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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 26197 matches for " Eun-Gyu Lee "
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Timeliness of national notifiable diseases surveillance system in Korea: a cross-sectional study
Hyo-Soon Yoo, Ok Park, Hye-Kyung Park, Eun-Gyu Lee, Eun-Kyeong Jeong, Jong-Koo Lee, Sung-Il Cho
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-93
Abstract: Six notifiable infectious diseases reported relatively frequently were included in this study. Five diseases were selected by the criteria of reported cases > 100 per year: typhoid fever, shigellosis, mumps, scrub typhus, and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. In addition, dengue fever was also included to represent an emerging disease, despite its low number of cases. The diseases were compared for the proportion notified within the recommended time limits, median time lags, and for the cumulative distribution of time lags at each surveillance step between symptom onset and date of notification to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC).The proportion of cases reported in time was lower for disease groups with a recommended time limit of 1 day compared with 7 days (60%–70% vs. > 80%). The median time from disease onset to notification to KCDC ranged between 6 and 20 days. The median time from onset to registration at the local level ranged between 2 and 15 days. Distribution of time lags showed that main delays arose in the time from onset to diagnosis. There were variations in timeliness by disease categories and surveillance steps.Time from disease onset to diagnosis generally contributed most to the delay in reporting. It is needed to promote public education and to improve clinical guidelines. Rapid reporting by doctors should be encouraged, and unification of recommended reporting time limit can be helpful. Our study also demonstrates the utility of the overall assessment of time-lag distributions for disease-specific strategies to improve surveillance.Effective public health services for the control and prevention of infectious diseases involve surveillance as a critical element [1]. The aim of infectious diseases surveillance is to initiate public health action in response to changes in the incidence of the disease [2]. The World Health Organization (WHO) has proposed two key functions of any surveillance system: early detection of po
Genome Analysis of Multi- and Extensively-Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Thomas R. Ioerger,Sunwoo Koo,Eun-Gyu No,Xiaohua Chen,Michelle H. Larsen,William R. Jacobs Jr.,Manormoney Pillay,A. Willem Sturm,James C. Sacchettini
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007778
Abstract: The KZN strain family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a highly virulent strain endemic to the KwaZulu-Natal region of South Africa, which has recently experienced an outbreak of extensively-drug resistant tuberculosis. To investigate the causes and evolution of drug-resistance, we determined the DNA sequences of several clinical isolates - one drug-susceptible, one multi-drug resistant, and nine extensively drug-resistant - using whole-genome sequencing. Analysis of polymorphisms among the strains is consistent with the drug-susceptibility profiles, in that well-known mutations are observed that are correlated with resistance to isoniazid, rifampicin, kanamycin, ofloxacin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. However, the mutations responsible for rifampicin resistance in rpoB and pyrazinamide in pncA are in different nucleotide positions in the multi-drug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant strains, clearly showing that they acquired these mutations independently, and that the XDR strain could not have evolved directly from the MDR strain (though it could have arisen from another similar MDR strain). Sequencing of eight additional XDR strains from other areas of KwaZulu-Natal shows that they have identical drug resistant mutations to the first one sequenced, including the same polymorphisms at sites associated with drug resistance, supporting the theory that this represents a case of clonal expansion.
