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Pattern of chronic liver disease in Omani children – A clinicopathological review
FO Akinbami, P Venugopalan, V Nirmala, J Suresh, P Abiodun
West African Journal of Medicine , 2004,
Abstract: Objective: To determine the pattern of chronic liver disease in Omani children. Study Design: Seventy six children {43M : 33F } aged 4 days to 10 years, referred to the Paediatric Gastroenterology clinic of the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, between 1995-2000 for evaluation of liver disease were studied. Liver biopsies were performed in all and tissues obtained processed and examined for histological lesions. Result: The main histological diagnoses were neonatal hepatitis (22) biliary atresia (9) biliary hypoplasia (7), cirrhosis (7) and congenital hepatic fibrosis (5). Hepatomegaly with or without jaundice was the indication for liver biopsy in the majority of patients studied. Conclusion:The study has provided background information on the occurrence of specific liver diseases in Omani children. Neonatal hepatitis syndrome was the most common diagnosis before the age of 2 years. Key Words: Chronic liver disease, Childhood. Résumé Objectif: Déterminer la tendance de la maladie du culin foie chronique chez des enfants Omani. Plan d'étude: Soixante quartoze enfant (43M:33F)agés entre 4 jours et 10 ans envoyés au service de la Pédiatrie gastroentrologie de centre hospitalier universitaire du Sultant Qaboos, Muscat, Oman entre 1995 -2000. Pour une évaluation de la maladie du foie ont été étudies. Les biopsies du foie ont été fait dans tous les tissues obtenus évalues et étudies pour des lésions histologiques. Résultats: Les diagnostiques histologiques principaux sont hépatite néonatale (22), atrésie biliaire (9) l'hypoplasie biliaire (7), et fibrose hépatique congénitale (5). L'hépatomégalie avec ou sans la jaunisse était une indication pour la biopsie du foie chez la majorité des patients étudiés. Conclusion: A travers cette etude, on arrive à avoir informations de base sur le phénomène spécifique des maladies de foie chez des enfants d'Omani. Syndrome d'hépatite néonatale était un diagnostic le plus courant avant l'age de 2 ans. West African Journal of Medicine Vol.23(2) 2004: 162-166
Prevalence of dermatological lesions in hospitalized children at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
OO Okafor, FO Akinbami, AE Orimadegun, CM Okafor, AO Ogunbiyi
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice , 2011,
Abstract: Objective: Skin disorders constitute a significant proportion of consultations in children’s clinics; however, there is a paucity of data on the prevalence of dermatological lesions in hospitalized children in Nigeria. This study determines the prevalence of dermatological lesions in hospitalized children. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 402 children aged three months to twelve years admitted in the Pediatric wards of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, were enrolled over a six-month period. Examination of the skin and its appendages was done for each patient. Data on the socioeconomic status, hygiene, and health-related factors were also obtained using a structured questionnaire. Results: Over 96% of the children had at least one identifiable skin lesion. The five leading skin lesions were postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (49.5%), BCG scar (28.4%), Mongolian spots (27.1%), junctional melanocytic nevi (20.1%), and café-au-lait macules (18.4%). The leading infectious skin disease was pyoderma (13.4%), followed by tinea capitis (6.7%). Scarification marks (P=0.001), tinea capitis (P=0.014), plantar fissuring (P=0.001), and impetigo (P=0.016) were associated with low socioeconomic classes, while the presence of BCG scar (50.0%) was associated with the high socioeconomic class. Conclusions: This study shows that dermatologic lesions are common in hospitalized children. Identifying them will provide an opportunity for pediatricians to educate parents on the various causes as well as prevention of lesions.
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex: A case report
O Peterside, OE Kunle-Olowu, OO Adeyemi, FO Akinbami, J Omene
Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics , 2012,
Abstract: Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a rare hereditary cutaneous disorder inherited mainly in an autosomal dominant fashion. It consists of a group of conditions that cause the skin to be fragile and blister easily. EB has been classified into three types namely; simplex, junctional and dystrophic. Although all three types of EB have different causes, their symptoms are similar, manifesting as painful blisters and sores. Epidermolysis bullosa is a very rare condition but may probably be more common in clinical practice than reported in literature, especially in places like Nigeria where there is under reporting of clinical cases. To the knowledge of the authors, there are few reported cases in Nigeria and none from Bayelsa State in the delta region of the country. We herein present a case of epidermolysis bullosa simplex (Dowling Meara type) in a 35 day old infant. This case is reported with the aim of increasing awareness of its existence in Nigeria and Bayelsa State in particular.
