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Development and Validation of a Combined Methodology for Assessing the Total Quality Control of Herbal Medicinal Products – Application to Oleuropein Preparations
Nikolaos Lemonakis, Evagelos Gikas, Maria Halabalaki, Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078277
Abstract: Oleuropein (OE) is a secoiridoid glycoside, which occurs mostly in the Oleaceae family presenting several pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, cardio-protective, anti-atherogenic effects etc. Based on these findings OE is commercially available, as Herbal Medicinal Product (HMP), claimed for its antioxidant effects. As there are general provisions of the medicine regulating bodies e.g. European Medicines Agency, the quality of the HMP’s must always be demonstrated. Therefore, a novel LC-MS methodology was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of OE and its main degradation product, hydroxytyrosol (HT), for the relevant OE claimed HMP’s. The internal standard (IS) methodology was employed and separation of OE, HT and IS was achieved on a C18 Fused Core column with 3.1 min overall run time employing the SIM method for the analytical signal acquisition. The method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonisation requirements and the results show adequate linearity (r2 > 0.99) over a wide concentration range [0.1–15 μg/mL (n=12)] and a LLOQ value of 0.1 μg/mL, for both OE and HT. Furthermore, as it would be beneficial to control the quality taking into account all the substances of the OE claimed HMP’s; a metabolomics-like approach has been developed and applied for the total quality control of the different preparations employing UHPLC-HRMS-multivariate analysis (MVA). Four OE-claimed commercial HMP’s have been randomly selected and MVA similarity-based measurements were performed. The results showed that the examined samples could also be differentiated as evidenced according to their scores plot. Batch to batch reproducibility between the samples of the same brand has also been determined and found to be acceptable. Overall, the developed combined methodology has been found to be an efficient tool for the monitoring of the HMP’s total quality. Only one OE HMP has been found to be consistent to its label claim.
Commutativity theorems for rings and groups with constraints on commutators
Evagelos Psomopoulos
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 1984, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171284000569
Abstract: Let n>1, m, t, s be any positive integers, and let R be an associative ring with identity. Suppose xt[xn,y]=[x,ym]ys for all x, y in R. If, further, R is n-torsion free, then R is commutativite. If n-torsion freeness of R is replaced by “m, n are relatively prime, ” then R is still commutative. Moreover, example is given to show that the group theoretic analogue of this theorem is not true in general. However, it is true when t=s=0 and m=n+1.
Three-Dimensional Laser Scanning for Geometry Documentation and Construction Management of Highway Tunnels during Excavation
Vassilis Gikas
Sensors , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/s120811249
Abstract: Driven by progress in sensor technology, computer software and data processing capabilities, terrestrial laser scanning has recently proved a revolutionary technique for high accuracy, 3D mapping and documentation of physical scenarios and man-made structures. Particularly, this is of great importance in the underground space and tunnel construction environment as surveying engineering operations have a great impact on both technical and economic aspects of a project. This paper discusses the use and explores the potential of laser scanning technology to accurately track excavation and construction activities of highway tunnels. It provides a detailed overview of the static laser scanning method, its principles of operation and applications for tunnel construction operations. Also, it discusses the planning, execution, data processing and analysis phases of laser scanning activities, with emphasis given on geo-referencing, mesh model generation and cross-section extraction. Specific case studies are considered based on two construction sites in Greece. Particularly, the potential of the method is examined for checking the tunnel profile, producing volume computations and validating the smoothness/thickness of shotcrete layers at an excavation stage and during the completion of excavation support and primary lining. An additional example of the use of the method in the geometric documentation of the concrete lining formwork is examined and comparisons against dimensional tolerances are examined. Experimental comparisons and analyses of the laser scanning method against conventional surveying techniques are also considered.
Der Einfluss des Schaumssystems auf die Selektivit t des Flotationsprozesses bei der Zinnsteinflotation
Savvidis Serafim G.,Vatalis Kostas I.,Kargiotis Evagelos,Charalambidis Georgios
Acta Montanistica Slovaca , 2001,
Abstract: The study presented here is to determine the effect of the froth system on the selectivity of the cassiterite flotation with the sulfosuccinamate Aerosol A 22. This observation was done in order to find out in what way the collecting and frothing properties of the reagent system influence the selection of the mineral particles in the froth product.Simple examination regarding the surface and interfacial tension measurements as well as regarding contact angle and froth formation measurements have been made to specify the mode of action of different froth regulators in an aqueous solution using the sulfosuccinamate Aerosol 22 as collector.The outcome was verified by flotation tests with Bolivian natural cassiterite ores. It was established that the froth regulating reagents of the silicone group an extra quantity of 0.5% 1% in relation to the frothing reagents is enough to improve the selectivity of the cassiterite flotation.
