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Computer Aided System for Manufacturing Industries Economic Production Status Determination  [PDF]
Basil Olufemi Akinnuli, Eugene C. Kalu-Imo, Anakobe Jimoh Yakubu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104133
Abstract:
Performance status has to do with profitability of manufacturing industries. Good performance brings about increase in productivity. There are in existence different models and software, but none has been able to develop software based on American Productivity Center model (APC). The strategic decisions required were identified as: Factor Productivity, Price Recovery and Cost Effectiveness indices, while the parameters used are: quantity produced, price per unit, labour input time, cost per hour of labour as well as the period. These were used to develop the models for the strategic decisions mentioned and software (PPE-INDICES, 2016) for implementation of the models using Java programming language. Olam cocoa processing company was used as the case study and the software was able to report the performance of the company thus: 24%, 51% and 87% increase in Factor Productivity, Price Recovery and Cost Effectiveness indices respectively for period 2013/2014, 29%, 20% and 55% increase in Factor Productivity, Price Recovery and Cost Effectiveness indices respectively for period 2014/2015, and 23%, 13% and 39% increase in Factor Productivity, Price Recovery and Cost Effectiveness indices respectively for period 2015/2016. The model and its software will find its application in all manufacturing industries of developing and developed countries.
Charcoal Enterprise in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria
C Kalu, DN Izekor
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management , 2007,
Abstract: Charcoal enterprise has been adopted to meet some socio-economic benefits and energy needs of the people. The study was conducted to determine peoples’ involvement, uses and reasons for using charcoal, distribution channel as well as weekly sales and profit of the enterprise. The results revealed that people involved in sales of charcoal were 28.26%, 9% and 2% of the respondents for Igun Street, Oba market/New Benin and Ikpoba Hill market respectively. The identified uses of charcoal were for roasting of maize (32. 75%), Suya preparation and cooking of food accounted for 13.70% and 16.13% respectively, while Black Smiting and Bronze casting accounted for 13.70% of the respondents. ANOVA indicated that there were no significant differences (P >0.05) among the identified reasons for using charcoal as well as the weekly sales of the product. However, distribution channel of charcoal showed significant difference (P< 0.05) with dominant retail channel revealed using fishers least significant difference (LSD). The weekly profits of over N2,000 were confirmed by 48. 48% and 24.24% of the respondents for the rainy and dry seasons respectively. Research effort in charcoal enterprise needs to be focused in order to ensure sustainable development and realization of the desired potential of the enterprise.
Women in Processing and Marketing of Non-timber Forest Products: Case Study of Benin City, Nigeria
C. Kalu,Egharevba Rachael
Journal of Agronomy , 2006,
Abstract: The study was carried out from 2002 to 2003 to assess the role of women in the processing and marketing of Non-timber Forest Products (NTFPS) in Benin City. Thirty nine species comprising 32 familiar were identified. The results revealed that there were significant differences among the market channels of NTFP (p<0.05). The observation was multi-channel system of distribution through LSD analysis. The labour employment explained by the results indicated that 57.15 and 42.85% of women were involved in marketing and processing of edible NTFPS, respectively. The indication results with `t` test analysis showed no significant difference among the consumers` preference of whether the edible products were processed or not. The result of ANOVA analysis revealed that there was significant difference among the time-interval of the shelf life of the processed edible NTFPs (p<0.05). It was observed that the results showed higher average profit for processing (52.59%) than marketing (47.41%) enterprise.
