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Increased hypoxia-inducible factor 1α expression in lung cells of horses with recurrent airway obstruction
Marie Toussaint, Laurence Fievez, Christophe J Desmet, Dimitri Pirottin, Frédéric Farnir, Fabrice Bureau, Pierre Lekeux
BMC Veterinary Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-8-64
Abstract: In vitro, we observed that Hif is expressed in equine myeloid cells after hay dust stimulation and regulates genes such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A). We further showed in vivo that airway challenge with hay dust upregulated Hif1-α mRNA expression in myeloid cells from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of healthy and RAO-affected horses, with a more pronounced effect in cells from RAO-affected horses. Finally, Hif1-α mRNA expression in BALF cells from challenged horses correlated positively with lung dysfunction.Taken together, our results suggest an important role for Hif1-α in myeloid cells during hay dust-induced inflammation in horses with RAO. We therefore propose that future research aiming at functional inactivation of Hif1 in lung myeloid cells could open new therapeutic perspectives for RAO.Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) or heaves is a well-known respiratory disease in horses that shares any pathophysiological similarities with asthma in humans [1-3]. RAO is a severe, potentially debilitating, chronic inflammatory airway disease typically affecting middle-aged horses. Acute exacerbations are characterized by neutrophilic airway inflammation, coughing, periods of labored breathing at rest and exercise intolerance due to bronchospasm and mucus accumulation in the airways [4]. It is initiated following exposure to organic dusts, molds, and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in hay [5]. Periods of acute exacerbation are interspersed by periods of remission, when horses are kept away from the causative environment [3]. The immunological processes responsible for the persistent airway inflammation are still largely unknown [6]. RAO is thought to result from an aberrant immune response orchestrated by antigen-specific T lymphocytes via the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Whether these T lymphocytes have a type 1 or type 2 phenotype and cytokine secretion profile is still a m
Variation of inflammatory dynamics and mediators in primiparous cows after intramammary challenge with Escherichia coli
Adel Pezeshki, Philippe Stordeur, Hugues Wallemacq, Frédéric Schynts, Mieke Stevens, Philippe Boutet, Luc J Peelman, Bart De Spiegeleer, Luc Duchateau, Fabrice Bureau, Christian Burvenich
Veterinary Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9716-42-15
Abstract: The severity of coliform mastitis is of much more concern than its incidence [1]. Pathogen, cow and environment are three interdependent factors which influence the mastitis susceptibility [1]. From the various bacterial virulence factors studied during Escherichia coli mastitis [2], only a few have been found to play an important role in the outcome of the disease. It has been accepted that the type of E. coli strain is not the main factor in classification of severity. Preventive treatments which are efficient against contagious mastitis have been shown to be inefficient in the control of E. coli mastitis [3]. The severity of bovine E. coli mastitis is mainly determined by cow factors rather than by the pathogenecity of the invading pathogen and management [1]. It is known that the growth of E. coli in the udder cistern is specially related with the period of lactation and parity of cows. E. coli mastitis with severe clinical symptoms is more frequently observed around calving and during early lactation in dairy cows, whereas symptoms are mild to moderate during mid and late lactation. Because of hormonal, metabolic and nutritional alterations associated with pregnancy, immune system is compromised around calving (reviewed by Pezeshki et al. [4]). Cow parity is another important physiological factor that influences the severity of clinical coliform mastitis [5,6]. Clinical severe cases of coliform mastitis are mostly seen among multiparous cows rather than primiparous cows during early lactation. To our best knowledge the inflammatory status of primiparous cows ranking based on severity after intramammary infection of E. coli is poorly understood during early lactation. Physiological factors have been mainly studied in multiparous cows ranging from second lactation to sixth lactation [6-10].Thromboxanes (TX), prostaglandins (PG), leukotriens (LT) and lipoxines (LX) which are the enzymatically generated products of cyclooxygenases (COX) and lipoxygenases are genera
Resident CD11b+Ly6C? Lung Dendritic Cells Are Responsible for Allergic Airway Sensitization to House Dust Mite in Mice
Claire Mesnil, Catherine M. Sabatel, Thomas Marichal, Marie Toussaint, Didier Cataldo, Pierre-Vincent Drion, Pierre Lekeux, Fabrice Bureau, Christophe J. Desmet
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053242
Abstract: Conventional dendritic cells (DCs) are considered to be the prime initiators of airway allergy. Yet, it remains unclear whether specific DC subsets are preferentially involved in allergic airway sensitization. Here, we systematically assessed the respective pro-allergic potential of individually sorted lung DC subsets isolated from house dust mite antigen (HDM)-treated donor mice, following transfer to na?ve recipients. Transfer of lung CD11c+CD11b+ DCs, but not CD11c+CD11b?CD103+ DCs, was sufficient to prime airway allergy. The CD11c+CD11b+ DC subpopulation was composed of CD11c+CD11b+Ly6C+ inflammatory monocyte-derived cells, whose numbers increase in the lungs following HDM exposure, and of CD11c+CD11b+Ly6C? DCs, which remain stable. Counterintuitively, only CD11c+CD11b+Ly6C? DCs, and not CD11c+CD11b+Ly6C+ DCs, were able to convey antigen to the lymph nodes and induce adaptive T cell responses and subsequent airway allergy. Our results thus support that lung resident non-inflammatory CD11c+CD11b+Ly6C? DCs are the essential inducers of allergic airway sensitization to the common aeroallergen HDM in mice.
