li Huang
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.37020

Object: To Provide a basis for the government optimizing the allocation of health resources. Methods: The overall fairness was analyzed by Theil index and Gini coefficient. The main causes of unfairness were estimated by the decomposability of Thiel index. Results: Health resources owned by the “One-hour Economic Circle” were 1.5 - 2 times than that of the “Two wings”. Theil index and Gini coefficient of five health resources from small to large were sickbed, doctor, health worker, nurse, and medical equipment. Differences within region in the contribution rate of the total Theil index were greater than the difference between region and the tendency to expand. Conclusions: The total amount of the health resources in Chongqing is insufficient. The configuration of doctor is more equitable than nurse, while the medical equipment’ fairness is worst. Differences within region mainly cause the unfairness.

Santos Castro,Juan Samuel;
Eidos , 2008,
Abstract: the assumption of strict obedience, and other features of the well ordered society (wos), is a great idealization that rawls does from the actual and historical circumstances in which contemporary societies exist. from there comes the objection according to which the whole project of justice as fairness is just useless, for it has no purpose at all to know what would it be the principles of justice for a well ordered society that only exist in theory. the aims of this paper are to make clear the meaning of the well ordered society's assumption - the society which the ideal theory takes care of -; to point out the links between this kind of theory and the methodology of the political philosophy and the notion of feasibility; and to look again the useless objection in the light of the above considerations. before the useless objection, it is proposed a twofold answer that could be inferred from rawls work.
Zú?iga Fajuri,Alejandra;
Revista de derecho (Valdivia) , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-09502010000200006
Abstract: the right to health care protection still seems to require a justification against the public powers that refuse to guarantee equally to all people. this paper tries, from the theory of justice of john rawls, to insist on the powerful moral arguments that tries to found that the sanitary care is a "essential basic right".
La equidad y la imparcialidad en la reforma del sistema mexicano de salud
Gómez-Dantés,Octavio; Gómez-Jáuregui,Jesica; Inclán,Cristina;
Salud Pública de México , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342004000500006
Abstract: objective: to assess the equity and fairness of the mexican health system reform that occurred in the late 1990's. material and methods: the mexican reform process was evaluated using the benchmark-system designed by daniels et al. this benchmark system was adapted to the mexican setting by adding specific indicators. a documentary review of the mexican reform process was conducted to score its performance for each benchmark. results: except for housing and nutrition components, the reform included few actions related to health determinants. for health care, the main reform initiatives were those related to extending the coverage of essential health services and decentralizing health care provision to the states. reform initiatives included few activities related to fair financing, tiering, emphasis on second and third level care, accountability, and transparency. conclusions: the late nineties reform of the mexican health system had some positive effect on access of the poor to health care and administrative efficiency, but little impact on fair financing, quality of care, and democratic governance.
The assessment centre: testing the fairness hypothesis
D. N. Hurst,J. A. E. Charoux
South African Journal of Industrial Psychology , 1994, DOI: 10.4102/sajip.v20i2.574
Abstract: Accumulated international research reveals that assessment centre technology appears to be reasonably 'fair' based on race, sex, and age. Similar research on the assessment centre in South Africa is mostly unknown and/or un-documented. The sample of this study consisted of 317 white and disadvantaged males assessed at the supervisory level. The assessment centre predicted job performance for both the advantaged group (whites) as well as the disadvantaged groups (blacks and 'coloureds'). Similarly, in terms of deary's (1968) model of 'fairness', we found no evidence of bias in the predictive validity of the assessment centre for the two groups. Opsomming Geakkumuleerde internasionale navorsing toon dat die takseersentrum redelik 'billik' is ten opsigte van ras, geslag en ouderdom. Soortgelyke navorsing met betrekking tot die takseersentrum in Suid-Afrika is egter grootliks onbekend en ongedokumenteer. Die steekproef in die huidige studie bestaan uit 317 wit en minder bevoorregte mans wat op toesighouer vlak geevalueer is. Die takseersentrum voorspel werkprestasie vir beide die bevoorregte groep (Wit) en die minder bevoorregte groep (Swart en 'Kleurlinge'). In terme van Cleary (1968) se model van 'billikheid' is daar geen bewys van sydigheid in die voorspellingsgeldigheid van die takseersentrum vir die twee groepe gevind nie.
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: IP networks face bursty traffic and fewer packets are dropped with Active Queue Management (AQM). The link utilization also increases because less TCP global synchronization occurs due to the implementation of the AQM algorithm. The queue management will reduce the delays and jitter seen by flows only when the average queue size is small. Much of the traffic in existing packet networks is highly periodic, either because of periodic sources (e.g., real time speech or video) or a network-bandwidth limited TCP bulk data transfer. AQMs in an IP network with periodic traffic can result in systematic discrimination against some flows. Discrimination can result in a queue oscillation. This discrimination can be eliminated with the addition of appropriate flow information to the AQM in the network. This paper proposes an AQM algorithm called FEAVQCHOKe that corrects this bias against bursty traffic and achieves a higher and more stable throughput and performs better than current active queue management algorithms due to the lowest packet drops.
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