Simple sequence repeat markers useful for sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) and related species
Ramasamy Perumal, Padmavathi Nimmakayala, Saradha R Erattaimuthu, Eun-Gyu No, Umesh K Reddy, Louis K Prom, Gary N Odvody, Douglas G Luster, Clint W Magill
BMC Genetics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-9-77
Abstract: Among the 55 primers pairs designed from clones from pathotype 3 of P. sorghi, 36 flanked microsatellite loci containing simple repeats, including 28 (55%) with dinucleotide repeats and 6 (11%) with trinucleotide repeats. A total of 22 microsatellites with CA/AC or GT/TG repeats were the most abundant (40%) and GA/AG or CT/TC types contribute 15% in our collection. When used to amplify DNA from 19 isolates from P. sorghi, as well as from 5 related species that cause downy mildew on other hosts, the number of different bands detected for each SSR primer pair using a LI-COR- DNA Analyzer ranged from two to eight. Successful cross-amplification for 12 primer pairs studied in detail using DNA from downy mildews that attack maize (P. maydis & P. philippinensis), sugar cane (P. sacchari), pearl millet (Sclerospora graminicola) and rose (Peronospora sparsa) indicate that the flanking regions are conserved in all these species. A total of 15 SSR amplicons unique to P. philippinensis (one of the potential threats to US maize production) were detected, and these have potential for development of diagnostic tests. A total of 260 alleles were obtained using 54 microsatellites primer combinations, with an average of 4.8 polymorphic markers per SSR across 34 Peronosclerospora, Peronospora and Sclerospora spp isolates studied. Cluster analysis by UPGMA as well as principal coordinate analysis (PCA) grouped the 34 isolates into three distinct groups (all 19 isolates of Peronosclerospora sorghi in cluster I, five isolates of P. maydis and three isolates of P. sacchari in cluster II and five isolates of Sclerospora graminicola in cluster III).To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to extensively develop SSR markers from Peronosclerospora genomic DNA. The newly developed SSR markers can be readily used to distinguish isolates within several species of the oomycetes that cause downy mildew diseases. Also, microsatellite fragments likely include retrotransposon regions of DNA and t
Industrial Pipe-Rack Health Monitoring System Based on Reliable-Secure Wireless Sensor Network
Jong-Han Lee,Ji-Eun Jung,Nam-Gyu Kim,Byung-Hun Song
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/641391
Abstract: Energy and power industrial plants need to improve the health monitoring systems of their facilities, particularly high-risk facilities. This need has created a demand for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, for the application of WSN technology in large-scale industrial plants, issues of reliability and security should be fully addressed, and an industrial sensor network standard that mitigatesthe problem of compatibilitywith legacy equipment and systems should be established. To fulfill these requirements, this study proposes a health monitoring system of the pipe-rack structure using ISA100.11a standard. We constructed the system, which consists of field nodes, a network gateway, and a control server, and tested its operation at a large-scale petrochemical plant. The data obtained from WSN-based sensors show that the proposed system can constantly monitor and evaluate the condition of the pipe-rack structure and provide more efficient risk management. 1. Introduction Energy and power plants, although a critical element of a national infrastructure, are also high-risk facilities. Accidents that occur in industrial plants cause significant loss of life and property, which threatens national economies. From the gas explosion accident at the Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, India to the recent massive explosion during the operation of a coal-fired plant in Connecticut, we know that accidents at industrial plants often have catastrophic results in the form of property damage and fatalities. Thus, to secure the safety of the industrial plant facilities, we should construct a health monitoring system of pipe-rack structures, which typically support cables and pipes conveying resource material between equipment, with reliable and secure detection and communication technologies. In addition, the pipe-rack structures require a continuous monitoring technique that can evaluate the performance and the soundness of the structure [1]. Structural health monitoring system has gradually become a technique for ensuring the health and the safety of civil infrastructures. Furthermore, some recent advances in wireless sensor technologies have greatly explored wireless sensors for structural monitoring of civil engineering structures, such as long-span bridges and high-rise buildings [2, 3]. Network monitoring systems composed of low-cost wireless sensors were successfully installed to monitor the dynamic response of the bridge structures [4, 5]. In particular, high-rise buildings have used the global positioning system (GPS), capable of wirelessly
Pentoxifylline Attenuates Methionine- and Choline-Deficient-Diet-Induced Steatohepatitis by Suppressing TNF-α Expression and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
Min Kyung Chae,Sang Gyu Park,Sun-Ok Song,Eun Seok Kang,Bong Soo Cha,Hyun Chul Lee,Byung-Wan Lee
Experimental Diabetes Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/762565
Abstract: Background. Pentoxifylline (PTX) anti-TNF properties are known to exert hepatoprotective effects in various liver injury models. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PTX has beneficial roles in the development of methionine- and choline-deficient-(MCD-) diet-induced NAFLD SD rats in vivo and TNF-α-induced Hep3B cells in vitro. Methods. SD Rats were classified according to diet (chow or MCD diet) and treatment (normal saline or PTX injection) over a period of 4 weeks: group I (chow