Congenital tuberculosis: A case report and review of the literature
O Peterside, OO Adeyemi, OE Kunle - Olowu, FO Akinbami, J Omene, AD Frances
Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics , 2013,
Abstract: Congenital tuberculosis (TB) is a rare infection transmitted from a mother to her foetus, either through an infected placenta or amniotic fluid. Congenital tuberculosis was previously thought to be rare but recent changes in the epidemiology of TB, have resulted in an increased risk.1 Affected infants usually present with non specific signs and symptoms, hence a high index of suspicion is required to make a diagnosis. Fewer than 300 cases have been reported worldwide till date1 and to the knowledge of the authors, there have been only three reported cases in Nigeria.2-4 We herein report a case of congenital tuberculosis with a review of other published cases in this high TB prevalent region of Southern Nigeria with the aim of creating awareness of its existence in this region.
Traumatic diseases of parotid gland and sequalae. Review of literature and case reports
BO Akinbami
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice , 2009,
Abstract: Parotid gland injuries are accompanied by a large number of sequelae. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of thorough management of these parotid gland injuries especially at initial presentation in order to minimize the complications that accompany these injuries.Areview of the aetiology and management of the existing cases of parotid gland injuries obtained from published journals and internet search as well as a report of two casesmanaged in our centre is presented in this paper.Atotal of about 70 cases in the previous literatures were reviewed of which assault was responsible for almost 90% of the cases. Sialoceles and fistulae were the main sequelae of these injuries. More than half of the cases (54%) were managed by conservative methods. Surgical drainage was done in about 44% cases;where the Stenson's ducts were accessible, primary repairwas done. Excision of the gland was done in very few cases. The two cases managed in our centre were due to assault from broken bottles and road traffic accident respectively and both were managed by conservative methods. The first patient was a case of sialocele following the injury, which resolved within 3 weeks after the cyst formation with reduction in food intake, aspirations and external surgical drainage; while the second patient was a case of persistent fistula which healed after about 5 weeks following the trauma. Follow-up of both patients for about 3 months revealed no further leakage or accumulation of saliva. Management of these injuries involves a thorough understanding of the structure and function of the parotid gland and closely related tissues.
Comparison of an alveolar expansion technique and buccal guttering technique in the extraction of mandibular third molar. A Pilot Study  [PDF]
Babatunde. O. Akinbami, Lucky. I. Ofomala
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2011.13016
Abstract: Background: The over-ambitious use of surgical drills for almost every case of third molar impaction is on the increase in most established oral surgery centers. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the severity of post operative symptoms of swelling and pain that accompany the use of surgical drill in the buccal guttering technique and the non application of drill in an alveolar expansion technique. Methods: Consecutive patients with bilateral impacted lower third molars not associated with pericoronitis were included in the study, a total of 10 patients were included in the study. Extraction of both impacted third molars was done consecutively on the same day under local anaesthesia. Post operative morbidities that were assessed clinically are swelling and pain. Results: A total of 10 patients, 70% were females and males were 30%. Age range was 27 - 35 yrs.Out of the eight patients that had the two different techniques, 7 preferred the use of the alveolar expansion technique in which drill was not used. There were statistically significant differences in swellings between these two techniques, (p < 0.01) but no statistically significant differences in pain (p > 0.01). Conclusions: To avoid excessive swelling and pain from over-ambitious cut-ting of soft tissues and drilling of bone, alveolar expansion technique should be considered first in pa-tients with less dense bone.
Classification and Management of Mandibular Condyle Fractures in a Tertiary Health Center  [PDF]
Babatunde O. Akinbami, Oladimeji A. Akadiri
Surgical Science (SS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2013.48067

Background: Condyle fractures are not common but could lead to detrimental effects of growth disturbance of the mandible, ankylosis of temporomandibular joint and facial asymmetry especially in children, if not promptly and adequately managed, the aim of this study was to document our experience in the management of mandibular condyle fractures. Method: The fractures were classified based on the age of the patient, unilateral/bilateral, location on the condyle, presence of displacement and dislocation, for those displaced, whether there was medial or lateral overlap, and features presented. Treatment done for each patient was documented. Both clinical and radiological assessments were done to ascertain the outcome of treatment. Result: 11 patients presented with 14 condyle fractures, 3 patients with bilateral and 8 with unilateral condyle fractures out of which 5 cases were on the right side. Age range of patients was between 13 and 44 years with a mean (SD) of 25.3 (10.7) years. Nine (81.8%) of the patients were males and 2 (18.2%) were females. Eight (72.7%) of the patients with condyle fracture had associated fractures affecting other sites of the mandible while 3 (27.3%) patients had isolated condyle fractures. Intracapusular fractures recorded were 2 (14.2%), while extracapsular accounted for 12 (85.8%) cases. Conservative treatment was not applied in any patient, 9 (81.8%) patients had IMF and 2 (18.2%) patients had ORIF. Conclusion: Most fractures of the condyle were extracapsular and, closed surgical treatment (IMF) was very useful to manage most of the cases.

