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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4965 matches for " Eva "
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Exploring Coping Effectiveness and Optimism among Municipal Employees  [PDF]
Tuija Muhonen, Eva Torkelson
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.26090
Abstract: The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between coping, optimism, psychological and physical well-being. The effectiveness of the different coping strategies and the role of optimism were investigated by analyzing how they predicted psychological and physical well-being. Altogether 136 municipal employees participated in a questionnaire study. The results showed that the most adaptive or effective coping strategy concerning psychological and physical well-being was acceptance, which can be classified as engagement coping. Ineffective strategies regarding psychological well-being included disengagement coping strategies such as sub- stance use, behavioral disengagement and self-blame. An ineffective strategy regarding physiological well-being was denial, which can be classified as a disengagement strategy. Optimism correlated significantly with both psychological and physical well-being. However, when all the variables in the model were included in the regression analysis, optimism explained additional variance in physical well-being but not in psychological well-being.
The role of histamine H4 receptors as a potential targets in allergic rhinitis and asthma  [PDF]
Eva Hanuskova, Jana Plevkova
Open Journal of Molecular and Integrative Physiology (OJMIP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmip.2013.31002

Histamine—the main product of mast cells plays critical role in the pathogenetic pathways of both allergic rhinitis and asthma. The novel concept of the unique airway diseases its only supported by the similarities within pathogenetic process. Antagonists of H1 and H2 receptors are quite effective in allergic rhinitis, but not effective enough in asthma. In an era of corticosteroids, leucotriene antagonists and Anti-IgE treatment, there is still a challenge to search for more effective, more acurate and more safe treatment option. Antagonists (inversive agonists) of histamine receptors H4 seems to be one of the promising targets in the allergic rhinitis and asthma treatment. The first H4 antagonist entered to clinics and the results from a proof-of-concept Phase II clinical study is expected to be disclosed soon. This review article summarizes current knowledge on H4R that have been collected in various studies sharing evidences about efficacy of H4R as a reasonable target for diseases with histamine involved pathogenetic pathways.

What Reasons Might the Other One Have?—Perspective Taking to Reduce Psychological Reactance in Individualists and Collectivists  [PDF]
Christina Steindl, Eva Jonas
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.312A170

Previous research has demonstrated a considerable amount of negative consequences resulting from psychological reactance. The purpose of this study was to explore opportunities to reduce the amount of reactance. Using the method of perspective taking as an intervention, the current study of 196 Austrians and 198 Filipinos examined whether reactance could be reduced and whether individualists and collectivists differ concerning reactance and their perspective taking abilities. Our results indicated that participants who took the perspective of the person who threatened them experienced less reactance than participants who did not take this approach. This was the case for people from both cultural backgrounds. Nevertheless, comparisons among the two cultural groups yielded different reactions to restrictions. This indicates that individualists are more sensitive to a self-experienced restriction than collectivists, but less sensitive to a restriction of another person. Consequently, we consider culture to be a crucial determinant in predicting the amount of reactance.

Caring about symptoms in person-centred care  [PDF]
Eva Brink, Carola Skott
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2013.38077

In the present article, we emphasize the symptom experience perspective in person-centred care and discuss barriers to implementation of this approach. There are obstacles to overcome: the diversity of understandings of symptoms in clinical settings, the current biomedical discourse and the incompleteness of symptom research. Since the 19th century, the biomedical perspective has been powerful in conceptualizing symptoms in terms of pathology and diagnosis. Many diagnoses conjure up preconceived notions about the persons receiving them. This perspective may influence person-centred care negatively. Yet symptoms often mean something beyond the diagnosis. Recognizing this discrepancy, it is crucial that we consider a perspective that starts from each person’s symptom experience, thus complementing the biomedical perspective. Using the notion caring about symptoms, we advocate a person-centred approach that includes a symptom experience perspective. This requires health-care professionals to be skilled in listening to patient narratives and acquire knowledge about how symptom experiences can be individually expressed and interpreted. Listening to symptom experiences may give insights into the personal meaning of illness as well as information about bodily and social restrictions caused by symptom distress. In this way, caring about symptoms will improve the prerequisites for establishing person-centred care planning.