Economic Potential of Taungya Farming System in Edo State, Nigeria
C Kalu, EG Oboho, OE Ihama
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) , 2011,
Abstract: The study examined the economic potential of taungya system in Edo state, using of data obtained from both primary and secondary sources with the aid of well structured questionnaires administered to 230 respondents in eight the Local Government Areas practicing taungya farming in government reserved forests. The research was based on sampling intensities of 30, 20 and 5% for farmers’ population of below 100, between 100 and 200 and over 200 respectively, to elicit information on socioeconomic issues. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistic of frequency and percentages and inferential statistic using “t” test and ANOVA. The results showed that 43.3% of the respondents affirmed that it was easy to obtain fuelwood, while 41.1% of them believed that was very easy to obtain fuelwood in the taungya farm system. Results showed that there was significant difference (P<0.05) among the income generated from benefits like food, fuelwood, fruits/vegetable/roots, bushmeat, medicinal plants. The results also revealed that the revenues government generated from allocation of taungya plots differed significantly among revenues types and (P<.05) various periods considered. Retention fees and April 2009 to date dominated the types of revenues and period respectively. It is expedient to enhance the economic potential of taungya so as to convert all the possible potentials to reality. This is done by following values premises for the adoption of taungya system in the real sense of it in most of the forest estates in the state.
Evaluation of Staff Strength of Forestry Personnel, Edo State, Nigeria, from 1986-2008
C. Kalu,S. Ikpoba,B. Okonta
Plant Sciences Research , 2013,
Abstract: Edo State forest estates are managed by professional, technical uniformed staff and task force members. This study was conducted to determine the staff strength, employment trend and wage policies of the forest workers. Secondary data were collected from the records and annual reports on forestry activities in the departments of conservation and utilization in the Ministry of environment, Edo State. The results showed that there were significant difference (p<0.05) among the categories of personnel and employment trend among them during the period under review. Uniformed staff dominated other categories in the above cases. Investigation revealed that Ovia South East and Benin city had dominant staff strength of 10 personnel based on empirical norm applied in the study. While, 1 personnel each was recorded in Egor and Eguben locations. It was also revealed that the distribution of monthly salary among the workers increased from unskilled to professional staff, while task force members wage did not follow the same trend. Forest workers are bed rock of forest conservation. It is recommended that they should be in full strength of labour, right categories and adequately remunerated so as to dissuade them from corruption and sharp practices, while executing their jobs.
Impact of demographic and psychosocial factors on hysterosalpingography pain and discomfort
Anthony C. Ugwu,Augustine O. Imo,Okey F. Erondu
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.4102/phcfm.v1i1.40
Abstract: Background: Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is an important diagnostic procedure in the investigation of infertility. It is the radiographic delineation of uterine and tubal cavities and is part of the diagnostic evaluation of conjugal infertility. This diagnostic procedure is associated with high levels of anxiety, pain and stress from various causes. This study was designed to investigate the impact of demographic and psychosocial factors on HSG pain and discomfort. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the impact of demographic and psychosocial factors on hysterosalpingography pain and discomfort. Method: One hundred hysterosalpingography referrals were recruited for this study. Verbal detector scales were used to assess pain perception, Likert scales were used to assess the psychosocial variables, while visual analogue scales were used to assess discomfort. Pearson’s correlations were conducted. Tests were two-tailed, with p < 0.05 indicating statistical signifcance. Results: Some of the patients (34%) indicated that the administration of analgesics prior to the procedure reduced the pain and discomfort associated with the procedure. Mean ± standard deviation of pain and discomfort were 2.82 ± 0.77 and 6.36 ± 2.19 respectively. Age correlated signifcantly with pain perception (r = -0.22, P < 0.05), while pain correlated signifcantly with perception of discomfort (r = -0.46, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Age signifcantly correlated with pain. This is a factor that could be harnessed for clinical use.How to cite this article: Ugwu AC, Imo AO, Erondu OF. Impact of demographic and psychosocial factors on hysterosalpingography pain and discomfort. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2009;1(1), Art. #40, 3 pages. DOI: 10.4102/phcfm.v1i1.40
Effective treatment of resistant Escherichia coli infection, with sulphadimidine stabilized in a synthetic Aluminium-Magnesium Silicate  [PDF]
Maduike C. O. Ezeibe, Uchenna M. Chima, Augustine A. Ngene, Obianuju N. Okoroafor, Idika I. Kalu, Mfon E. Esen
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.412190
Abstract: To investigate if Aluminium-Magnesium Silicate (AMS) could make drugs regain effects against resistant pathogens, its effect was tested on sulphadimidine against sulphadimidine-resistant Escherichia coli. Two groups of chicks infected with sulphadimidine-resistant E. coli were treated at sulphadimidine dose rate of 1 g/litre of drinking water, with sulphadimidine and with an AMS-sulphadimidine drug formulation, respectively. Two other groups were similarly treated at sulphadimidine dose rate of 0.75 g/litre, while the fifth group served as control. Mean titres of the bacterium in bile of the chicks were compared. Titres, 119,200 ± 55,800 CFU/mL of the group treated with sulphadimidine at rate of 1 g/ litre and 14,800 ± 1700 CFU/mL of the group treated at rate of 0.75 g/litre, did not vary from 33,200 ± 5200 CFU/mL of the control (P > 0.05) but 295,200 ± 106,400 CFU/ml of the group treated at rate of 1 g/litre, with the AMS-sulpha- dimidine drug was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of the control while 5200 ± 1400 CFU/mL of the group treated at dose of 0.75 g/litre, with the AMS-sulphadimidine drug, reduced significantly (P < 0.05).
