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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3338 matches for " FA Okoth "
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An observational study on oesophageal variceal endoscopic injection sclerotherapy in patients with portal hypertension seen at the Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute
H Lodenyo, FA Okoth
African Journal of Health Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Bleeding oesophageal varices still remain a common cause of significant morbidity and mortality in Kenya and is the leading cause of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage as seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. We report on our experiences in the management of oesophageal varices using injection sclerotherapy. The study site was the Centre for Clinical Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI). Records from structured reporting on procedures and findings during oesophageal variceal injection sclerotherapy were reviewed. All the patients with portal hypertension and previous history of acute variceal blood who underwent endoscopic injection sclerotherapy between August 1998 and May 2001 in the endoscopy unit, KEMRI, had between 2 and 8 sessions of sclerotherapy with 10-15 ml of 5% ethanolamine oleate during each session. The injection sclerotherapy was done under sedation and pharyngeal local anaesthesia. This was followed by regular surveillance endoscopic examination at 1,3,6 months then yearly. A total of 112 patients underwent vericeal injection sclerotherapy. Male: Female of 2:2:1 and mean age was 32.8 ± 3.3 years. Eighty-five (75.9%) of the patients received at least 4 sessions of injections sclerotherapy. 82.4% of those who received sclerotherapy upto 4 sessions had regression of varices and 15% of patients' required more than 6 sessions. The report concludes that variceal injection sclerotherapy is a useful method of treating oesophageal varices and can be performed on an out patient basis. African Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 14 (3-4) 2007: pp. 216-218
The Nile river question and the Riparian States: Contextualising Uganda's Foreign Policy Interests
PG Okoth
African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie , 2007,
Identification Key for Aspergillus Species Isolated from Maize and Soil of Nandi County, Kenya  [PDF]
Beatrice Wabusya Nyongesa, Sheila Okoth, Vincent Ayugi
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2015.54020
Abstract: The aim of this study was to identify Aspergillus species isolated from maize kernels and soils of maize fields of Nandi County using macro and micro morphological characteristics. A cross sectional research design was used in the study and purposive sampling was employed to determine districts of Nandi County and sub locations where sampling was done. This study was part of a larger project whose aim was to survey aflatoxin exposure in the maize value chain. Aspergillus species were isolated from maize and soil samples using quarter strength potato dextrose agar and modified Rose Bengal agar respectively. Pure cultures of the isolates were sub cultured and transferred onto differential media; malt extract agar, czapek yeast extract agar and czapek dox agar for species identification using macro morphological characteristics. Fungal slides were prepared from pure cultures on potato dextrose agar media after three days to identify micro morphological characteristics. Based on morphological characteristics, seven sections of Aspergillus namely: Flavi, Fumigati, Nigri, Circumdati, Clavati, Nidulantes and Candidi were identified. Aspergillus section Flavi was the most predominant with 57% followed by section Nigri with 27% from maize and 58% of section Flavi followed by 26% of section Nigri from the soil across the three locations. Aspergillus sections Nidulantes and Candidi were rare and only recovered from the soil samples of Kaptumo location. All the Aspergillius flavus that formed sclerotia both from the soils or maize kernels were of the L strains. In conclusion Aspergillus section Flavi was most frequent during the isolation process and dominated with Aspergillus flavus from both the maize and soil. Morphological characteristics remain the primary tool for detection and identification of Aspergillus species. The significance for high incidence of Aspergillus section Flavi is in regard to their aflatoxin production profiles that poses a health threat to the community and it is of public health concern. Morphological characteristics as a primary tool for Aspergillus identification should be embraced and more personnel with the knowledge are required since modern and faster techniques are scarce and expensive.