Implementation of evidence-based practice by standardized care plans: A study protocol  [PDF]
Inger Jansson, Eva T?rnvall
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2013.38A007

Background: Patient records should both transfer and create knowledge about patients and their health care. A standardized care plan could be a way to implement evidence-based care directly in practice and improve the documentation in patient records. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the development and implementation process of a standardized care plan in hospital and primary health care. A further aim is to evaluate the effects on the quality of documentation and the care given in two contexts. Methods and Analysis: Realistic evaluation will be used as a framework to investigate the implementation process. According to this framework, possible contexts, mechanisms, and outcomes in the study will be considered. The study will be performed in two contexts: an orthopedic clinic and primary health care centers. In both contexts, the two key mechanisms will be the same: the implementation process will be driven by internal facilitators (practitioners at the units) and the process will be guided by the Rules and Regulations for interoperability in the Health and Social Care specification, “National information structure for standardized care plans”. Two outcomes of the study will be studied: to investigate the development and implementation process by an evaluation of fidelity and to evaluate how a standardized care plan affects the quality of documentation and the use of evidence-based care. Discussion: Implementation of the SCP will probably meet the same resistance as implementation of guidelines. Documentation of care is an important but resource-consuming requirement in health care, a more standardized method of documenting is requested by health professionals. This project can provide insight into the complex process of developing and implement an SCP in different contexts, which will be useful in further implementation processes.