The Value of Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Leiomyomas in Southeast Nigeria
Eze J.C,Ugwu A.C,Ohagwu C.C,Imo A.C
Journal of Asian Scientific Research , 2013,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Uterine leiomyoma has been found to be of high prevalence among black women. Ultrasound scanning, a safe and non-invasive method of making early and accurate diagnosis will be invaluable in the diagnosis of leiomyoma.Objective: To establish the value of ultrasound in the diagnosis of uterine leiomyoma. Method: The ultrasound reports and surgical findings of the patients referred with uterine leiomyoma conditions from the gynecological unit of a Teaching Hospital in south east Nigeria, between January 2009 and December 2011 were considered for this study. The age of the women were noted. Their ultrasound finding/diagnosis was also noted, as well as the final diagnosis following the surgery. The association between the ultrasound diagnosis and the surgical diagnosis (accuracy of ultrasonography) was evaluated using tests of validity.Results: The total number of subjects that were scanned for uterine leiomyoma was 200 out of which 100 underwent surgery after sonographic examination. The highest number of subjects 55(55.0%) was seen in the 31 to 40 years age group and ultrasound was able to diagnose 87% as having uterine leiomyoma. The positive predictive value of ultrasound scanning for uterine leiomyoma was 96.7% and the negative predictive value was 50%. The sensitivity of ultrasonography for uterine leiomyoma was 94.5%, with a specificity of 62.5%, accuracy of 92% and diagnostic odd ratio (DOR) of 29.Conclusion: Test of validity revealed that ultrasound is a valuable tool in making diagnosis on women with this condition.
The Influence of seed treatments and growing media on seedling growth and development of African walnut, Plukenetia conophorum
R K Egharevba, M I Ikhatua, C Kalu
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2005,
Abstract: A nursery trial was conducted to investigate the effects of seed treatments and soil type growing media on the germination and growth of Plukenetia conophorum. The factors considered included seed treatments with hot water at 90°C, warm water at 60°C, overnight soaking in cold water and scarification. Soil type media were humus+manure and topsoil+manure at a 2:1 ratio. The results showed that the types of nursery media used were significant only on seedling growth but not on germination. However, the seed treatments have significant effects on germination and growth of the crop. Topsoil produced superior plant growth in terms of plant height, collar girth and leaf number. Scarification and overnight soaking in cold water produced best quality seedlings.
Economic Analysis of Waste Management in Nigeria
E.C NDUKA, I.E. KALU
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management , 2002,
Abstract: The generation, utilization and disposal of wastes (which constitute environmental hazards) are highlighted in this paper as a network flow problem. In this configuration, we construct and solve as optimal network flow, the problem of minimizing the cost of disposing wastes from sources of generation to dumpsites. Numerical applications based on iterative procedures suggest an appreciable (optimal) reduction in the cost of disposing wastes generated at production sites to various dumpsites. (Journal of Applied Sciences & Environmental Management: 2002 6(1): 64-68)
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