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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 327740 matches for " Eugénie S. Euskirchen "
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Regional Climate Model Simulation of Surface Moisture Flux Variations in Northern Terrestrial Regions  [PDF]
Ross Fischer, John E. Walsh, Eugénie S. Euskirchen, Peter A. Bieniek
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2018.81003
Abstract: The wetness of high-latitude land surfaces is strongly dependent on the difference between precipitation (P) and evapotranspiration (ET). If climate models are to capture the trajectory of surface wetness in high latitudes, they must be able to simulate the seasonality and variations of the surface moisture fluxes, as well as the sensitivities to the variations to the drivers. In this study, a combination of regional climate model output and eddy covariance measurements from flux tower locations in Alaska is used to evaluate model simulations of the surface moisture fluxes and their variations. In particular, we use the model output and the field measurements to test the hypothesis that temperature (T) is the key driver of variations of ET in tundra regions underlain by permafrost, while precipitation plays a greater role in boreal forest areas. Although the model’s hydrologic cycle is stronger (larger P, larger ET) relative to the in situ measurements at all the sites, the prominent seasonal cycles of P, T, and ET are captured by the model. The tower measurements from all sites show a short period (one or two months) of negative P-ET during summer, indicative of surface drying, although the model does not show this period of drying at the inland tundra site. At all the tundra sites, both the flux tower data and the model simulations show that daily and warm-season totals of ET are largely temperature-driven. Daily ET shows a weak negative correlation with precipitation in the measurements and in the model results for all the sites. Precipitation is the main driver of year-to-year variations of the seasonally integrated net moisture flux at all the sites, implying that precipitation will be at least as important as temperature in the future trajectory of surface wetness.
Représentations de Constantinople après la chute. Prolongements idéologiques
Eugénie Drakopoulou
Historical Review , 2008,
Abstract: L'image de Constantinople, liée à son mythe et au mythe du dernier empereur, appara t après la chute de la ville, dans l'iconographie tant occidentale qu'orthodoxe, sur des ic nes portatives, des manuscrits et des fresques dans les églises et les demeures patriciennes. L'événement même de la prise de la ville, en tant que représentation indépendante ou incorporée à des cycles iconographiques existants, est représenté plusieurs fois, entre les premières années après la chute et le XIXe siècle, dans la peinture de l'Occident et de l'Orient orthodoxe. L'image de la ville de Constantinople, dans les années suivant sa chute, devient symbole de la supériorité et de la victoire du christianisme, symbole d'opulence, de prospérité et de vie cosmopolite, symbole de la libération de l'hellénisme asservi, mais aussi de la coexistence des mondes orthodoxe et musulman. Dans ce travail, nous avons voulu repérer les différents messages, ethno-culturels, politiques et religieux dont sont chargées, selon les époques et les besoins, les représentations de Constantinople dans la peinture après sa prise par les Turcs.
Prévenir le risque infectieux à l’h pital ? Preventing the infection risk in hospital?Anthropological reflections on hospital hygiene in a medical ward in Niger
Eugénie d’Alessandro
Anthropologie & Santé : Revue Internationale Francophone d'Anthropologie de la Santé , 2012, DOI: 10.4000/anthropologiesante.835
Abstract: En Afrique, la ma trise du risque infectieux en milieu hospitalier reste une question cruciale. Bien souvent, les analyses se limitent à une évaluation des décalages entre des normes techniques et des pratiques hospitalières. L’insuffisance des connaissances théoriques est régulièrement invoquée, conduisant à un cycle de formation-évaluation qui semble largement voué à l’échec. Une approche anthropologique peut aider à la résolution de ces problèmes. En proposant une lecture des dimensions sociales et culturelles des risques sanitaires, le r le de l’anthropologue est d’élargir la compréhension de ces dysfonctionnements. Il s’agit de penser l’h pital comme un espace où s’articulent diverses dimensions sociales, éthiques, médicales et techniques. Témoignant de cet apport complémentaire dans le champ de la santé, de nouvelles pistes émergent d’une enquête menée à l’H pital National de Niamey. D’abord, la superposition d’espaces techniques et sociaux se traduit par une confusion dans les gestes. Les obligations sociales brouillent alors les cha nes gestuelles techniques. Ensuite, la prégnance d’un héritage historique définit un certain mode de délivrance des biens publics dont les manifestations se retrouvent dans le quotidien d’un h pital. Enfin, des mondes sensibles différents et les normes techniques élaborées dans le contexte de la médecine