Translation and validation of the Korean confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit
Eun Heo, Byoung-Jo Lee, Bong-Jin Hahm, Eun Song, Han-A Lee, Chul-Gyu Yoo, Young Kim, Sung Han, Young-Soo Shim, Sang-Min Lee
BMC Psychiatry , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-11-94
Abstract: Translation of the CAM-ICU was done according to the guidelines suggested by the Translation and Cultural Adaptation Group. For validation and interrater reliability assessment of the Korean CAM-ICU, two nurses independently assessed delirium in ICU patients and the results were compared with the reference evaluation, which was done by a psychiatrist using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV).Twenty-two patients were evaluated by two nurses and one psychiatrist expert independently. During the study period, we have continuously educated study nurses. Based on DSM-IV criteria, 16 out of 22 (72.7%) patients developed delirium. The sensitivities of the two nurses' evaluations using the Korean CAM-ICU were 89.80% for nurse 1 and 77.40% for nurse 2. Their specificities were 72.40% and 75.80% and their overall accuracy was 83.33% and 88.37% respectively. The Korean CAM-ICU was done with reasonable interrater reliability between nurse 1 and nurse 2 (κ = 0.81, p < 0.001).The Korean CAM-ICU showed good validity and could be incorporated into clinical practice in Korean ICUs.ISRCTN: ISRCTN50265663Delirium is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM IV) as a disturbance of consciousness with inattention accompanied by a change in cognition or perceptual disturbance that develops over a short period and fluctuates over time [1]. Delirium is a common problem in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) because of critical illness, medications, various procedures, and numerous risk factors [2]. Ely et al. reported that delirium occurred in between 81.7% and 87% of patients during their ICU stay [3-5]. Delirium itself is an independent predictor of mortality and longer hospital stay in ICU patients [5-7]. Therefore, the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) guidelines recommend routine assessment for the presence of delirium in ICU patients [8].Despite the high prevalence and clinical importance of delirium in
Evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test, NanoSign? Influenza A/B Antigen, for detection of the 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 viruses
Gyu-Cheol Lee, Eun-Sung Jeon, Won-Shik Kim, Dung Le, Jong-Ha Yoo, Chom-Kyu Chong
Virology Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-7-244
Abstract: The NanoSign? Influenza A/B kit resulted in 79.4% sensitivity and 97.2% specificity compared to RT-PCR in the detection of the viruses from 1,023 specimens. In addition, the kit was able to detect two strains of novel influenza viruses, Influenza A/California/12/2009(H1N1) and clinically isolated wild-type novel influenza A/H1N1, both of which are spreading epidemically throughout the world. In addition, the correlation between NanoSign? Influenza A/B test and conventional RT-PCR was approximately 94%, indicating a high concordance rate. Analytical sensitivity of the kit was approximately 73 ± 3.65 ng/mL of the purified viral proteins and 1.13 ± 0.11 hemagglutination units for the cultured virus.As the NanoSign? Influenza A/B kit showed relatively high sensitivity and specificity and the good correlation with RT-PCR, it will be very useful in the early control of influenza infection and in helping physicians in making early treatment decisions.The novel influenza A/H1N1 virus has spread to most of the world's populations, and its spread has led to a pandemic alert situation [1-3]. As a result, at the end of 2009, the World Health Organization announced that the novel influenza A/H1N1 had reached pandemic status [4].A variety of different diagnostic methods can be used to detect the presence of influenza viruses in respiratory specimens such as nasopharyngeal aspirates, including direct antigen detection tests, virus isolation in cell cultures, and detection of influenza-specific RNA by real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) [5-10]. Albeit the gold standard for the diagnosis of influenza is virus isolation using chicken embryos or tissue culture method, it has the shortcomings such as time consuming and labor intensiveness; it takes between two to 14 days before results are available. Detection of virus-infected cells in nasopharyngeal secretions by direct or indirect immunofluorescent staining is widely used, but it is a difficult and t
Microstructure and Glass Phase of Inorganic Binder Coated on Mold for Thin Casting
Eun-Hee Kim,Geun-Ho Cho,Yeon-Gil Jung,Je-Hyun Lee,Baig-Gyu Choi,Chang Young Jo
Journal of Nanomaterials , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/126567