Examining International Parity Relations between Kenya and Uganda: A Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Approach
Ferdinand Okoth Othieno
International Journal of Economics and Finance , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijef.v4n6p132
Abstract: This paper analyses empirically the purchasing power parity, the uncovered interest parity and the real interest parity (Fisher parity) between Kenya and Uganda. The paper first tests the three parity relations using stationarity tests. Afterwards the study jointly models international parity conditions, namely PPP, RIP and UIP using a Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive approach. From the analysis of the individual parities, there is no evidence that the individual parities hold between the two countries except for RIP. On the other hand the joint VAR model establishes that the Kenya-Uganda inflation rates, interest rates, and the real exchange rate have followed a long-run equilibrium-correcting behavior. The joint Cointegrated VAR analysis reveals that all the endogenous variables explain more than 99.95% of the VAR model. This indicates a fast correction towards the long run equilibrium of the parity relations. Hence when the three parity relations are jointly modeled, it can be argued that Uganda has shown a tendency to converge to Kenya both in both nominal and real terms.
End-labeled amino terminated monotelechelic glycopolymers generated by ROMP and Cu(I)-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition
Ronald Okoth,Amit Basu
Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry , 2013, DOI: 10.3762/bjoc.9.66
Abstract: Functionalizable monotelechelic polymers are useful materials for chemical biology and materials science. We report here the synthesis of a capping agent that can be used to terminate polymers prepared by ring-opening metathesis polymerization of norbornenes bearing an activated ester. The terminating agent is a cis-butene derivative bearing a Teoc (2-trimethylsilylethyl carbamate) protected primary amine. Post-polymerization modification of the polymer was accomplished by amidation with an azido-amine linker followed by Cu(I)-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition with propargyl sugars. Subsequent Teoc deprotection and conjugation with pyrenyl isothiocyanates afforded well-defined end-labeled glycopolymers.
Nutrition Status of Children Under-Five Years in Cassava Consuming Communities in Nambale, Busia of Western Kenya  [PDF]
Rhoda Azikoyo Nungo, Michael Wandayi Okoth, Samuel Kuria Mbugua
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.36107
Abstract: A study was carried out to assess the nutritional status of under-five child population within cassava consuming community in Nambale of western Kenya. A structured questionnaire was used to collect socio economic data, 24-hour food re-call and anthropometric measurements. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Descriptive statistics were used while Pearson’s Chi Square and correlation coefficient (R) were used to test for statistical associations. A total of 320 households with 232 children participated. The findings showed nutrition status of children to be poor (<-2 SD), 26.6% were stunted, 13.9% underweight, and 10.1% were wasting. Malnutrition had reached its peak during the third year affecting boys more than girls despite a high mean score (9.2) for household dietary diversity. The findings established cassava utilization to be high (94.3%) and mainly as “porridge, boiled roots and ugali”. Eight staples including cassava were used for weaning and 66.4% of the children were fed three times daily. Cassava utilization was not a determinant of child nutrition status. Age of child and education level of head of household had strong but negative influence on child nutrition status, (Pearson’s R = -0.207: -0.174) indicating >50% changes in stunting could not be attributed to age of child or education level of the head of household. Farm ownership was a strong positive determinant of nutrition status, Pearson’s R = 0.233. This study has established that cassava cushions hunger and there is need to improve nutrient content.
