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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 31739 matches for " Eun Young Lee "
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Measurement of Electron Return Effect and Skin Dose Reduction by a Bolus in an Anthropomorphic Physical Phantom under a Magnetic Resonance Guided Linear Accelerator (MR-LINAC) System  [PDF]
Eun Young Han, Zhifei Wen, Hannah J. Lee, Arnold dela Cruz Paulino, Choonsik Lee
International Journal of Medical Physics,Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology (IJMPCERO) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2018.73028
Abstract: Background: Magnetic resonance image-guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) promises more precise and effective radiation treatments compared to conventional IGRT by using real-time on-board MR imaging. Under the influence of a magnetic field, however, secondary electrons exiting a surface can be forced in a circular path and re-enter the medium, resulting in dose increase at a beam-exit surface, called the electron return effect (ERE). The purpose of the study is to compare the exit skin dose computed by Monte Carlo dose calculation with measurements using an adult anthropomorphic phantom and to measure the effect of skin dose reduction by adding 1 cm-thick bolus. Method: The plan was compared with measurements using an adult anthropomorphic phantom combined with radiochromic films and thermoluminescent dosimeters. We also measured the skin dose reduction by adding 1 cm-thick bolus on the frontal surface of the phantom. Results: We found that 1 cm-thick bolus reduced the skin dose by up to 20% both in measurements and calculations. The plan was found to overestimate the measured skin dose by about 10% and there was no significant difference in the bolus effect between the breast skin and the skin (without breast attachment) doses. Conclusion: In conclusion, we confirmed the ERE effect on the anthropomorphic phantom under the magnetic field and the exit skin dose reduction by adding a bolus. Skin dose measurements using anthropomorphic phantom may be helpful to evaluate more realistic skin dose and the bolus effect in the magnetic field.
A Case of Secondary Iris Cyst AfterPupilloplasty*  [PDF]
Ja Young Lee, Sun Woong Kim, Eun Suk Koh, Jee Ho Chang
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2013.31004

Purpose: To investigate the pathogenesis of a secondary iris cyst with an immunohistochemical method. Methods: Single observational case report. A pathologic specimen was obtained from a 5-year-old girl who was found to have a secondary iris cyst. She had a history of previous penetrating ocular trauma and subsequent cataract surgery and pupilloplasty. Immunohistochemical staining with cytokeratin (CK) 19 and CK3 was used. Results: After immunohistochemical staining, the inner wall showed positive staining for CK19, which is specific for limbal, peripheral cornea and conjunctival epithelium, and negative staining for CK3, which is specific for corneal epithelium. Conclusions: With the aid of immunohistochemical analysis, a conjunctival epithelial origin was indicated, and pupilloplasty was identified as the causal event of the iris cyst while the possibility of primary iris cyst was ruled out.

