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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 144304 matches for " F Ambaw "
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The effect of socio-demographic factors and sources of sex information on romantic love levels among Jimma university students
F Ambaw
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2009,
Abstract: Background: Romantic love levels determine the way individuals select their mate and what they expect from their sexual partners. Objective: To determine the effect of selected sociodemographic characteristics and sources of sex information on romantic love levels. Methods: A quantitative survey was conducted on 828 randomly selected regular students of Jimma University using a piloted questionnaire in May 2008. Results: The median age of the respondents was 20 (mean= 20.8, SD= 2). They had considerably high romantic love levels with Western type passion-focused ideals and myths about love and mate selection. Socio-demographic factors including gender, religion, ethnicity, place of origin (urban/rural), and level of education did not have a statistically significant effect on the romantic love level of the respondents. Romantic love levels were higher for those students who habitually watch love films, read love related materials or attend love related radio programs, but the effect sizes were small (Eta squared 0.0054, 0.0218, and 0.0131 respectively) indicating the presence of the romantic ideals in the culture itself. Conclusions: Romantic ideals of love were found in the culture and provoked by mass media products. Further community based investigations, and IEC (information, education, and communication) works are recommended.
The Structure and Reliability of the Amharic Version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in Orphan Adolescents in Addis Ababa
F Ambaw
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was developed as a self-assessment tool to identify anxiety and depression in patients of age 16-65 years. Its use in younger age groups and illiterate populations is not well examined. The purpose of this study was to examine the structure, reliability, and applicability of its Amharic version in a community sample of early orphan adolescents. METHODS: Secondary data primarily collected from randomly selected 804 orphans using the Amharic version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale by interview technique in March 2010 in Addis Ababa was used with permission. Confirmatory factor analysis with principal components extraction and oblique rotation (delta=0) was computed. The internal consistency of the subscales was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha and the correlation between the subscales was assessed using Pearson correlation. RESULTS: In the whole sample (age 11-18 years), two factors: anxiety and depression, explaining a total of 45.9% of the variance were found. In the 11-15 years sub-sample, the same two factors were extracted explaining a total of 45.7% of the variance. The Amharic-HADS had Cronbach’s alpha of 0.81 and 0.76 in the whole sample for the anxiety and depression sub-scales, respectively. In the 11-15 years sub-sample the corresponding alpha values for anxiety and depression scales were 0.80 and 0.77, respectively. The correlation between the anxiety and the depression subscales were 0.66 (p<0.001) and 0.67 (p< 0.001) for the whole sample and for the 11-15 years group, respectively. CONCLUSION: Administering the Amharic version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale by interviewers gave meaningful data starting from the age of 11 suggesting successful applicability of the scale with further validation. KEYWORDS: Amharic-HADS, orphan adolescents, structure of HADS
Boy/Girl Friend and Virginity Values, and Stigma Related to Condom among Jimma University Students
F Ambaw, A Mossie, T Gobena
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Traditional views of sexual behaviors are frequently changing as the factors influencing them are changing. Therefore, assessing sexual practices that are not part of the tradition would be necessary. The objective of this study was to identify the types of sexual practices, their development pattern and how these development patterns expose students to sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a sample of 1986 (1612 males, 365 females, and with 9 subjects’ gender not indicated) Jimma university students in August 2009 with their age ranging from 17-45 years (median = 20). Quantitative data was collected using a piloted, precoded questionnaire and qualitative data was collected from six focus group discussions. Logistic regression and descriptive statistics were computed and qualitative findings were triangulated with quantitative findings. P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Practice of penile to vaginal intercourse, masturbation, kissing, oral sex, and anal sex were reported by 567 (28.9%), 688 (36.7%), 840 (42.4%), 179 (9.2%) and 83 (4.3%) of the respondents, respectively. Respondents had two years (one year with and one year without condom) of sexual experience before marriage. Sixty percent of those who had sexual experience were exposed to sexually transmitted infections and 46.6% were exposed to both unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Forty seven percent of those who practiced oral sex and 29% of those who practiced anal sex did not consider their acts as sexual intercourse. Conclusions: University students are high risk groups that need more focused research and concerted health care. The term ‘sexual intercourse’ should be consciously defined for its future use in Ethiopia. Furthermore, Service providers and researchers should address all types of sexual practices.
