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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 26218 matches for " Eun-Young Kim "
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Bus Stops and Bus Users in the City of Detroit
Eun-Young Kim
Solstice : Electronic Journal of Geography and Mathematics , 2002,
Abstract: The link to the fulltext on a current website is given below. Should that link fail to work, please go to this persistent URL and download the associated file for this issue. http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/handle/2027.42/58219While you are there, take a look around and see if there are other issues and documents that are related to your interests!
Effects of the Boron-Doped p+ Emitter on the Efficiency of the n-Type Silicon Solar Cell
Eun-Young Kim,Jeong Kim
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/974507
Abstract: The optimum structure of the p+ emitter for the n-type silicon solar cell was determined with the simulation of the boron doping concentration. The boron concentration ( ) in the p+ emitter was varied in the range of and ?atoms/cm3 while maintaining the base doping concentration at ?atoms/cm3. With the increase of the boron concentration, the open circuit voltage ( ) of the cell increased up to 0.525?V and then was nearly saturated at ?atoms/cm3. On the other hand, the short circuit current density ( ) began to decrease at ?atoms/cm3 due to the increase of the surface recombination loss, and without considering the variation of the contact resistance along the emitter doping level, the maximum efficiency of the cell was obtained at around ?atoms/cm3. While the contact resistance of the electrode decreases with the increase of the doping concentration in the p+ emitter, and with consideration of the variation of the contact resistance, the optimum value of for maximum efficiency shifted to the higher doping level. 1. Introduction Currently, the p-type silicon solar cell comprises a large portion of the industrial solar cells. On the other hand, the n-type silicon solar cell has been known to have many advantages and has subsequently received a great deal of attention and has become one of the main development topics in PV industries. Crystalline silicon solar cell using the n-type wafer showed the highest efficiency record among commercial silicon solar cells [1]. The n-type wafer has a longer diffusion length than the p-type wafer as a result of a higher tolerance to common transition metal impurities [2, 3]. Also, it does not contain any boron-oxide pairs, which are considered as the origin of light-induced degradation (LID) in the p-type Si wafer [4]. Thus, the performance of the n-type silicon solar cell can almost be maintained without degradation during the illumination of light. Furthermore, since the doping profile of boron is more similar to the theoretical model than that of phosphorous, the application of simulation to the real emitter diffusion process is more suitable for the n-type Si wafer. In spite of the definite advantages of n-type silicon, p-type silicon comprises 85% of industrial silicon solar cells. Historically, research and process infrastructure have been mainly developed for p-type silicon solar cells, which are essential to make economical and high-efficient commercial solar cells. In order to realize a p+ emitter on n-type silicon wafer, three kinds of methods are usually applied: (i) boron-diffused emitter, (ii) Al-alloyed
APOBEC3G Inhibits Elongation of HIV-1 Reverse Transcripts
Kate N. Bishop,Mohit Verma,Eun-Young Kim,Steven M. Wolinsky,Michael H. Malim
PLOS Pathogens , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000231
Abstract: APOBEC3G (A3G) is a host cytidine deaminase that, in the absence of Vif, restricts HIV-1 replication and reduces the amount of viral DNA that accumulates in cells. Initial studies determined that A3G induces extensive mutation of nascent HIV-1 cDNA during reverse transcription. It has been proposed that this triggers the degradation of the viral DNA, but there is now mounting evidence that this mechanism may not be correct. Here, we use a natural endogenous reverse transcriptase assay to show that, in cell-free virus particles, A3G is able to inhibit HIV-1 cDNA accumulation not only in the absence of hypermutation but also without the apparent need for any target cell factors. We find that although reverse transcription initiates in the presence of A3G, elongation of the cDNA product is impeded. These data support the model that A3G reduces HIV-1 cDNA levels by inhibiting synthesis rather than by inducing degradation.
Approximate controllability and regularity for nonlinear differential equations
Jeong Jin-Mun,Kim Jin-Ran,Ju Eun-Young
Advances in Difference Equations , 2011,
Abstract: In this article, we deal with the existence, uniqueness, and a variation of solutions of the nonlinear control system with nonlinear monotone hemicontinuous and coercive operator. Moreover, the approximate controllability for the given nonlinear control system is studied.