Level of Knowledge of specialist cardiologists and anesthesiologists in Basic and Advanced Life Support
Maria Vachla,Dimitris Barouxis,Evagelos Kotsiomitis,Lila Papadimitriou Lila
To Vima tou Asklipiou , 2013,
Abstract: Health professionals often witness in-hospital episodes of cardiac arrest. The quality of the Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) depends on the level of theoretical background and practical skills. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the level of theoretical knowledge of skilled cardiologists and anesthesiologists in the Basic and Advanced Life Support (BLS/ ALS). Material - method: In this study, sample included 240 cardiologists and anesthesiologists, chosen randomly from employers of 17 General Public Hospitals of Athens. For data collection, a questionnaire with 16 theoretical questions was designed, based on the guidelines of the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) 2005. Significance level was set at p=≤0,05. The analysis was performed with the Statistical Package IBM SPSS Statistics 19. Results: No statistically significant difference was observed between specialists cardiologists and anesthesiologists in overall performance in theoretical knowledge on the BLS and ALS. Additionally, no statistical significance was observed between the two separate groups of theoretical background. Statistically significant difference was observed among those who had participated in a training seminar in BLS and ALS and those who had not participated (p<0,001). Also, there was statistical significance between the follow-up seminar in BLS/ ALS and specialty for the right answer to the question "which is the right ratio of chest compressions and ventilation", (p<0,001). Conclusions: The level of background knowledge of specialist cardiologists and anesthesiologists in the algorithms of BLS and ALS seem to correlate to the attendance of a training course.
Prostate Cancer Screening in Greece: Current Facts
Konstantinos Stamatiou,Michael Lardas,Evagelos Kostakos,Vasilios Koutsonasios
Urology Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Introduction: The purpose of the current article is to summarize the existing literature focusing on the current status of prostate cancer screening behaviour in Greece. Materials and Methods: We identified studies published from 2000 onwards by searching the MEDLINE database of the National Library of Medicine. Initial search terms were prostate-specific antigen screening, prostate cancer screening, and Greece. Bibliographic information of the selected publications was checked for relevant publications not included in the MEDLINE search. Results: Currently in Greece, there is no official recommendation for prostate cancer screening, and thus, its practice depends on the social and educational status of the patient and where the patient lives in Greece. Conclusion: We conclude that patients should be thoroughly informed of the limitations of prostate cancer screening by prostate-specific antigen test, and in consultation with urological specialists, make their personal decision of whether to receive it. Therefore, a project to support shared decision-making and informed choice for men considering testing for prostate cancer should be undertaken.
Acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction after amoxycillin-induced anaphylactic shock in a young adult with normal coronary arteries: a case report
Aristofanis Gikas, George Lazaros, Kalliopi Kontou-Fili
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2261-5-6
Abstract: The case of a 32-year-old asthmatic male with systemic anaphylaxis, due to oral intake of 500 mg amoxycillin, complicated by acute ST-elevation MI is the subject of this report. Following admission to the local Health Center and almost simultaneously with the second dose of subcutaneous epinephrine (0.2 mg), the patient developed acute myocardial injury. Coronary arteriography, performed before discharge, showed no evidence of obstructive coronary artery disease. In vivo allergological evaluation disclosed strong sensitivity to amoxycillin and the minor (allergenic) determinants of penicillin.Acute ST-elevation MI is a rare but potential complication of anaphylactic reactions, even in young adults with normal coronary arteries. Coronary artery spasm appears to be the main causative mechanism of MI in the setting of "cardiac anaphylaxis". However, on top of the vasoactive reaction, a thrombotic occlusion, induced by mast cell-derived mediators and facilitated by prolonged hypotension, cannot be excluded as a possible contributory factor.Acute myocardial infarction (MI) complicating anaphylaxis induced by drugs or other chemicals is uncommon and only sporadic cases have been reported [1-9]. The underlying pathogenetic mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The case of a 32-year-old man with normal coronary arteries, who developed acute MI following amoxycillin-induced anaphylaxis, is the subject of this report. The underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are also discussed and the relative literature is reviewed.A 32-year-old man was admitted to the emergency room of the local Health Center because of anaphylaxis, which developed 2 hours and 15 minutes after the ingestion of amoxycillin (500 mg), prescribed by his dentist. Prodromal signs of anaphylaxis (flushing, pruritus, warmth, urticaria) reportedly occurred about 15 minutes before the onset of symptoms from other systems. Ten days earlier the patient, an asthmatic since childhood, had completed a 4-day course of a
Oral manifestations of patients with inflammatory bowel disease
Flora Zervou,A. Gikas,E. Merikas,G. Peros
Annals of Gastroenterology , 2007,
