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Malaria treatment in Northern Ghana: What is the treatment cost per case to households?
J Akazili, M Aikins, FN Binka
African Journal of Health Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Although malaria is a major problem in Sub-Saharan African countries including Ghana, there has been little research on its economic impact, particularly the treatment cost at the household level. This study uses data collected from a random sample of 423 households in Kassena-Nankana district (KND) of northern Ghana. Malaria was ascertained through self-reporting of symptoms using a one-month recall period. The paper presents treatment cost analysis of seeking malaria care to households. Direct and indirect costs to households are estimated and examined in terms of location, severity, and wealth. The study shows that indirect cost accounts for 71 percent of total cost of a malaria episode. While cost of malaria care is estimated at 1 percent of the income of the rich, it is 34 percent of the poor households\' income, suggesting that the burden of malaria is higher for poorer households. In order to reduce the cost of malaria to households, we recommend that the training of malaria volunteers to assist households in the communities to take more responsibility of the disease and also to intensify public education to promote the use of insecticide treated nets, as they have been found to be cost-effective in the prevention of malaria. African Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 14 (1-2) 2007: pp. 70-79
The medico-legal prerequisite for initiating quarantine and isolation practices in public health emergency management in hospitals in Ghana
ID Norman, M Aikins, FN Binka
Ghana Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Hospitals and other health facilities in Ghana do not appear to have standardized practices for quarantine and isolation in public health emergency management. This paper reviews the legislative framework govern-ing the medico-legal prerequisites for initiating quaran-tine and isolation procedures as articulated in the Infec-tious Disease Act (Cap 78) 1908 amended, 1935, the Quarantine Act (Cap 77) 1915 amended, 1938, the Emergency Powers Act of 1994, (Act 472), and the National Disaster Management Act, 1996, (Act 517) in consonance with the 1992 Constitution of Ghana. The findings provide that (1) The legislative framework outlines systematic stan-dards and protocols to be followed in the committal of person or persons in quarantine and isolation during public health emergencies. (2) These standards and protocols consider as impera-tive, the creation of standardized national templates for the initiation of quarantine and isolation measures. (3) The non-compliance of the standards and protocols renders vulnerable medical facilities and hospitals with their personnel to the threat of medical mal-practice suits and breach of professional ethics. This paper provides suggestions to hospital administra-tors and medical personnel of how to develop adminis-trative templates in compliance with the law in manag-ing public health emergencies. It also provides exam-ples of such templates for possible adoption by hospi-tals and other health administrators.
Special Article Ethics and Electronic Health Information Technology: Challenges for Evidence-Based Medicine and the Physician–Patient Relationship
ID Norman, MK Aikins, FN Binka
Ghana Medical Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Objectives: The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), and the National Identification Authority (NIA), pose ethical challenges to the physician-patient relationship due to interoperability. This paper explores (1) the national legislation on Electronic Health Information Technology (EHIT), (2) the ethics of information technology and public health and (3) the effect on the Physician-patient relationship. Method: This study consisted of systematic literature and internet review of the legislation, information technology, the national health insurance program, and the physician-patient relationship. Result: The result shows that (1) EHIT have eroded a big part of the confidentiality between the physician and patient; (2) The encroachment on privacy is an inevitable outcome of EHIT; (3) Legislation on privacy, the collection, storage and uses of electronic health information is needed and; (4) the nexus between EHIT, NHIS, NHA, Ethics, the physicianpatient relationship and privacy. Conclusion: The study highlights the lack of protection for physician-patient relationship as medical practice transitions from the conventional to the modern, information technology driven domain.