Evaluation of the mechanism and principles of management of temporomandibular joint dislocation. Systematic review of literature and a proposed new classification of temporomandibular joint dislocation
Babatunde O Akinbami
Head & Face Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1746-160x-7-10
Abstract: A thorough computer literature search was done using the Medline, Cochrane library and Embase database. Key words like temporo-mandibular joint dislocation were used for the search. Additional manual search was done by going through published home-based and foreign articles. Case reports/series, and original articles that documented the type of dislocation, number of cases treated in the series and original articles. Treatment done and outcome of treatment were included in the study.A total of 128 articles were reviewed out which 79 were found relevant. Of these, 26 were case reports, 17 were case series and 36 were original articles. 79 cases were acute dislocations, 35 cases were chronic protracted TMJ dislocations and 311 cases were chronic recurrent TMJ dislocations. Etiology was predominantly trauma in 60% of cases and other causes contributed about 40%. Of all the cases reviewed, only 4 were unilateral dislocation. Various treatment modalities are outlined in this report as indicated for each type of dislocation.The more complex and invasive method of treatment may not necessarily offer the best option and outcome of treatment, therefore conservative approaches should be exhausted and utilized appropriately before adopting the more invasive surgical techniques.The mechanism of temporomandibular joint dislocation varies depending on the type of dislocation which may be acute, chronic protracted or chronic recurrent dislocation [1]. This mechanics is closely related to the structure and function of the temporomandibular joint as well as the dynamics of the masticatory system [1]. The capsule of the joint is the most important structure which stabilizes the joint reinforced by the lateral ligaments [2,3]. However displacement of the head of the condyle out of the glenoid fossa is also greatly influenced by the morphology of the condyle, glenoid fossa, articular eminence, zygomatic arch and squamotympanic fissure [1,3-5]. The afore-mentioned factors mainly determi
Pattern of Lower Third Impaction and Outcome of Treatment in a New Tertiary Center - A 5-year Survey
BO Akinbami, LI Ifomala
East and Central African Journal of Surgery , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Third molar surgery is the commonest dentoalveolar surgery in clinical practice and outcome is dependent on the assessment of the nature of impaction, meticulous care and adherence to instructions. The purpose of this study was to document our five –year experience. Methods: Clinico-radiological information retrieved included patients’ biodata and number of impaction. Others are type/angulation, position and depth of the teeth, number and configuration of the roots, proximity of inferior alveolar canal, method and outcome of extraction. Results: There were 116 patients and 136 impacted lower third molar. There were 56 (48.3%) males and 60 (51.7%) females. Age range was 17-54years; Mean (SD), 28.2(8.2). Mesioangular impaction constituted 66(48.5%) while distoangular was 10(7.4%). Thirty three (24.3%) impacted teeth did not undergo surgical treatment. Surgical extraction of 87(64%) teeth was done. Transplantation of extracted impacted lower third molar tooth into the socket of a second molar tooth was achieved in one of the patients. Only 2(1.9%) patients presented with neuropraxia following surgical extraction. Conclusion and Recommendation: Thorough preoperative evaluation of the cases that did surgical extraction of the impacted tooth contributed significantly to low incidence of post-operative complications in our center. East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 2011 Nov/ December;16 (3)
Tertiary bone grafting with or without premaxilla osteotomy in adult alveolar clefts—Techniques and early outcome  [PDF]
Oladimeji A. Akadiri, Babatunde O. Akinbami, Benjamin M. Kejeh
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2012.22022
Abstract: The outcome of alveolar bone grafting in adult patients is sparsely reported. Here, we present a description of the surgical techniques used in a Nigerian teaching hospital and a preliminary report of the first five cases of adult alveolar cleft bone grafting accomplished with or without repositioning the premaxilla. Although, evidence of bone resorption was observed within 6 months after the operation, satisfactory bone level and aesthetic outcome was recorded in all cases. We concluded that tertiary alveolar bone grafting is desirable for all cases where alveolar clefts have persisted into adulthood to enhance the psyche of the cleft patients and to motivate them for further rehabilitation. Prompt placement of dental implant into the grafted area is recommended to mitigate subsequent resorption of the bone graft.
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