Inhibition of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages by Jeju plant extracts
Eun-Jin Yang, , Eun-Young Yim, , Gwanpil Song, , Gi-Ok Kim, Chang-Gu Hyun
Interdisciplinary Toxicology , 2009, DOI: 10.2478/v10102-009-0022-2
Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO) produced in large amounts by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is known to be responsible for the vasodilation and hypotension observed during septic shock and inflammation. Thus, inhibitors of iNOS may be useful candidates for the treatment of inflammatory diseases accompanied by the overproduction of NO. In this study, we prepared alcoholic extracts of Jeju plants and screened them for their inhibitory activity against NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. Among the 260 kinds of plant extract tested, 122 extracts showed potent inhibitory activity towards NO production by more than 25% at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. Plants such as Malus sieboldii, Vaccinium oldhamii, Corylus hallaisanensis, Carpinus laxiflora, Styrax obassia, and Securinega suffruticosa showed the most potent inhibition (above 70%) at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. The cytotoxic effects of the plant extracts were determined by colorimetric MTT assays and most plant extracts exhibited only moderate cytotoxicity at 100 μg/mL. Therefore, these plants should be considered promising candidates for the further purification of bioactive compounds and would be useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases accompanying overproduction of NO.
Preservation of Tetherin and CD4 Counter-Activities in Circulating Vpu Alleles despite Extensive Sequence Variation within HIV-1 Infected Individuals
Suzanne Pickering,Stephane Hué,Eun-Young Kim,Susheel Reddy,Steven M. Wolinsky,Stuart J. D. Neil
PLOS Pathogens , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003895
Abstract: The HIV-1 Vpu protein is expressed from a bi-cistronic message late in the viral life cycle. It functions during viral assembly to maximise infectious virus release by targeting CD4 for proteosomal degradation and counteracting the antiviral protein tetherin (BST2/CD317). Single genome analysis of vpu repertoires throughout infection in 14 individuals infected with HIV-1 clade B revealed extensive amino acid diversity of the Vpu protein. For the most part, this variation in Vpu increases over the course of infection and is associated with predicted epitopes of the individual's MHC class I haplotype, suggesting CD8+ T cell pressure is the major driver of Vpu sequence diversity within the host. Despite this variability, the Vpu functions of targeting CD4 and counteracting both physical virus restriction and NF-κB activation by tetherin are rigorously maintained throughout HIV-1 infection. Only a minority of circulating alleles bear lesions in either of these activities at any given time, suggesting functional Vpu mutants are heavily selected against even at later stages of infection. Comparison of Vpu proteins defective for one or several functions reveals novel determinants of CD4 downregulation, counteraction of tetherin restriction, and inhibition of NF-κB signalling. These data affirm the importance of Vpu functions for in vivo persistence of HIV-1 within infected individuals, not simply for transmission, and highlight its potential as a target for antiviral therapy.
Gas6 Downregulation Impaired Cytoplasmic Maturation and Pronuclear Formation Independent to the MPF Activity
Kyeoung-Hwa Kim,Eun-Young Kim,Yuna Kim,Eunju Kim,Hyun-Seo Lee,Sook-Young Yoon,Kyung-Ah Lee
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023304
Abstract: Previously, we found that the growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) is more highly expressed in germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes than in metaphase II (MII) oocytes using annealing control primer (ACP)-PCR technology. The current study was undertaken to investigate the role of Gas6 in oocyte maturation and fertilization using RNA interference (RNAi). Interestingly, despite the specific and marked decrease in Gas6 mRNA and protein expression in GVs after Gas6 RNAi, nuclear maturation including spindle structures and chromosome segregation was not affected. The only discernible effect induced by Gas6 RNAi was a change in maturation promoting factor (MPF) activity. After parthenogenetic activation, Gas6 RNAi-treated oocytes at the MII stage had not developed further and arrested at MII (90.0%). After stimulation with Sr2+, Gas6-silenced MII oocytes had markedly reduced Ca2+ oscillation and exhibited no exocytosis of cortical granules. In these oocytes, sperm penetration occurred during fertilization but not pronucleus (PN) formation. By roscovitine and colcemid treatment, we found that the Gas6 knockdown affected cytoplasmic maturation directly, independent to the changed MPF activity. These results strongly suggest that 1) the Gas6 signaling itself is important to the cytoplasmic maturation, but not nuclear maturation, and 2) the decreased Gas6 expression and decreased MPF activity separately or mutually influence sperm head decondensation and PN formation.
Function of COP9 Signalosome in Regulation of Mouse Oocytes Meiosis by Regulating MPF Activity and Securing Degradation
Eunju Kim, Se-Jin Yoon, Eun-Young Kim, Yunna Kim, Hyun-Seo Lee, Kyeoung-Hwa Kim, Kyung-Ah Lee
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025870
Abstract: The COP9 (constitutive photomorphogenic) signalosome (CSN), composed of eight subunits, is a highly conserved protein complex that regulates processes such as cell cycle progression and kinase signalling. Previously, we found the expression of the COP9 constitutive photomorphogenic homolog subunit 3 (CSN3) and subunit 5 (CSN5) changes as oocytes mature for the first time, and there is no report regarding roles of COP9 in the mammalian oocytes. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the effects of RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated transient knockdown of each subunit on the meiotic cell cycle in mice oocytes. Following knockdown of either CSN3 or CSN5, oocytes failed to complete meiosis I. These arrested oocytes exhibited a disrupted meiotic spindle and misarranged chromosomes. Moreover, down-regulation of each subunit disrupted the activity of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) and concurrently reduced degradation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) substrates Cyclin B1 and Securin. Our data suggest that the CSN3 and CSN5 are involved in oocyte meiosis by regulating degradation of Cyclin B1 and Securin via APC/C.
