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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 144446 matches for " F Bonsu "
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Factors affecting TB case detection and treatment in the Sissala East District, Ghana  [PDF]
Collins K. Ahorlu, Frank Bonsu
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2013.13006
Abstract: Background: Tuberculosis remains a major heal- th problem affecting about a third of the world population despite a number of preventive and control measures taken in the past few decades. Eighty-five percent of all tuberculosis cases are concentrated in Asia and Africa due to lack of education and health care infrastructure. Objective: To determine factors affecting low tuberculosis case detection in the Sissala East district in the Upper West Region of Ghana. Methods: This was a descriptive study where semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 61 respondents; six focus group discussions and 20 in-depth interviews were conducted to generate both qualitative and quantitative data for analysis. Results: Tuberculosis, known locally as Kesibine was identified as a major problem in the district. The two most frequently reported TB related dis-tresses were coughing (96.7%) and chest pains (95.0%). However, these distresses were reported more after probing for them. The most frequently spontaneously reported distress was reduced income (60.7%) for patients. The most prominent cause reported was sexual pollution (72.2%). Suspected tuberculosis patients are stigmatized and are denied sex by their partners as shown in the following narrative; I will not eat or have sex with her or eat any leftover from her plate (male local healer, In-depth interview). Case detection and treatment is hampered by lack of communication between sub-district facilities and the district hospital to aid laboratory diagnosis. Conclusion: There is therefore the need for vigorous health education to inform the people about the biomedical causes of TB and the availability of appropriate treatment for the disease at health facilities. However, the education should not aim at changing the “wrong beliefs” but focus on making people aware of the biomedical causes and see TB as treatable infection, which could be controlled.
Indigenous knowledge: the basis for survival of the peasant farmer in Africa
Mensah Bonsu
Journal of Philosophy and Culture , 2004,
Modeling and detection of respiratory-related outbreak signatures
Peter F Craigmile, Namhee Kim, Soledad A Fernandez, Bema K Bonsu
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6947-7-28
Abstract: We consider time series models for chest radiograph data obtained from Midwest children's emergency departments. These models incorporate available covariate information such as patient visit counts and smoothed ambient temperature series, as well as time series dependencies on daily and weekly seasonal scales. Respiratory-related outbreak signature detection is based on filtering the one-step-ahead prediction errors obtained from the time series models for the respiratory-complaint background.Using simulation experiments based on a stochastic model for an anthrax attack, we illustrate the effect of the choice of filter and the statistical models upon radiograph-attributed outbreak signature detection.We demonstrate the importance of using seasonal autoregressive integrated average time series models (SARIMA) with covariates in the modeling of respiratory-related time series data. We find some homogeneity in the time series models for the respiratory-complaint backgrounds across the Midwest emergency departments studied. Our simulations show that the balance between specificity, sensitivity, and timeliness to detect an outbreak signature differs by the emergency department and the choice of filter. The linear and exponential filters provide a good balance.Well-known, as well as previously uncharacterized infections continue to (re)emerge around the globe. To avoid casualties from outbreaks of these infections and from the potential criminal uses of bioagents, surveillance systems are needed that have the capacity to identify such outbreaks accurately and rapidly. The accuracy and timeliness of biosurveillance systems rests on the ability to model the uncertainty, severity, and aberrancy of clinical symptoms that are likely to portend disease outbreaks as expressed through the data monitoring system. Shmueli [1] summarizes the problems that biosurveillance systems, in general, pose to traditional statistical monitoring: (a) biosurveillance data may not be independent
Case control study to determine the factors associated with leprosy in the Sene district, Brong Ahafo region of Ghana
AA Ofosu, GY Bonsu
Ghana Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Introduction: There are currently an estimated 10-12 million cases of leprosy in the world. .In Sene District of the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana the prevalence of leprosy is 2.4/10,000 of the population. Most of these cases are children, indicating that new infections are still occurring in the communities. Objectives: To identify factors associated with leprosy in the Sene District in order to implement an effective strategy to eliminate leprosy from the district. Design: Case-control study. Method: The cases were selected from a register of active leprosy cases. Controls were matched for age, and sex. For every one case identified two controls were selected. Results: Of the twenty four cases identified, eighteen (75%) were paucibacillary and six (25%) were multibacillary leprosy. Most of the leprosy lesions were found on the trunk (25%) and upper limbs (37.5%). 13(54.2%) of the cases were under twenty years old. From the study, contact with someone with leprosy in the same house is associated with having leprosy. (OR -3.4 95%CI 1.09-10.8 p=0.017) . Not having BCG vaccination is associated with having leprosy (OR 11 95%CI 2.12- 76.17)p=0.0005). Conclusion: The findings confirm that close contact with a patient with leprosy facilitates transmission of M. leprae. To reduce leprosy in the Sene District there is the need to increase BCG vaccination coverage in children and ensure that all contacts of cases are thoroughly screened for the disease and treated. Health workers in the district need to be trained to identify leprosy lesions.
