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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 307 matches for " Etheresia Pretorius "
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The Role of Iron-Induced Fibrin in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease and the Protective Role of Magnesium
Boguslaw Lipinski,Etheresia Pretorius
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00735
Abstract: Amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has recently been challenged by the increasing evidence for the role of vascular and hemostatic components that impair oxygen delivery to the brain. One such component is fibrin clots, which, when they become resistant to thrombolysis, can cause chronic inflammation. It is not known, however, why some cerebral thrombi are resistant to the fibrinolytic degradation, whereas fibrin clots formed at the site of vessel wall injuries are completely, although gradually, removed to ensure proper wound healing. This phenomenon can now be explained in terms of the iron-induced free radicals that generate fibrin-like polymers remarkably resistant to the proteolytic degradation. It should be noted that similar insoluble deposits are present in AD brains in the form of aggregates with Abeta peptides that are resistant to fibrinolytic degradation. In addition, iron-induced fibrin fibers can irreversibly trap red blood cells (RBCs) and in this way obstruct oxygen delivery to the brain and induce chronic hypoxia that may contribute to AD. The RBC-fibrin aggregates can be disaggregated by magnesium ions and can also be prevented by certain polyphenols that are known to have beneficial effects in AD. In conclusion, we argue that AD can be prevented by: (1) limiting the dietary supply of trivalent iron contained in red and processed meat; (2) increasing the intake of chlorophyll-derived magnesium; and (3) consumption of foods rich in polyphenolic substances and certain aliphatic and aromatic unsaturated compounds. These dietary components are present in the Mediterranean diet known to be associated with the lower incidence of AD and other degenerative diseases.
The impact of asthma on the gastrointestinal tract (GIT)
Warren Antonio Vieira, Etheresia Pretorius
Journal of Asthma and Allergy , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JAA.S10592
Abstract: ct of asthma on the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) Mini-review (5166) Total Article Views Authors: Warren Antonio Vieira, Etheresia Pretorius Published Date September 2010 Volume 2010:3 Pages 123 - 130 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JAA.S10592 Warren Antonio Vieira, Etheresia Pretorius Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Abstract: The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of vertebrates is composed of several distinct -compartments and glands as well as an extensive mucosal surface. Its primary function is that of chemical and physical digestion of food and the absorption of nutrients; however, due to its continual antigen exposure, the GIT also has an important defensive immunological function. The GIT’s immunological participation is facilitated by the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues, thought to share the mucosal immunological system with the respiratory mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues. As a result of this shared mucosal immunity, it has been hypothesized that bronchial asthma may be able to affect the body’s GIT in the same pathophysiological manner as the airways and lungs. Here we discuss the link between bronchial asthma and -pathophysiological features in the GIT – including leukocyte influx, goblet cell alterations, fibrosis, and epithelial and villous atrophy.
The impact of asthma on the gastrointestinal tract (GIT)
Warren Antonio Vieira,Etheresia Pretorius
Journal of Asthma and Allergy , 2010,
Abstract: Warren Antonio Vieira, Etheresia PretoriusDepartment of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South AfricaAbstract: The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of vertebrates is composed of several distinct -compartments and glands as well as an extensive mucosal surface. Its primary function is that of chemical and physical digestion of food and the absorption of nutrients; however, due to its continual antigen exposure, the GIT also has an important defensive immunological function. The GIT’s immunological participation is facilitated by the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues, thought to share the mucosal immunological system with the respiratory mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues. As a result of this shared mucosal immunity, it has been hypothesized that bronchial asthma may be able to affect the body’s GIT in the same pathophysiological manner as the airways and lungs. Here we discuss the link between bronchial asthma and -pathophysiological features in the GIT – including leukocyte influx, goblet cell alterations, fibrosis, and epithelial and villous atrophy.Keywords: fundus, pylorus, common mucosal system, asthma, gastrointestinal tract
The Qualitative Effects of Resveratrol and Coenzyme Q10 Administration on the Gluteus Complex Muscle Morphology of SJL/J Mice with Dysferlinopathy
van der Spuy,Wendy Jeannette; Pretorius,Etheresia;
International Journal of Morphology , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022011000300035
Abstract: dysferlinopathy is a form of muscular dystrophy affecting muscles of the shoulder and pelvic girdles, resulting from inheritance of a mutated dysferlin gene. the encoded dysferlin protein is proposed to be involved in sarcolemmal vesicle fusion with a disrupted plasma membrane; however, with defective protein function these vesicles accumulate beneath the disruption site but are unable to fuse with it and reseal the membrane, thus rendering the membrane repair mechanism defective. the sjl/j mouse model presents with characteristics much like the commonest human condition. immune modulators have long been under study in the maintenance of muscle health in muscular dystrophies. such supplementary treatment would ideally suppress inflammation, preventing the immune response toward degenerating muscle from causing additional muscle fiber death, and thus provide a mechanism by which to prolong the life of muscle fibers with inherently defective healing apparatus. for this purpose the anti-inflammatory supplement resveratrol and the membrane-protective supplement coenzyme q10 were administered separately and in combination to experimental animals to determine their effectiveness in possible therapy of dysferlinopathy. the findings of this study report that low doses of resveratrol and coenzyme q10 supplementation in exclusivity were unable to afford much protection to muscle fibers at the tissue level. high doses of coenzyme q10 proved more effective in reducing attenuating inflammation; and combination treatment with resveratrol and coenzyme q10 provided not only the membrane-protective effects of coenzyme q10, but also the anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol which failed to materialize at sufficient levels in exclusive administration.