Intratumoral delivery of IL-18 naked DNA induces T-cell activation and Th1 response in a mouse hepatic cancer model
Chi-Young Chang, Jienny Lee, Eun-Young Kim, Hae-Jung Park, Choon-Hyuck Kwon, Jae-Won Joh, Sung-Joo Kim
BMC Cancer , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-7-87
Abstract: Plasmid vectors encoding IL-18 were transferred directly into the liver 7 days after tumor injection to restrict IL-18 expression within the tumor site. The IL-18 protein level was increased in the liver 4 days after plasmid injection, and a marked antitumoral effect was observed at day 7. Antitumor effects were evaluated by measuring tumor regression, immune cell population, and IFN-γ production.The IL-18 plasmid controlled the growth of hepatic tumors and proliferation of splenic immune cells. Moreover, treatment of CT26 tumors with the IL-18 plasmid significantly enhanced the population of the effector T and NK cells in the spleen and peripheral blood. In spleen, the population of CD4+CD62Low cells was augmented in response to IL-18 on day 7. These results are consistent with the increase in CD4+ T cells secreting IFN-γ, but not CD8+ T cells. The marked reduction of tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice was associated with the maintenance of IFN-γ production in spleen in response to IL-18. These antitumoral effects were maintained until 14 days after plasmid injection.Our results suggest that direct plasmid DNA transfer of IL-18 with no accompanying reagents to augment transfection efficiency may be useful in tumor immunotherapy.Effective eradication of established tumors and generation of a lasting systemic immune response with a simple gene delivery system are important goals for cancer gene immunotherapy [1]. Cytokines are the most extensively studied immunostimulatory agents in cancer gene therapy [2]. Interferon-γ-inducing factor (IL-18) is a recently characterized murine and human cytokine. The murine IL-18 gene encodes a precursor protein of 192 amino acids, which is processed to a mature protein containing 157 residues [3]. This cytokine, produced by Kupffer cells, is a potent inducer of IFN-γ production by T cells and a costimulatory factor for T cell activation [4,5]. Accumulating evidence that IL-18 is a multifunctional cytokine that shares several biolog
Differential effect of corn oil-based low trans structured fat on the plasma and hepatic lipid profile in an atherogenic mouse model: comparison to hydrogenated trans fat
Yun-Young Cho, Eun-Young Kwon, Hye-Jin Kim, Seon-Min Jeon, Ki-Teak Lee, Myung-Sook Choi
Lipids in Health and Disease , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1476-511x-10-15
Abstract: We examined the effects of low trans structured fat from corn oil (LC), compared with high trans fat shortening, on cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in apo E deficient mice which is an atherogenic animal model. The animals were fed a high trans fat (10% fat: commercial shortening (CS)) or a low trans fat (LC) diet for 12 weeks.LC decreased apo B and hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride concentration compared to the CS group but significantly increased plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration and fecal lipids with a simultaneous increase in HDL-cholesterol level, apo A-I, and the ratio of HDL-cholesterol to total cholesterol (HTR). Reduction of hepatic lipid levels by inclusion of LC intake was observed alongside modulation of hepatic enzyme activities related to cholesterol esterification, fatty acid metabolism and fecal lipids level compared to the CS group. The differential effects of LC intake on the plasma and hepatic lipid profile seemed to be partly due to the fatty acid composition of LC which contains higher MUFA, PUFA and SFA content as well as lower content of trans fatty acids compared to CS.We suggest that LC may exert a dual effect on plasma and hepatic lipid metabolism in an atherogenic animal model. Accordingly, LC, supplemented at 10% in diet, had an anti-atherogenic effect on these apo E-/- mice, and increased fecal lipids, decreased hepatic steatosis, but elevated plasma lipids. Further studies are needed to verify the exact mode of action regarding the complex physiological changes and alteration in lipid metabolism caused by LC.Fat in foods has great palatability and can be addictive to animals [1,2] and human beings [3]. Fats and oils as they exist in nature must be processed before they are suitable for human consumption [4]. Partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils is a common technological aid to food processing with few or no undesirable effects although it can alter the composition of fatty acids. Types of polyunsaturated
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