Hospital all-risk emergency preparedness in Ghana
ID Norman, M Aikins, FN Binka, KM Nyarko
Ghana Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Objective: This paper assessed the emergency preparedness programs of health facilities for all-risks but focused on Road Traffic Accidents, (RTA) resulting in surge demand. It adopted W. H. O checklist covering hospital preparedness, equipment, manpower and surge capacity planning as best practices for the mitigation of public health emergencies. Method: This is a cross-sectional study of purposively selected health facilities. The method used consisted of site visit, questionnaire survey, literature and internet review. The W. H. O. standard for emergency preparedness of health facilities was used to evaluate and assess the nation’s hospitals surge capacity programs. The study was conducted between March-June, 2010. A total of 22 district and regional health facilities including teaching hospitals participated in the study. All 10 regions of the country were covered. Result: These were: (1) many of the nation’s hospitals were not prepared for large RTA’s resulting in surge demands, and did not possess general emergency preparedness programs. (2) The hospitals’ respective abilities to handle large scale RTA’s were compromised by the lack of competent medical and allied health personnel and adequate supplies. Discussion: The inadequacies of the hospital system in responding to emergencies raise serious public health concerns. The biggest challenge facing the hospitals in their emergency intervention is the lack of preemergency and emergency preparedness plans as well as the coordination of the hospitals response mechanisms. Conclusion: The paper ended with recommendations on how the nation’s hospitals and their supervisory agencies could improve emergency preparedness.
U. S. D. A.-D. H. I. A. sire summaries in a dairy cattle population undergoing genetic change
FN Dickinson
Genetics Selection Evolution , 1973, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-5-2-257
A genetic base for estimating the genetic transmitting ability of dairy bulls in populations undergoing genetic change
FN Dickinson
Genetics Selection Evolution , 1973, DOI: 10.1186/1297-9686-5-2-267
An analysis of factors affecting job satisfaction of women in paid employment in Benin City
FN Ofuani
Edo Journal of Counselling , 2010,
Abstract: This study examined the job satisfaction of women in paid employment in Benin City. The purpose of this study was to find out whether women in paid employment are satisfied with their jobs or not and to establish the effects of marital status, experience, academic qualification and relationship with superior officers of the women on their perception of job satisfaction. A sample of two hundred women was selected using the stratified random sampling and the data instrument was a questionnaire called Job Satisfaction of Women in Paid Employment Questionnaire (J.S.W.P.E.Q). Data collected were analysed using the t-test. The result of the study revealed that marital status, experience, academic qualification and relationship with superior officers had no significant effect on the job satisfaction of women in paid employment in Benin City. It is recommended that women should be given opportunities to hold positions of responsibility and conducive atmosphere should be created for them at their work places. Key Words: Women, Job Satisfaction, Employment, Stereotype, Benin City.
Fostering Basic Problem-Solving Skills in Chemistry
FN Lugemwa
African Journal of Chemical Education , 2012,
Abstract: A triangle divided in three parts was used to relate three variables, or two variables and a constant. Students learned to manipulate a given equation so that one of the variables is a product of the other two variables. Problems relating density, mass, and volume; speed of light, frequency and wavelength; gram, mole, and molar mass, molarity, moles and liters; and number of particles, Avogadro’s number, and mole were attempted using triangles. In addition, a special triangle was constructed to relate the variables and a constant of the ideal gas law equation, and was used to solve ideal gas law problems. This visual representation of the problem helped students to understand the factors that need to be considered and the operations that needed to be performed in the problem-solving process. Over the course of two years, the method was used in four different introductory chemistry classes that had a total of 87 students. More than 80% of the students who use triangles were able to arrive at the correct answers. A big percentage of students also liked using triangles to solve simple problems.
Variable structure unit vector control of electric power generation
FN Okafor
African Journal of Science and Technology , 2001,
Abstract: A variable structure Automatic Generation Control (VSAGC) scheme is proposed in this paper for the control of a single area power system model dominated by steam powered electric generating plants. Unlike existing, VSAGC scheme where the selection of the control function is based on a trial and error procedure, the strategy proposed here relies on a systematic approach based on the unit vector control concept. Simulation results show the superiority of the proposed control scheme over the existing ones.
Gender Differentials In Finanical Management Practices Of Small Scale Entrepreneurs In The Niger Delta Region Of Nigeria
FN Okoro
Studies in Gender and Development in Africa , 2007,
Abstract: The study focuses on gender differentials in the management of financial resources of small scale entrepreneurs. The population for the study was made up of 57 (32 males and 25 females) registered small scale entrepreneurs in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. A survey design was adopted for collecting data for the analysis reported in this paper. The analytical tools used were mean, student t-test and chi-square. It was found among others that women, compared to men small scale entrepreneurs have more challenges in sourcing for funds and in applying some financial management strategies. The study also found that educational qualification is a significant factor in effective financial management. Some recommendations were made based on the findings.
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