moderne deviennent des abstractions en l’absence de correspondances perceptives. Ici, l’anthropologie jette un pont interdisciplinaire entre les préoccupations de santé publique et les questions d’économie morale et décisionnelle. In Africa, controlling infectious diseases in hospitals remains a major issue. So far, most analyses have assessed the gap between technical norms and hospital practices. These surveys commonly enlighten a lack of theoretical knowledge and, therefore, come up with cycles of training-assessing which barely improve the situation. An anthropological approach can provide new answers to these problems. A socio-cultural perspective may reveal the hospital as a place where social, ethical, medical and technical dimensions are linked. New tracks have come to light from a survey conducted in the National Hospital of Niamey. First, the superposition of technical and social spaces leads to confusion in gesture. Then, the daily activity in the hospital and the relation between hospital staff and customers are mainly defined by a strong historical inheritance. Last, given different “sensitive words”, technical norms developed within modern medical knowledge become abstract in this particular context
About the possibility of minimal blow up for Navier-Stokes solutions with data in $\dot{H}^s(R^3)$
Eugénie Poulon
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: Considering initial data in $\dot{H}^s$, with $\frac{1}{2} \textless{} s \textless{} \frac{3}{2}$, this paper is devoted to the study of possible blowing-up Navier-Stokes solutions such that $(T*(u\_{0}) -t)^{\frac{1}{2} (s- \frac{1}{2})} \,\, \| u \|\_{\dot{H}^s}}$ is bounded. Our result is in the spirit of the tremendous works of L. Escauriaza, G. Seregin, and V. $\breve{\mathrm{S}}$ver$\acute{\mathrm{a}}$k and I. Gallagher, G. Koch, F. Planchon, where they proved there is no blowing-up solution which remain bounded in $L^3(R^3)$. The main idea is that if such blowing-up solutions exist, they satisfy critical properties.
Wellposedness for density-dependent incompressible viscous fluids on the torus $\T^3$
Eugénie Poulon
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We investigate the local wellposedness of incompressible inhomogeneous Navier-Stokes equations on the Torus $\T^3$, with initial data in the critical Besov spaces. Under some smallness assumption on the velocity in the critical space $B^{\frac{1}{2}}\_{2,1}(\T^3)$, the global-in-time existence of the solution is proved. The initial density is required to belong to~$B^{\frac{3}{2}}\_{2,1}(\T^3)$ but not supposed to be small.
Complexity of Monadic inf-datalog. Application to temporal logic
Eugénie Foustoucos,Irene Guessarian
Computer Science , 2006,
Abstract: In [11] we defined Inf-Datalog and characterized the fragments of Monadic inf-Datalog that have the same expressive power as Modal Logic (resp. $CTL$, alternation-free Modal $\mu$-calculus and Modal $\mu$-calculus). We study here the time and space complexity of evaluation of Monadic inf-Datalog programs on finite models. We deduce a new unified proof that model checking has 1. linear data and program complexities (both in time and space) for $CTL$ and alternation-free Modal $\mu$-calculus, and 2. linear-space (data and program) complexities, linear-time program complexity and polynomial-time data complexity for $L\mu\_k$ (Modal $\mu$-calculus with fixed alternation-depth at most $k$).}
Diversification of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus and Related Viruses Spans the History of Agriculture from the Neolithic to the Present
Denis Fargette ,Agnès Pinel-Galzi,Drissa Sérémé,Séverine Lacombe,Eugénie Hébrard,Oumar Traoré,Gnissa Konaté
PLOS Pathogens , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000125
Abstract: The mechanisms of evolution of plant viruses are being unraveled, yet the timescale of their evolution remains an enigma. To address this critical issue, the divergence time of plant viruses at the intra- and inter-specific levels was assessed. The time of the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV; genus Sobemovirus) was calculated by a Bayesian coalescent analysis of the coat protein sequences of 253 isolates collected between 1966 and 2006 from all over Africa. It is inferred that RYMV diversified approximately 200 years ago in Africa, i.e., centuries after rice was domesticated or introduced, and decades before epidemics were reported. The divergence time of sobemoviruses and viruses of related genera was subsequently assessed using the age of RYMV under a relaxed molecular clock for calibration. The divergence time between sobemoviruses and related viruses was estimated to be approximately 9,000 years, that between sobemoviruses and poleroviruses approximately 5,000 years, and that among sobemoviruses approximately 3,000 years. The TMRCA of closely related pairs of sobemoviruses, poleroviruses, and luteoviruses was approximately 500 years, which is a measure of the time associated with plant virus speciation. It is concluded that the diversification of RYMV and related viruses has spanned the history of agriculture, from the Neolithic age to the present.