Evaluation of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Rhododendron brachycarpum Extract Used in Skin Care Product by in Vitro and in Vivo Test  [PDF]
Amal Kumar Ghimeray, Ha Youn Lee, Young Hoon Kim, Eun Kyung Ryu, Moon Sik Chang
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2015.62011
Abstract: In this study, we aimed to observe the cytotoxicity, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Rhododendron brachycarpum extract (RbE) in RAW 264.7 macrophage cell in vitro and the anti-inflammatory or soothing effect of RbE formulated cream (Multicalm-RHTM) on experimentally induced acute irritated skin in healthy subjects in vivo. In vitro study revealed that RbE significantly inhibited NO and ROS generation in a dose dependent manner without cytotoxicity. In clinical test, Multicalm-RHTM cream siginificantly reduced the SLS-enduced erythema after D5 compared to that of placebo. Overall, it can be concluded that the RbE is a non-cytotoxic, antioxidant and anti-irritant agent which can be used as a potent functional ingredient in cosmetics. Likewise, the in vivo clinical study shows that Multicalm-RHTM cream which contains 3% RbE can be used as an effective skin soothing agent.
The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on the Biophysical Properties of Facial Skin  [PDF]
Min Ah Kim, Eun Joo Kim, Byung Young Kang, Hae Kwang Lee
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2017.71004
Abstract: Lack of sleep is a problem in today’s society, and many people are concerned about changes in their outward appearance due to lack of sleep. People generally come up with some noticeable skin attributes as symptoms of sleep deficiency including rough, dull, and dry skin as well as droopy eyelids and dark eye circles. Several previous reports also suggested that poor sleep could affect the skin condition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of one night of sleep deprivation on various skin biophysical properties. Twenty four healthy females participated in a study of one night of sleep deprivation. Subjects were kept awake for one night in a laboratory with controlled temperature and relative humidity. The skin condition of each subject was evaluated after normal sleep pattern and after one night of sleep deprivation. The measured skin biophysical parameters included transepidermal water loss, facial pore size, and skin tone, hydration, elasticity, desquamation, translucency, and blood flow. The cheek, eye, and lip areas were evaluated. After one night of sleep deprivation, multiple skin biophysical parameters showed changes when compared to the baseline measurements. A significant decrease in skin hydration and impaired barrier function were observed (p < 0.05). Decreased hydration led to decreased skin elasticity and translucency and increased skin scaling (p < 0.05). Facial pores were more conspicuous, and skin lightness decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Furthermore, skin blood flow decreased prominently (p < 0.05). The results demonstrated that the skin features that are recognized as symptoms of sleep deficiency actually showed remarkable differences after a period of sleep deprivation, and some of these features were confirmed in the eye, lip, as well as the cheek areas. This study revealed a significant association between sleep deprivation and skin biophysical properties by scientific measuring.
Effect of Magnolol on the Function of Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Cells
Eun Jung Kwak,Young Soon Lee,Eun Mi Choi
Mediators of Inflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/829650
Abstract: Objectives. In the present study, the ability of magnolol, a hydroxylated biphenyl compound isolated from Magnolia officinalis, to stimulate osteoblast function and inhibit the release of bone-resorbing mediators was investigated in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Methods. Osteoblast function was measured by cell growth, alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen synthesis, and mineralization. Glutathione content was also measured in the cells. Bone-resorbing cytokines, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), TNF-α, and IL-6 were measured with an enzyme immunoassay system. Results. Magnolol caused a significant elevation of cell growth, alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen synthesis, mineralization, and glutathione content in the cells (<0.05). Skeletal turnover is orchestrated by a complex network of regulatory factors. Among cytokines, RANKL, TNF-α, and IL-6 were found to be key osteoclastogenetic molecules produced by osteoblasts. Magnolol significantly (<0.05) decreased the production of osteoclast differentiation inducing factors such as RANKL, TNF-α, and IL-6 in the presence of antimycin A, which inhibits mitochondrial electron transport and has been used as an ROS generator. Conclusion. Magnolol might be a candidate as an agent for the prevention of bone disorders such as osteoporosis.
Analysis of apigenin in Blumea balsamifera Linn DC. and its inhibitory activity against aldose reductase in rat lens  [PDF]
Dong Gu Lee, So-Youn Mok, Changsun Choi, Eun Ju Cho, Hyun Young Kim, Sanghyun Lee
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2012.11005
Abstract: To investigate the therapeutic potentials of na- tural sources, stepwise polarity fractions of Blumea balsamifera were tested for their ability to inhibit aldose reductase (AR) activity in rat lenses. Of these, the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction exhibited a unique AR inhibitory activity (IC50 value, 0.11 μg/mL). Apigenin was identified from the active EtOAc fraction and exhibited high AR inhibitory activity (IC50 value, 4.03 μM). The content of apigenin was measured in B. balsamifera (0.47 mg/g) by HPLC/UV analysis. Our result suggests that B. balsamifera could be a useful natural source for the development of a novel AR inhibitory agent against diabetic complications.