Sexual Practices and their Development Pattern among Jimma University Students
F Ambaw, A Mossie, T Gobena
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Traditional views of sexual behaviors are frequently changing as the factors influencing them are changing. Therefore, assessing sexual practices that are not part of the tradition would be necessary. The objective of this study was to identify the types of sexual practices, their development pattern and how these development patterns expose students to sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a sample of 1986 (1612 males, 365 females, and with 9 subjects’ gender not indicated) Jimma university students in August 2009 with their age ranging from 17-45 years (median = 20). Quantitative data was collected using a piloted, precoded questionnaire and qualitative data was collected from six focus group discussions. Logistic regression and descriptive statistics were computed and qualitative findings were triangulated with quantitative findings. P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Practice of penile to vaginal intercourse, masturbation, kissing, oral sex, and anal sex were reported by 567 (28.9%), 688 (36.7%), 840 (42.4%), 179 (9.2%) and 83 (4.3%) of the respondents, respectively. Respondents had two years (one year with and one year without condom) of sexual experience before marriage. Sixty percent of those who had sexual experience were exposed to sexually transmitted infections and 46.6% were exposed to both unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Forty seven percent of those who practiced oral sex and 29% of those who practiced anal sex did not consider their acts as sexual intercourse. Conclusions: University students are high risk groups that need more focused research and concerted health care. The term ‘sexual intercourse’ should be consciously defined for its future use in Ethiopia. Furthermore, Service providers and researchers should address all types of sexual practices.
Psychological distress and its predictors in AIDS orphan adolescents in Addis Ababa city: A comparative survey
H Getachew, F Ambaw, L Abebe, W Kasahun
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2011,
Abstract: Back ground: In developing countries the number of children orphaned by AIDS is growing rapidly. Consequently, the psychological well-being of these children has become a serious concern. Objectives: To assess the psychological distress of AIDS orphans as compared to non-AIDS orphan adolescents and factors related to it, in Addis Ababa. Methods: Comparative cross-sectional design combining both quantitative and qualitative methods was used. An equal number of 438 subjects were included in this study with each group of AIDS and non-AIDS orphan adolescents between 11-18 age groups. Structured interviewer administered questionnaire and scales including HAD, Rosenberg’s and MPSS scales were used to measure the orphans’ level of depression, anxiety, self-esteem and their perceived social support. Result: Among the study participants, 279 (34.7%) orphan adolescents where 157 (39.1%) of AIDS and 122 (30.3 %) of non-AIDS orphan adolescents were depressed in the week before the survey. Moreover, 301(37.4%) orphan adolescents where 164 (40.8%) of AIDS and 137 (34.1%) of non-AID once were anxious. However, the difference observed in depression and anxiety [OR (95% CI) =1.164(0.733, 1.754) & 0.88(0.57, 1.33)] was not statistically significant. The main predicator variables of depression and anxiety in both study groups were their perceived social support and self-esteem. Factors such as discrimination, school enrollment, physical abuse, child labor were also identified as predicators. Conclusion : A large proportion of orphan adolescents are having psychological problems that can affect their present and future life. Thus, a more focused and concerted effort is needed to improve their mental health. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2011;25(2):135-142]
Khat chewing practice and its perceived health effects among communities of Dera Woreda, Amhara region, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Asmamaw Zeleke, Worku Awoke, Endalew Gebeyehu, Fentie Ambaw
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2013.34024
Abstract: Introduction: Khat chewing is believed to be rapidly increasing worldwide. Worldwide, it is estimated that 10 million people consume khat daily. Khat chewing practice renders certain influence on physical and psychological well being of the community and it can cause more serious adverse psychiatric, cardiovascular, dental and gastrointestinal effects. The recent sharp increase in khat consumption may not only affect the health of individuals but could also have serious socio-economic consequences. This study was conducted to assess prevalence of khat chewing practice, its associated factors and perceived health effects among communities in Dera woreda, Amhara region, Ethiopia 2013. Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted by using both quantitative and qualitative method of data. The sample size for quantitative was determined by using single population proportion formula and the households were selected by systematic sampling method and in the selected household, one respondent was selected by lottery among members of household aged 15 years and above. Data were collected by means of a pretested questionnaire; analysis was carried out using SPSS version 16. For the qualitative part ten in-depth interviews were conducted on purposely selected individuals and sample size for this method was determined through continuing to interview participants until no new information was obtained. Results: The response rate was 98.3%. Current prevalence of khat chewing practice was 17%. Males were more likely to chew khat (AOR, 18.53; 95%CI, 7.20-47.66) compared to females. Muslims were more likely to chew khat (AOR, 4.34; 95%CI, 2.07-9.11) compared to Orthodox Christians. Respondents who had family member chewing khat were more likely to chew khat (AOR, 2.67; 95%CI, 1.15-6.21) compared to family member without a chewer. Among all the respondents, 92.8% perceived the health effects of khat chewing practice. Respondents who did not perceive health effect of khat were 5 times more likely to chew khat (AOR = 5.10, 95%CI; 1.64-15.5) compared to those who perceived health effect of khat. Conclusions: The prevalence of khat chewing practice was 17% with high proportion of the khat chewers found in the urban setting. Sex, religion, residence, family chewing habit and perceived
Effect of Maternal Nutrition and Dietary Habits on Preeclampsia: A Case-Control Study  [PDF]
Mulualem Endeshaw, Fekadu Ambaw, Amanu Aragaw, Asrat Ayalew
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.521179
Abstract:
Introduction: Preeclampsia is one of the most commonly encountered hypertensive disorders of pregnancy that accounts for 20% - 80% of maternal mortality in developing countries, including Ethiopia. For many years diet has been suggested to play a role in preeclampsia. However, the hypotheses have been diverse and often revealed inconsistent results across studies. Moreover, rarely were these hypotheses studied in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to explore whether the incidence of preeclampsia was related to nutrient or micronutrient deficiencies. Objectives: To describe the effect of nutrition and dietary habits on the incidence of preeclampsia. Methods: A facility based unmatched case-control study was conducted among 453 (151 cases and 302 controls) pregnant women attending antepartum or intrapartum care in public health facilities of Bahir Dar City Administration. Case-control incidence density sampling followed by interviewer administered face to face interview, measurement of mid-arm circumference (MUAC) and document review were conducted using a standardized and pretested questionnaire. Data entry and cleaning was done by Epi Info Version 3.5.3. The data were transported to SPSS Version 20 for analysis. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied. Backward stepwise unconditional logistic regression analysis was employed to determine the putative association of predictive variables with the outcome variable and to control for the effect of confounding variables. A P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant at 95% confidence level throughout the study. Result: Those women having a MUAC value ≥ 25.6 cm were two times more likely than their counterparts to have preeclampsia (AOR = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.58, 3.94). Strikingly, higher odds of preeclampsia were found in women who reported to have taken coffee during pregnancy (AOR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.32, 3.53). Similarly, those women who had anemia during the first trimester pregnancy were three times more likely than their counterparts to have incidence of preeclampsia (AOR = 2.80, 95% CI = 1.09, 7.21). The result in this study also revealed that taking fruit or vegetables during pregnancy was found to be protective of preeclampsia (AOR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.19, 0.73, AOR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.22, 0.91) respectively. In addition, folate intake during pregnancy has shown a significant independent effect on the prevention of preeclampsia in this study (AOR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.10,
Parents' Perception, Students' and Teachers' attitude towards School Sex Education
Netsanet Fentahun, Tsion Assefa, Fessahaye Alemseged, Fentie Ambaw
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Sex education is described as education about human sexual anatomy, sexual reproduction, sexual intercourse, reproductive health, emotional relations, reproductive rights and responsibilities, abstinence, contraception, family planning, body image, sexual orientation, sexual pleasure, values, decision making, communication, dating, relationships, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and how to avoid them, and birth control methods. This study was conducted to explore perception of parents about school sex education and assess the attitude of teachers and students towards school sex education. Methods: A cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative study was conducted on randomly selected 386 students, total census of 94 teachers and 10 parents in Merawi Town from March 13-27, 2011. Data were collected using self-administered structured questionnaire and in-depth interview guideline. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed using total score to determine the effect of the independent variables on the outcome variable and thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. Results: All study participants have favourable attitude towards the importance of school sex education. They also agreed that the content of school sex education should include abstinence-only and abstinence-plus based on mental maturity of the students. That means at early age (Primary school) the content of school sex education should be abstinence-only and at later age (secondary school) the content of school sex education should be added abstinence-plus. The students and the teachers said that the minimum and maximum introduction time for school sex education is 5 year and 25 year with mean of 10.97(SD±4.3) and 12.36(SD±3.7) respectively. Teacher teaching experiences and field of studies have supportive idea about the starting of school sex education. Watching romantic movies, reading romantic materials and listening romantic radio programs appear to have a contribution on the predictor of students’ attitude towards the starting time of school sex education. Conclusion: All study participants have a need to start sex education at school. All study participants said that at early age (Primary school) the content of school sex education is abstinence-only and at later age (secondary school) is added abstinence-plus. School Sex education should be under considers the need of students, teachers and parents.
Evaluating the Relationship between the Banking System Stability and the Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process: Evidence from the Egyptian Banking Sector  [PDF]
Karim F. F. Mohamed
Journal of Financial Risk Management (JFRM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jfrm.2018.74020
Abstract: In the repercussions of the latest financial crisis that have occurred on the years 2008-2009, to fortify the stability of the banking systems, policy makers, and the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision—BCBS, together with national regulators have built up a few safety measures, and structures to guarantee that banks establishments keep up adequate capital levels through using risk management tools, in specific the Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Processes (ICAAP). They all have called for thorough evaluations and assessments for the structure and components of risk management frameworks, tools, and practices whether by banks, regulators, analysts and risk management experts consistently, to ascertain the adequacy of the banking systems, policies, arrangements and techniques for overseeing risks, and guaranteeing the sufficiency of holding appropriate capital levels for confronting normal, as well as adverse and unexpected situations or emergencies. The main objectives of this research study are to shed the light on the ICAAP as one of the main keys of risk management programs, a process by which banks can use to ensure that they operate with an appropriate level of capital, forward looking processes for capital planning covering a broad range of risks across banks, activities beyond simple capital management, and bring together risk and capital management activities in a form that can be used to support business decisions. The research study shall evaluate the significant relationship between the Banking System Stability (dependent variable) and the Internal Capital Adequacy Assessment Process (ICAAP—independent variable) with evidence from the Egyptian Banking Sector.
Kroniek
- F.
Nieuwe West-Indische Gids , 1949,
Abstract:
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