STAT5 Is an Ambivalent Regulator of Neutrophil Homeostasis
Laurence Fiévez, Christophe Desmet, Emmanuelle Henry, Bernard Pajak, Silke Hegenbarth, Virginie Garzé, Fran?oise Bex, Fabrice Jaspar, Philippe Boutet, Laurent Gillet, Alain Vanderplasschen, Percy A. Knolle, Oberdan Leo, Muriel Moser, Pierre Lekeux, Fabrice Bureau
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000727
Abstract: Background Although STAT5 promotes survival of hematopoietic progenitors, STAT5?/? mice develop mild neutrophilia. Methodology/Principal findings Here, we show that in STAT5?/? mice, liver endothelial cells (LECs) autonomously secrete high amounts of G-CSF, allowing myeloid progenitors to overcompensate for their intrinsic survival defect. However, when injected with pro-inflammatory cytokines, mutant mice cannot further increase neutrophil production, display a severe deficiency in peripheral neutrophil survival, and are therefore unable to maintain neutrophil homeostasis. In wild-type mice, inflammatory stimulation induces rapid STAT5 degradation in LECs, G-CSF production by LECs and other cell types, and then sustained mobilization and expansion of long-lived neutrophils. Conclusion We conclude that STAT5 is an ambivalent factor. In cells of the granulocytic lineage, it exerts an antiapoptotic function that is required for maintenance of neutrophil homeostasis, especially during the inflammatory response. In LECs, STAT5 negatively regulates granulopoiesis by directly or indirectly repressing G-CSF expression. Removal of this STAT5-imposed brake contributes to induction of emergency granulopoiesis.
Non-linear rheology of a nanoconfined simple fluid
Lionel Bureau
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.218302
Abstract: We probe the rheology of the model liquid octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTS) confined into molecularly thin films, using a unique Surface Forces Apparatus allowing to explore a large range of shear rates and confinement. We thus show that OMCTS under increasing confinement exhibits the viscosity enhancement and the non-linear flow properties characteristic of a sheared supercooled liquid approaching its glass transition. Besides, we study the drainage of confined OMCTS via the propagation of "squeeze-out" fronts. The hydrodynamic model proposed by Becker and Mugele [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 91}, 166104 (2003)] to describe such front dynamics leads to a conclusion in apparent contradiction with the dynamical slowdown evidenced by rheology measurements, which suggests that front propagation is not controlled by large scale flow in the confined films.
Friction as a probe of surface properties of a polymer glass
Lionel Bureau
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1021/ma071544p
Abstract: We probe the temperature dependence of friction at the interface between a glassy poly(methylmethacrylate) lens and a flat substrate coated with a methyl-terminated self-assembled monolayer. The monolayer exhibits density defects which act as pinning sites for the polymer chains. We show that the shear response of such an interface supports the existence, at the surface of the glassy polymer, of a nanometer-thick layer of mobile chains. Friction can be ascribed to the interplay between viscouslike dissipation in this layer and depinning of chains adsorbed on the substrate. We further show that the pinning dynamics is controlled by \beta rotational motions localized at the interface.
Structure, Kinematics, and Dynamics of Bulges
M. Bureau
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: A historical review of our understanding of bulges is first presented, highlighting similarities and differences between bulges and ellipticals. Then, some topics of current interest are reviewed, bypassing stellar population questions and focusing on structural and dynamical issues relating bulges and disks. The topics are: i) the fundamental plane; ii) the evidence for two classes of bulges, R^1/4 and exponential, and its significance for bulge formation; iii) the three-dimensional structure of bulges, in particular the relation between boxy/peanut-shaped bulges and bars; iv) the nuclear properties of bulges, and their possible effects on bulge dynamics and secular evolution; and v) the large-scale mass distribution and evidence for dark matter in bulges. To conclude, new prospects offered by wide-field integral-field spectroscopy and other instrument developments (space and ground-based) are discussed.
A surface force apparatus for nanorheology under large shear strain
Lionel Bureau
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1063/1.2748362
Abstract: We describe a surface force apparatus designed to probe the rheology of a nanoconfined medium under large shear amplitudes (up to 500 $\mu$m). The instrument can be operated in closed-loop, controlling either the applied normal load or the thickness of the medium during shear experiments. Feedback control allows to greatly extend the range of confinement/shear strain attainable with the surface force apparatus. The performances of the instrument are illustrated using hexadecane as the confined medium.
Rate effects on layering of a confined linear alkane
Lionel Bureau
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.225503
Abstract: We perform drainage experiments of a linear alkane fluid (n-hexadecane) down to molecular thicknesses, and focus on the role played by the confinement rate. We show that molecular layering is strongly influenced by the velocity at which the confining walls are approached: under high enough shear rates, the confined medium behaves as a structureless liquid of enhanced viscosity for film thickness below $\sim$10 nm. Our results also lead us to conclude that a rapidly confined film can be quenched in a metastable disordered state, which might be related with recent intriguing results on the shear properties of confined films produced at different rates [Zhu and Granick, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 93}, 096101 (2004)].
A short chronicle of warfare in South Africa
Military Information Bureau
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/16-3-452
Abstract: Khoisan Wars Khoisan is the collective name for the South African people known as Hottentots and Bushmen. It is compounded from the first part of Khoi Khoin (men of men) as the Hottentots called themselves, and San, the names given by the Hottentots to the Bushmen. The Hottentots and Bushmen were the first natives Dutch colonist encountered in South Africa. Both had a relative low cultural development and may therefore be grouped. The Colonists fought two wars against the Hottentots while the struggle against the Bushmen was manned by casual ranks on the colonist farms.
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