Downregulation of heat shock protein 70 protects rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes from nitric oxide-induced apoptosis
Eun Ha Kang, Dong Jo Kim, Eun Young Lee, Yun Jong Lee, Eun Bong Lee, Yeong Wook Song
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/ar2797
Abstract: Targeted knock-down of Hsp70 was performed by RNA interference in RA FLSs at passage 3-7. After SNP treatment, the morphological features of apoptosis were observed by phase-contrast microscopy. Cell survival was measured by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays and by flow cytometric analysis after propidium iodide (PI) staining. Bcl-2 expression and signaling pathways (Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase) were examined with or without Hsp70 downregulation.Hsp70 downregulation in RA FLSs, induced by small interfering RNA (siRNA), was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. When treated with SNP, Hsp70 downregulated cells showed markedly less cell blebbing, cytoplasmic condensation, and nuclear shrinkage than non-downregulated control cells. Furthermore, Hsp70 downregulated cells were found to survive better than control cells in MTT assays (mean of absorbance ratio, 4.39 in target cells versus 1.00 in control siRNA-treated cells versus 1.09 in lipofectamine-treated cells, P = 0.001) and according to PI staining results (mean M1 ratio, 0.21 in target cells versus 1.00 in control siRNA-treated cells versus 1.03 in lipofectamine-treated cells, P = 0.001). Bcl-2 expression and Akt phosphorylation were higher in Hsp70 downregulated RA FLSs than in control cells. When cells were treated with LY294002, a potent phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor, Akt phosphorylation and Bcl-2 levels were reduced and Hsp70 downregulation no longer had a cytoprotective effect.Knock-down of Hsp70 protects RA FLSs from nitric oxide-induced apoptosis by activating the Akt signaling pathway. These results suggest that Hsp70 has a pro-apoptotic role in RA FLSs.Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disorder that involves mainly joint synovium. One of the major characteristics of RA synovium is the tumor-like growth of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) that invade ad
Cyanidine-3-O-Galactoside Enriched Aronia melanocarpa Extract Inhibits Adipogenesis and Lipogenesis via Down-Regulation of Adipogenic Transcription Factors and Their Target Genes in 3T3-L1 Cells  [PDF]
Su-Min Lim, Jae In Jung, Nam Young Kim, Jung-Shik Bae, Hyun Sook Lee, Eun Ji Kim
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2019.102011
Abstract: Aronia melamocarpa (AM) is a rich source of anthocyanins, which are known to help prevent obesity. The cyanidine-3-O-galactoside enriched AM extract (AM-Ex) containing more cyanidine-3-O-galactoside than conventional AM extract was recently developed. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of AM-Ex on adipogenesis and its action mechanisms in vitro using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. To examine the anti-obesity effect of AM-Ex, 3T3-L1 cells were induced adipocyte differentiation and incubated with various concentration of AM-Ex. Lipid accumulation, cellular triglyceride content, mRNA expression of transcription factors and adipogenic genes were analyzed. Treatment with 100 - 400 μg/mL of AM-Ex resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in adipocyte differentiation and triglyceride accumulation. mRNA expression of adipogenic transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 were decreased. The level of gene expression of adipogenesis and lipogenesis-related genes, such as adipocyte protein 2, lipoprotein lipase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, ATP-citrate lyase and fatty acid synthase were decreased. These results suggest that AM-Ex alleviated risk factors related to obesity by modulating multiple pathways associated with adipogenesis.
Macrophage PD-L1 strikes back: PD-1/PD-L1 interaction drives macrophages toward regulatory subsets  [PDF]
Yun-Jung Lee, Young-Hye Moon, Kyeong Eun Hyung, Jong-Sun Yoo, Mi Ji Lee, Ik Hee Lee, Byung Sung Go, Kwang Woo Hwang
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.48A3003

Activated macrophages have been simply de?ned as cells that secrete in?ammatory mediators and kill intracellular pathogens until few years ago. Recent studies have proposed a new classification system to separate activated macrophages based on their functional phenotypes: host defense, wound healing, and immune regulation. Regulatory macrophages can arise following innate or adaptive immune responses and hinder macrophage-mediated host defense and inflammatory functions by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. In this study, we investigated whether PD-1 and PD-L1 interaction between macrophages and T cells alters macrophage activities. Our data provide evidence for PD-1/PD-L1 engagement inducing a regulatory profile in macrophages. Regulatory macrophages derived from PD-L1 signaling lost their host defense activity, which consists of the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and the exhibition of increased IL-10, SPHK1 and LIGHT gene levels in early phases of LPS stimulation. This differentiation seems to occur through excessive activation of TLR4 downstream MAPK signaling pathways. Regulatory macrophages induced from PD-1/PD-L1 interaction decrease inflammatory mediators and produce anti-inflammatory cytokines, so this macrophage subset has been under considerable attention as a possible immune regulation mechanism. Understanding and modulating regulatory macrophages may lead to new approches to treat or prevent auto-immune diseases such as type I diabetes, rheumatic syndrome and hypersensitivity-related diseases, which are concerned with the overproduction of inflammatory cytokines in macroages.

Expression of Adenine Nucleotide Translocator Correlates with the IL-4-induced lymphocyte survival: Role of PI3K and MAPK
Ji-Young Jang,Choong-Eun Lee
The Scientific World Journal , 2001, DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2001.193
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