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main product of mast cells plays critical role in the pathogenetic pathways of
both allergic rhinitis and asthma. The novel concept of the unique airway
diseases its only supported by the similarities within pathogenetic process.
Antagonists of H1 and H2 receptors are quite effective in allergic rhinitis,
but not effective enough in asthma. In an era of corticosteroids, leucotriene
antagonists and Anti-IgE treatment, there is still a challenge to search for
more effective, more acurate and more safe treatment option. Antagonists
(inversive agonists) of histamine receptors H4 seems to be one of the promising
targets in the allergic rhinitis and asthma treatment. The first H4 antagonist
entered to clinics and the results from a proof-of-concept Phase II clinical
study is expected to be disclosed soon. This review article summarizes
current knowledge on H4R that have been collected in various studies sharing
evidences about efficacy of H4R as a reasonable target for diseases with
histamine involved pathogenetic pathways.
Previous research has demonstrated a considerable amount of negative consequences resulting from psychological reactance. The purpose of this study was to explore opportunities to reduce the amount of reactance. Using the method of perspective taking as an intervention, the current study of 196 Austrians and 198 Filipinos examined whether reactance could be reduced and whether individualists and collectivists differ concerning reactance and their perspective taking abilities. Our results indicated that participants who took the perspective of the person who threatened them experienced less reactance than participants who did not take this approach. This was the case for people from both cultural backgrounds. Nevertheless, comparisons among the two cultural groups yielded different reactions to restrictions. This indicates that individualists are more sensitive to a self-experienced restriction than collectivists, but less sensitive to a restriction of another person. Consequently, we consider culture to be a crucial determinant in predicting the amount of reactance.