Abstract: A new dual dipping process has been introduced for the increase in the fracture strength of casting mold through the effective glassification of inorganic binder precursors. Two different dipping processes have been employed to investigate the reactivity of the precursors. Process I is that the substrate was coated with a sodium oxide (Na2O) precursor through dipping in the solution, and then a silicon dioxide (SiO2) precursor was coated onto the substrate coated with the Na2O precursor. Process II is the inverse coating sequence for process I. In the case of the mold prepared by process I, the glass phase converted from the precursors is uniformly observed at the surface of the particle and the interface between particles, compared with that by process II, inducing that the fracture strength of the mold prepared by process I is significantly improved. In addition, when the PDMS without a sol-gel reaction was used as the SiO2 precursor, especially in process II, the glass phase is not absolutely observed at the surface of the particle owing to the evaporation of PDMS and Na ion during the heat treatment, resulting in the collapse of the mold sample after the heat treatment. 1. Introduction Recently, the convert mold process has been introduced to fabricate molds in a thin casting [1, 2]. The convert mold process has many advantages, such as high strength, excellent collapse, easy processability, and high thermal stability, making it useful in fabricating components of automobile and aircraft. Typically, the convert mold process is divided into five main processes: (1) fabricating the starting mold coated with an organic binder, (2) dipping the coated mold into a slurry containing inorganic binder precursors, (3) 1st drying for 1?h at 80°C, (4) 2nd drying for 1?h at 200°C, and (5) heat treatment for 1?h at 1000°C, resulting in the conversion of the organic binder-coated mold to the inorganic binder-coated mold [3, 4]. The hydrolysis and condensation reactions (generally called a sol-gel reaction) and glassification take place during the above (3 and 4) and (5) processes, respectively [5–7]. The mechanical and thermal properties of the mold are induced from the glass phase generated during the heat treatment process, even though the organic binder is decomposed after the heat treatment. Therefore, the generated glass phase must be homogeneously formed on the surfaces of starting particles in the mold as well the conversion efficiency of inorganic binder precursors into the glass phase should be increased, which are related to the reactivity between
Frequency and predictors of miliary tuberculosis in patients with miliary pulmonary nodules in South Korea: A retrospective cohort study
Sang-Man Jin, Hyun Lee, Eun-Ah Park, Ho Lee, Sang-Min Lee, Seok-Chul Yang, Chul-Gyu Yoo, Young Whan Kim, Sung Koo Han, Young-Soo Shim, Jae-Joon Yim
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-8-160
Abstract: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients who presented with micronodules occupying more than two-thirds of the lung volume, based on computed tomography (CT) of the chest, between November 2001 and April 2007, in a tertiary referral hospital in South Korea.We analyzed 76 patients with miliary pulmonary nodules. Their median age was 52 years and 38 (50%) were males; 18 patients (24%) had a previous or current malignancy and five (7%) had a history of TB. The most common diagnoses of miliary nodules were miliary TB (41 patients, 54%) and miliary metastasis of malignancies (20 patients, 26%). Multivariate analysis revealed that age ≤30 years, HIV infection, corticosteroid use, bronchogenic spread of lesions, and ground-glass opacities occupying >25% of total lung volume increased the probability of miliary TB. However, a history of malignancy decreased the probability of miliary TB.Miliary TB accounted for approximately half of all causes of miliary pulmonary nodules. Young age, an immune-compromised state, and several clinical and radiographic characteristics increased the probability of miliary TB.Miliary pulmonary nodules are commonly caused by various infections and cancers. In fact, a heterogeneous groups of conditions comprising more than 80 entities may result in miliary nodules [1]. Among them, miliary tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most frequent aetiologies in areas with a high prevalence of TB [2]. However, approximately two-thirds of all miliary TB cases are acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear-negative, and even transbronchial biopsy frequently fails to reveal AFB or caseating granulomas [3-5]. In such cases, the remaining options for the rapid diagnosis of miliary TB include invasive procedures such as open lung biopsy or empirical anti-TB treatment, depending on the probability of miliary TB based on clinical and radiographic findings. Nonetheless, no recent report has examined the role of clinical characteristics in the differential diagnosis of m
Analysis of questioning technique during classes in medical education
Young Hye Cho, Sang Yeoup Lee, Dong Wook Jeong, Sun Ju Im, Eun Jung Choi, Sun Hee Lee, Sun Yong Baek, Yun Jin Kim, Jeong Gyu Lee, Yu Hyone Yi, Mi Jin Bae, So Jung Yune
BMC Medical Education , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-12-39
Abstract: Data on the perceptions of the questioning skills used during lectures was collected using a self?questionnaire for faculty members (N?=?33) during the second semester of 2008. The questionnaire consisted of 18 items covering the awareness and characteristics of questioning skills. Recorded video tapes were used to observe the faculty members’ questioning skills.Most faculty members regarded the questioning technique during classes as being important and expected positive outcomes in terms of the students’ participation in class, concentration in class and understanding of the class contents. In the 99 classes analyzed, the median number of questions per class was 1 (0–29). Among them, 40 classes (40.4?%) did not use questioning techniques. The frequency of questioning per lecture was similar regardless of the faculty members’ perception. On the other hand, the faculty members perceived that their usual wait time after question was approximately 10 seconds compared to only 2.5 seconds measured from video analysis. More lecture?experienced faculty members tended to ask more questions in class.There were some discrepancies regarding the questioning technique between the faculty members’ perceptions and reality, even though they had positive opinions of the technique. The questioning skills during a lecture need to be emphasized to faculty members.
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