Robert Osei-Bonsu
Ilorin Journal of Religious Studies , 2013,
Abstract: Different views on worship and music have been expressed by different Reformers. The Reformers rejected some aspects of medieval worship such as the Gregorian chant, the use of elaborate vocal and instrumental music, overly theatrical performances at worship, the unwarranted expense of elaborate ceremonies, enormous pipe organs and the uselessness of text unintelligible to the common man. The Reformers aimed at introducing simple forms of worship and music in the Church, and to restore the true worship of God and therefore introduce congregational singing and participation in worship. This paper surveys John Calvin’s views on worship and Music. Calvin held that the Word of God should be central to worship and that prominence should be given to the Bible over any other obsessions. He therefore prohibited many things in worship because he wanted God to be the focus of worship and devotion. The study concludes that although the Church today cannot limit itself to singing of the Psalms alone, nonetheless, music sung in the Church should be Bible-based to draw the attention of worshippers to God.
Prevalence of Aquatic Insects and Arsenic Concentration Determine the Geographical Distribution of Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection
Anthony Y. Aidoo,Bonsu Osei
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1080/17486700701695167
Abstract: A modified SIR model is used to explain the transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU) and its dependence on arsenic (As) environments. Some studies have suggested that As plays a major role in the spread and prevalence of buruli ulcer (BU). In addition, it has been hypothesized that a vector in the form of a water-bug plays a key role in the epidemiology of BU. We develop an epidemiological model based on these assumptions for the dynamics and prevalence of BU and show that As positively induces the growth and spread of MU.
Mycobacterial species causing pulmonary tuberculosis At the korle bu teaching hospital, Accra,
K.K Addo, K Owusu-darko, D Yeboah-manu, P Caulley, M Minamikawa, F Bonsu, C Leinhardt, P Akpedonu, D Ofori-adjei
Ghana Medical Journal , 2007,
Abstract: Objective: Characterize mycobacterial species causing pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana. Design: Sputum smear positive samples, two (2) from 70 patients diagnosed as having tuberculosis, after they had consented, were collected from the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Chest Clinic between January and July 2003. Setting: Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Chest Clinic, Accra. Results: Sixty-four mycobacterial isolates were obtained and confirmed as members of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by colonial morphology and conventional biochemical assays. Fortyseven (73%) were M. tuberculosis, the human strain, 2 (3%) M. bovis, the bovine strain, 13 (20%) M. africanum I (West Africa type), and 2 (3%) M. africanum II (East Africa type). Conclusion: The results indicate that, there are various strains causing PTB at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital and of great concern is M. bovis, which mostly causes extra-PTB in humans but found to cause PTB in this study. This calls for the need to conduct a nationwide survey using both conventional and molecular techniques to characterize various mycobacterial species causing TB in Ghana. This will result in better understanding of the various strains circulating in the country and inform individual TB treatment regimen especially the inclusion or exclusion of pyrazinamide.
Physiological Response of Broiler Chickens to Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Akakapenpen (Rauvolfia vomitoria) Decoctions: Performance and Carcass Characteristics
H.K. Zanu,J.K. Kagya- Agyemang,W.K.J. Kwenin,F.R.K. Bonsu
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2011,
Abstract: A 6-week feeding trial was conducted on One hundred and eighty (180) Cobb broilers to evaluate the effects of Neem (Azadirachta indica) decoction (AID) and Akakapenpen (Rauvolfia vomitoria) decoction (RVD) on body weight gain, carcass and organ characteristics and haematological values of broiler chickens. The leaves of Azadirachta indica and Rauvolfia vomitoria were harvested and dried in the sun until they became crispy but still greenish in coloration. They were washed and then boiled (40 g of chopped leaves in 9L of water). The decoctions were placed in separate sterilized bottles ready for use and were offered ad libitum. The birds were randomly distributed to the treatments with twenty (20) birds per replicate, with each treatment replicated three times in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The total replacement of antibiotics and coccidiostat resulted in non-significant depression (p<0.05) in final body weight and weight gain in experimental birds. However, feed intake was slightly affected (p<0.05) by administration of RVD to broilers. There was no significant effect of decoctions on water intake, feed conversion efficiency and mortality. Decoction had no significant influence on the dressing percentage, weights of crop (full), heart, proventriculus (full), intestines (full), feet and head. Decoction however, significantly affected gizzard (both full and empty), crop (empty), liver, kidney and proventriculus (empty). Liver and gizzard weights significantly increased with the inclusion of AID and RVD in water. Apart from WBC and Lymphocytes which were significantly influenced by decoction, the other blood parameters did not show any significant difference. This study suggests that AID and RVD replacement to antibiotics and coccidiostat may have beneficial effects on body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. Total comparative profit derived from replacing antibiotics + coccidiostat with AID and RVD resulted in economic gains.