?La voz del Amado1?: Palabras de promesa y realidad del entendimiento en el Com Cant de Gregorio de Nisa
Teología y vida , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0049-34492011000100008
Abstract: this article aims to understand the relationship between reason and revelation in in cant. by gregory of nyssa. the subject basically pertains to theological anthropology, since, faced with finite man's difficulty in aspiring to the infinite, the experience of grace becomes clear: without discrediting human effort or reason, the nyssian asserts that it is only known through love; god is recognized as always greater, and reason within its own limits.
Lattice Operators and Topologies
Eva Cogan
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/474356
Abstract: Working within a complete (not necessarily atomic) Boolean algebra, we use a sublattice to define a topology on that algebra. Our operators generalize complement on a lattice which in turn abstracts the set theoretic operator. Less restricted than those of Banaschewski and Samuel, the operators exhibit some surprising behaviors. We consider properties of such lattices and their interrelations. Many of these properties are abstractions and generalizations of topological spaces. The approach is similar to that of Bachman and Cohen. It is in the spirit of Alexandroff, Frolík, and Nöbeling, although the setting is more general. Proceeding in this manner, we can handle diverse topological theorems systematically before specializing to get as corollaries as the topological results of Alexandroff, Alo and Shapiro, Dykes, Frolík, and Ramsay.
Albumin binding ligands and albumin conjugate uptake by cancer cells
Eva Frei
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1758-5996-3-11
Abstract: Insulin detemir was developed as a long acting drug to achieve a continuous and steady blood level of insulin rather than the peaks achieved with postprandial injections of conventional insulin. The molecule was modified by eliminating Thr 30 and adding a C14 fatty acid (myristic acid) by a chemically very stable amide bond to the epsilon amine of Lys 29 on the B chain of human insulin [Figure 1]. The reason for the long duration of action of insulin detemir of about 20 hrs compared to 12- 16 hrs for Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin is considered to be its binding to human serum albumin (HSA) to be released either at the insulin receptor or in circulation [1]. The mechanisms of its binding and even more so of its release are, however, not very clear and the author of this short review will try to critically evaluate the literature available on the subject in view of the properties of albumin loaded with either fatty acids or covalently bound drugs and its cellular uptake.Albumin is the major protein in blood plasma, its blood levels are tightly regulated because of its importance for homeostasis [2]. One of its functions is the transport of physiological non or poorly water soluble molecules like fatty acids, steroids and drugs. These are bound to distinct hydrophobic pockets in the albumin molecule, which has a very rigid and stable three dimensional structure due to 17 S-S bonds. In addition albumin contains very few aromatic amino acids but many amino acids with functional groups like amino and carboxyl groups, these contribute to stabilising the blood pH. In addition to greatly increasing its stability against solvents, denaturing agents and heat - an unusual property for a protein of 66 kDa molecular weight - these functional groups make albumin amenable to chemically link drugs. The body is, however, very sensitive to the structure of albumin and rapidly eliminates any molecules which have not retained the native structure of albumin [3]. Therefore onl
Obesity hormone leptin: a new target in breast cancer?
Eva Surmacz
Breast Cancer Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/bcr1638
Abstract: Obesity has been shown to increase breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women by 30% to 50% [1]. Moreover, high body mass index has been found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of inflammatory breast cancer in both premenopausal and postmenopausal populations [1]. In a very recent report on breast cancer, obese patients presented with larger, more advanced tumors and aggressive cancer pathological features, including lymph node metastases, advanced tumor stage, and high grade [2].Despite this suggestive epidemiological evidence, the molecular mechanisms of obesity-induced breast carcinogenesis are not clear. One hypothesis is that high levels of biologically active substances produced by fat cells (adipokines) could promote breast cancer development. Indeed, adipose tissue is a source of estrogens, insulin and insulin-like growth factors, all of which are believed to be involved in mammary tumorigenesis and have been extensively evaluated as breast cancer markers and therapeutic targets. However, the possible role of the most prominent adipokine, leptin (obesity protein), is just being recognized.Leptin was first described as a neurohormone whose primary function is to regulate energy balance and food intake in the hypothalamus. Subsequent studies found that leptin can modulate several processes in the peripheral organs, such as immune response, fertility, and hematopoiesis. On a cellular level, leptin has been found to act as a mitogen, metabolic regulator, and motogenic and pro-angiogenic factors [1,3]. In addition, new evidence suggests that leptin could be involved in tumorigenesis, especially in the development of breast, colorectal and prostate cancers [1].In several breast cancer cell models, leptin has been shown to induce proliferation, survival and anchorage-independent growth. These leptin activities are mediated through the long/signaling form of the leptin receptor (ObRL) that, upon leptin binding, can stimulate the Jak/STAT3, ERK1/2
Dose response of ACE inhibitors: implications of the SECURE trial
Eva Lonn
Trials , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/cvm-2-4-155
Abstract: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been used extensively in the management of hypertension and heart failure. Recent trials, primarily the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) study, also demonstrate a clear role for these agents in reducing the risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients without heart failure and with preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction [1]. Experimental research and recent clinical studies also show favorable effects of ACE inhibitor therapy on the arterial vascular wall. The Study to Evaluate Carotid Ultrasound changes in patients treated with Ramipril and vitamin E (SECURE), a substudy of the HOPE trial, thus demonstrated reduced progression of carotid atherosclerosis in patients treated with ramipril [2]. Other investigations have revealed improved endothelial function in patients receiving ACE inhibitors [3,4].What are 'optimal' doses of ACE inhibitors to be used in different clinical settings? This question is encountered frequently by clinicians and remains controversial. A number of surveys suggest that clinicians often prefer the use of low doses of ACE inhibitors, and the perception that low doses are as effective as high ones is quite prevalent. In addition, clinicians frequently titrate ACE inhibitor dose according to blood pressure and rely on 'adequate' blood pressure control as a marker of the effectiveness of this therapy, not only in patients treated for hypertension, but also in those treated for heart failure and for reduction of cardiovascular risk.In this commentary, several lines of evidence have been extracted from clinical trials in chronic heart failure, coronary artery disease (CAD) and atherosclerosis to show that the size of the ACE inhibitor dose matters, higher doses are more effective than lower doses and the duration of therapy is important.Several clinical trials in heart failure have specifically addressed the question of optimal ACE inhibitor dose (Table 1) [5,6,7,8].
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