Molecular Footprint of Kenya’s Gene Bank Repositories Based on the cp-Genome Signatures  [PDF]
Okoth Patrick, Muoma John, Omayio Dennis, Barasa Mustafa, Angienda Paul
American Journal of Molecular Biology (AJMB) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajmb.2018.84019
Abstract: While the mutational processes that subsume biological diversity can be revealed in great detail through phylogenetic inferencing using plastid markers, few studies document their use. Accurate phylogenic inference can provide a framework for addressing a host of important evolutionary questions including a context to reconstruct molecular evolution of an organism. Despite the obvious utility of plastid markers in illuminating biological enquiry, many important questions still abound. The use of cp-DNA gene sequence data for phylogenetic inference can have an enormous impact on plant phylogenetics and systematics. The repertoire of genetic diversity of Kenya’s Gene Bank repositories can be explored based on cp-genome signatures. This is because cp-DNA-based mutational changes are an important additional tool to the previous evidence available on plant evolution yet to be explored in biodiversity studies in Kenya. Taken together, these evolutionary changes can inspire development of realistic algorithms for phylogenetic inferencing based on molecular data. Phylogenetic reconstructions are at the very core of molecular evolution. Comparative sequence analyses of plastid markers can have utility beyond the study of phylogeny. The pattern of nucleotide substitution observed over evolutionary time can reflect functional constraints imposed due to natural selection. In line with this, it is possible to detect subtle anatomical variations associated with small fitness effects that can account for genetic diversity at varietal level. The lack of sequence information in Kenyan cowpea has limited the robust advancement of molecular markers use in dissecting diversity based on the putative plastid markers[1]. The present study sought to generate and upscale novel technologies such as genomics, DNA barcoding and bio-informatics in understanding molecular diversity of cowpea accessions from the Gene Bank of Kenya and ecotypes. A total of 298 sequences of cowpea germplasm conserved as in
Evaluation of selected soil fertility management interventions for suppression of Fusarium spp. in a maize and beans intercrop
Okoth, Sheila A.;Siameto, Elizabeth;
Tropical and subtropical agroecosystems , 2011,
Abstract: fusarium root rot of maize and beans is a common problem in taita district, kenya causing economic losses to the small scale farmers. the pathogen attacks maize and beans at all growth stages causing rot at the seedling stage, yellowing of the leaves, stunted growth, and death if severe. potentially effective crop rotations to maintain the pathogen at low levels are not currently practical due to the small size of farms while fungicides are out of reach to the small scale farmer due to high prices. this study aimed at assessing alternatives to fungicides in controlling root infection by fusarium sp. in maize and beans cropping systems. field trials were done in taita district where agriculture contributes to 95% of household income with limited use of any soil fertility amelioration by farmers. the following were tested in the trials; three types of inorganic fertilizers, cow manure, and trichoderma inoculan! planting was done during the long and short rains. soil and roots were collected from the rhizosphere during harvesting and assessed for inoculum density while the roots were evaluated for incidence of infection by fusarium spp. the most common species in both soil and roots were f. oxysporum (schlecht) snyd.et hans, and f. sporotrichoides sherb. addition of soil amendments had a positive effect of reduced root infection and in some cases lowering inoculum density in the soil. of the four integrated soil fertility interventions, mavuno fertilizer had the highest yield and was the most effective in suppressing root colonisation by fusarium spp.
Dietary aflatoxin exposure and impaired growth in young children from Kisumu District, Kenya: Cross sectional study
Scheila Adhiambo Okoth, Mercy Ohingo
African Journal of Health Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: Cereal grains are the basis of weaning gruel in Kenya yet they run a high risk of mycotoxin contamination. Children could be at a higher risk of dietary mycotoxin exposure than the rest of the population.. This paper presents information on the association between nutritional state of children and dietary exposure to aflatoxins in Kisumu District. Weaning flour samples were collected randomly from 242 households in Kisumu District, Kenya. A questionnaire was used to collect information, from mothers whose flour were sampled, on the types of weaning foods, handling and storage. The nutritional status of the children in question was assessed and their weight and height measured. The flour samples were analyzed for aflatoxins by thin layer chromatography. Cultural studies of the flour were also done. Thirty one percent of the children were malnourished. The number of children who were wasting and were being fed on flour contaminated with mycotoxins was highly significant (P = 0.002). Seventy samples (29%) were positive for aflatoxins (concentration range 2-82 g/kg), some exceeding the advisory limit. African Journal of Health Sciences Vol.11(1&2) 2004: 43-54
Beating the Drum of Third World War and the First Thermonuclear War: Religion, Democracy and Nuclear Weapon Acquisition as Gadflies  [PDF]
Fa Olasupo
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2015.51005
Abstract: Recently, two powerful personalities have raised issues of global concern, both of which point to the fact that the world is tacitly at WW III. For Pope Francis, conflicts around the globe today are effectively “piecemeal” World War III. For the heir to the British throne, Prince Charles, President Vladimir Putin is “doing just about the same as Hitler”. What informed these outbursts from these world leaders: Spiritual and the temporal? This paper is out to examine what informed these spiritual and royal outbursts.
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