Historical Contingencies Modulate the Adaptability of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus
Nils Poulicard,Agnès Pinel-Galzi,Oumar Traoré,Florence Vignols,Alain Ghesquière,Gnissa Konaté,Eugénie Hébrard,Denis Fargette
PLOS Pathogens , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002482
Abstract: The rymv1-2 and rymv1-3 alleles of the RYMV1 resistance to Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV), coded by an eIF(iso)4G1 gene, occur in a few cultivars of the Asiatic (Oryza sativa) and African (O. glaberrima) rice species, respectively. The most salient feature of the resistance breaking (RB) process is the converse genetic barrier to rymv1-2 and rymv1-3 resistance breakdown. This specificity is modulated by the amino acid (glutamic acid vs. threonine) at codon 49 of the Viral Protein genome-linked (VPg), a position which is adjacent to the virulence codons 48 and 52. Isolates with a glutamic acid (E) do not overcome rymv1-3 whereas those with a threonine (T) rarely overcome rymv1-2. We found that isolates with T49 had a strong selective advantage over isolates with E49 in O. glaberrima susceptible cultivars. This explains the fixation of the mutation T49 during RYMV evolution and accounts for the diversifying selection estimated at codon 49. Better adapted to O. glaberrima, isolates with T49 are also more prone than isolates with E49 to fix rymv1-3 RB mutations at codon 52 in resistant O. glaberrima cultivars. However, subsequent genetic constraints impaired the ability of isolates with T49 to fix rymv1-2 RB mutations at codons 48 and 52 in resistant O. sativa cultivars. The origin and role of the amino acid at codon 49 of the VPg exemplifies the importance of historical contingencies in the ability of RYMV to overcome RYMV1 resistance.
The FSHD Atrophic Myotube Phenotype Is Caused by DUX4 Expression
Céline Vanderplanck, Eugénie Ansseau, Sébastien Charron, Nadia Stricwant, Alexandra Tassin, Dalila Laoudj-Chenivesse, Steve D. Wilton, Frédérique Coppée, Alexandra Belayew
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026820
Abstract: Background Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is linked to deletions in 4q35 within the D4Z4 repeat array in which we identified the double homeobox 4 (DUX4) gene. We found stable DUX4 mRNAs only derived from the most distal D4Z4 unit and unexpectedly extended to the flanking pLAM region that provided an intron and a polyadenylation signal. DUX4 encodes a transcription factor expressed in FSHD but not control primary myoblasts or muscle biopsies. The DUX4 protein initiates a large transcription deregulation cascade leading to muscle atrophy and oxidative stress, which are FSHD key features. Methodology/Principal Findings We now show that transfection of myoblasts with a DUX4 expression vector leads to atrophic myotube formation associated with the induction of E3 ubiquitin ligases (MuRF1 and Atrogin1/MAFbx) typical of muscle atrophy. DUX4 induces expression of downstream targets deregulated in FSHD such as mu-crystallin and TP53. We developed specific siRNAs and antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) targeting the DUX4 mRNA. Addition of these antisense agents to primary FSHD myoblast cultures suppressed DUX4 protein expression and affected expression of the above-mentioned markers. Conclusions/Significance These results constitute a proof of concept for the development of therapeutic approaches for FSHD targeting DUX4 expression.
Hodge cohomology of iterated fibred cusp metrics on Witt spaces
Eugénie Hunsicker,Frédéric Rochon
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: On a smoothly stratified space, we identify intersection cohomology of any given perversity with an associated weighted $L^2$ cohomology for iterated fibred cusp metrics on the smooth stratum. In particular given a Witt space, we identify the $L^2$ cohomology of iterated fibred cusp metrics with the middle perversity intersection cohomology of the corresponding stratified space.
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