Abstract: Background: Crohn s disease (CD) is considered to be a disease involving the whole gastrointestinal tract, while ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease exclusively located in the large bowel. The aim of this study was to examine whether patients with either CD or UC are at increased risk for developing oral manifestations. Patients-Methods: A wide spectrum of oral lesions was carefully sought by the same oral dentist in a consecutive series of 30 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (15 with CD and 15 with UC). Forty-seven healthy individuals (matched for age and sex), attendants of our dental clinic served as controls. Results: 93% of UC and 87% of the CD group had at least one lesion compared to 55% of the control group (P<0.005). Significantly more patients with CD had mandibula lymphadenopathy (P<0.0001), ulcers (P=0.011), angular cheilitis (P<0.0001), hair tongue (P=0.011), periodontitis (P=0.011), gingival bleeding (P<0.0001), gingivitis (P=0.002), cobblestone appearance of the mucosa (P=0.002), polypoid tags (P=0.002), buccal trauma (P<0.0001) and lip swelling (P=0.002) as compared to healthy controls. Ulcerative colitis patients had in a significantly higher proportion of involvement of salivary glands (P<0.0001), as well as lymphadenopathy (P=0.002), buccal trauma (P<0.0001) and angular cheilitis (P<0.0001), compared to healthy controls. Significantly more patients with CD or UC had concurrently 3 or more oral manifestations as compared to normal controls (P<0.0001). On multivariate analysis, age and IBD were the only factors significantly related to the existence of oral lesions (OR 1.07, 95% CI: 1.02 1.13, P=0.009). No correlation between activity and duration of disease, sex and smoking habit, with the presence of oral manifestations, was noticed. No significant differences between patients and controls in the incidence of other lesions, including leukoplakia, and aphthouslike ulcers were found. No cases of pyostomatitis vegetans in either patients with IBD or controls were found. Conclusion: Although the number of patients included in the study is small we can conclude that oral manifestations in patients with IBD (especially in those with CD), is a frequent and underestimated event that needs further clinical validation. Key words: Inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, Ulcerative colitis, Oral manifestations
Pregnancy and inflammatory bowel disease in Greece: A prospective study of seven cases in a single hospital setting
J. K. Triantafillidis,G. Malgarinos,A. Gikas,Evi Delicha
Annals of Gastroenterology , 2007,
Abstract: objective: Taking into account the relative confusion in the literature concerning the influence of pregnancy on the underlying inflammatory disease and vice versa, as well as the influence of drugs on the foetus and the gestation itself, we performed this prospective study, as data regarding this important clinical issue in Greece, are lacking. Patients and Methods: Prospective follow-up study of 7 pregnancies in 7 women with previously established IBD, 3 with ulcerative colitis and 4 with Crohn’s disease. Results were compared to those of 7 women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with similar clinicoepidemiological data but without gestation (disease control group), and 14 healthy pregnant women (healthy control group). Results: a)Patients with IBD and gestation vs healthy control group: Significantly impaired body weight in newborns from IBD mothers compared to healthy women (2,735+/-86 g vs 3,215+/-613g, P=0.06) was found. Significantly more cases of spontaneous abortion or premature delivery in pregnant women with IBD compared to healthy pregnant women (3/7(43%) vs 1/14(7%), P=0.04 ) were also noticed. Concerning drug consumption it was noticed that azathioprine was taken regularly in one case of spontaneous abortion and in one case of premature delivery. No significant differences concerning other parameters such as smoking habit and death of foetus were observed. b) Patients with IBD and gestation vs patients with IBD without gestation: No significant differences in the history of various parameters of the disease (number of operations, presence of fistulas), previous gestations, and course of the disease during gestation were found. c) Course of the disease six months after delivery: No significant differences between patients with IBD and pregnancy and disease control group were noticed. Conclusion: It is concluded that the course of gestation in Greek women with IBD is accompanied by some unwanted events such as premature delivery, spontaneous abortion, and reduced body weight of the newborn. Clinicians must bear in mind the possibility of the appearance of some unwanted events in pregnant women with IBD during their gestation. Key Words: Ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, Inflammatory bowel disease, Pregnancy, outcome
Maintenance treatment of Crohn’s disease with a polymeric feed rich in TGF-β
J.K. Triantafillidis,,A. Stamataki,v. Karagianni,A. Gikas
Annals of Gastroenterology , 2010,
Abstract: Rationale: Dietetic intervention with polymeric diet rich in transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2) represents a relatively satisfactory therapeutic modality in adult patients with mild to moderately active Crohn’s disease. However, there is no information concerning long-term results of this special diet. The aim of this study was to compare the results of the administration of a special diet (Modulen IBD) rich in TGF-β2 with those of the administration of mesalamine, in maintaining remission in patients with Crohn’s disease. Methods: Of the 83 patients initially included in the study, 76 (91.5%) [36 in the Modulen and 30 in the mesalamine arm] completed the trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either two meals (2X50g) of Modulen IBD plus two regular meals per day (43 patients) or mesalamine (800mg three times a day) (40 patients) for six months. Patients were assessed at sixth months after initiation of the trial. Relapse was defined as a Crohn’s Disease Activity Index of greater than 150 points or at least 60 points over baseline. Various anthropometric parameters and serum estimations including ESR, CRP, platelets, albumin, vitamin B12 and folic acid were carried out at the beginning of the trial and after six months. Results: Twenty-five patients in the Modulen arm (69%) continued to be in remission after six months compared with 18(60%) receiving mesalamine (no significant differences). Among patients with relapse the mean time to relapse was 103 days for those treated with mesalamine and 123 days for those treated with Modulen (no significant differences). Conclusion:Modulen-IBD treatment reduced relapse rate to a better degree compared with mesalamine treatment, although statistical significance was not achieved.
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