First Nationwide Survey on the Resistance to First Line Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs in Ghana  [PDF]
Kennedy K. Addo, Richard Owusu, Christian Bonsu, Kwaku Owusu-Darko, Samuel O. Addo, Gloria I. Mensah, Mercy J. Newman, David Ofori-Adjei, Frank A. Bonsu
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2018.61007
Abstract: Background/objective: A nationwide survey on the resistance to first line anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) drugs was conducted in Ghana from 2007-2008 by Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research in collaboration with the National Tuberculosis Control Programme. We aimed to characterize mycobacterial species causing pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and determine the resistance pattern to first line anti-TB drugs among newly diagnosed and previously treated PTB patients in Ghana. Methods: Two sputum samples from consented new smear positive PTB patients who had never been treated for TB or had been on anti-TB treatment for less than a month and patients who had been treated for TB previously for more than a month in selected diagnostic centres nationwide were collected for culture, identification and drug susceptibility test. Culture positive isolates were tested against streptomycin (S), isoniazid (H), rifampicin (R) and ethambutol (E) using the simplified proportion method and line probe assay (LPA). The LPA was performed in mid-2017. Results: Among 410 samples, 345 positive cultures were obtained and identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Of the 345 isolates, 133 were further differentiated by GenoType MTBC® as M. tuberculosis, 126 (94.7%) and M. africanum 7 (5.3%). The overall drug resistance patterns were as follows: 43/345 (12.5%), 6/345 (1.7%), 9/345 (2.6%) and 71/345 (20.6%) were resistant to H, R, E and S respectively and 5/345 (1.4%) were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Conclusion: The results indicate high levels of resistance to S and H among new and previously treated TB patients. We recommend adequate surveillance systems including periodic national anti-TB drug resistance surveys.
Leukocyte counts in urine reflect the risk of concomitant sepsis in bacteriuric infants: A retrospective cohort study
Bema K Bonsu, Marvin B Harper
BMC Pediatrics , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-7-24
Abstract: In a retrospective cohort study of febrile 0–89 day old infants evaluated for sepsis in an urban academic pediatric emergency department (1993–1999), we estimated rates of bacteriuric sepsis (urinary tract infections complicated by sepsis) after stratifying infants by urine leukocyte counts higher, or lower than 10 cells/hpf. We compared the global accuracy of leukocytes in urine, leukocytes in peripheral blood, body temperature, and age for predicting bacteruric sepsis. The global accuracy of each test was estimated by calculating the area under its receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Chi-square and Fisher exact tests compared count data. Medians for data not normally distributed were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis test.Two thousand two hundred forty-nine young infants had a normal screening dipstick. None of these developed bacteremia or meningitis despite positive urine culture in 41 (1.8%). Of 1516 additional urine specimens sent for formal urinalysis, 1279 had 0–9 leukocytes/hpf. Urine pathogens were isolated less commonly (6% vs. 76%) and at lower concentrations in infants with few, compared to many urine leukocytes. Urine leukocytes (AUC: 0.94) were the most accurate predictors of bacteruric sepsis. Infants with urinary leukocytes < 10 cells/hpf were significantly less likely (0%; CI:0–0.3%) than those with higher leukocyte counts (5%; CI:2.6–8.7%) to have urinary tract infections complicated by bacteremia (N = 11) or bacterial meningitis (N = 1) – relative risk, 0 (CI:0–0.06) [RR, 0 (CI: 0–0.02), when including infants with negative dipstick]. Bands in peripheral blood had modest value for detecting bacteriuric sepsis (AUC: 0.78). Cases of sepsis without concomitant bacteriuria were comparatively rare (0.8%) and equally common in febrile young infants with low and high concentrations of urine leukocytes.In young infants evaluated for fever, leukocytes in urine reflect the likelihood of bacteriuric sepsis. Infants with urinary tract infections miss
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