The Qualitative Effects of Resveratrol and Coenzyme Q10 Administration on the Gluteus Complex Muscle Morphology of SJL/J Mice with Dysferlinopathy Efectos Cualitativos de la Administración de Resveratrol y Coenzima Q10 en la Morfología del Complejo Muscular Glúteo de Ratones SJL/J con Disferlinopatía
Wendy Jeannette van der Spuy,Etheresia Pretorius
International Journal of Morphology , 2011,
Abstract: Dysferlinopathy is a form of muscular dystrophy affecting muscles of the shoulder and pelvic girdles, resulting from inheritance of a mutated dysferlin gene. The encoded dysferlin protein is proposed to be involved in sarcolemmal vesicle fusion with a disrupted plasma membrane; however, with defective protein function these vesicles accumulate beneath the disruption site but are unable to fuse with it and reseal the membrane, thus rendering the membrane repair mechanism defective. The SJL/J mouse model presents with characteristics much like the commonest human condition. Immune modulators have long been under study in the maintenance of muscle health in muscular dystrophies. Such supplementary treatment would ideally suppress inflammation, preventing the immune response toward degenerating muscle from causing additional muscle fiber death, and thus provide a mechanism by which to prolong the life of muscle fibers with inherently defective healing apparatus. For this purpose the anti-inflammatory supplement resveratrol and the membrane-protective supplement coenzyme Q10 were administered separately and in combination to experimental animals to determine their effectiveness in possible therapy of dysferlinopathy. The findings of this study report that low doses of resveratrol and coenzyme Q10 supplementation in exclusivity were unable to afford much protection to muscle fibers at the tissue level. High doses of coenzyme Q10 proved more effective in reducing attenuating inflammation; and combination treatment with resveratrol and coenzyme Q10 provided not only the membrane-protective effects of coenzyme Q10, but also the anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol which failed to materialize at sufficient levels in exclusive administration. Disferlinopatía es una forma de distrofia muscular que afecta a los músculos de los hombros y cintura pélvica, resultado de la herencia y mutación del gen de la distrofina.Sugerimos que la proteína codificada distrofina que integra la estructura sarcolemal con una membrana plasmática interrumpida, que al presentar una proteína defectuosa, las estructuras se acumulan debajo del sitio de alteración sin lograr fundirse con éste y cerrar la membrana afectando el mecanismo de reparación. El modelo de ratón SJL / J se presenta con características muy similares a una condición humana común.Los inmunomoduladores han sido objeto de estudio en el mantenimiento de la salud muscular en las distrofias musculares.Este tipo de tratamiento suplementario puede ser ideal para suprimir la inflamación, en la prevención de la respuesta inmune
The Morphological Effects of Asthma, As Well As Conventional and Alternative Asthma Therapies on Parietal and Chief Cells in the Stomach of BALB/c Mice
Vieira,Warren Antonio; Oberholzer,Hester Magdalena; Pretorius,Etheresia;
International Journal of Morphology , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022011000400046
Abstract: scientific literature, although limited in this area, supports the hypothesis that asthma, by means of selective leukocyte trafficking between the various mucosal and glandular sites of the body, can have the same pathophysiological effects on the stomach as the airways. this study aimed to determine if asthma, in the absence and presence of various asthma therapies (hydrocortisone and modul8tm), imparted any morphological alteration on the stomach parietal and chief cells. the balb/c murine asthmatic mouse model was the model of choice in this study. the asthma induction protocol as well as the asthma therapies were proved to be effective with the aid of bronchial lavage fluid leukocyte quantification. fundic and pyloric biopsies were extracted at termination and assessed by means of transmission electron, scanning electron and light microscopy. the extracted fundic and pyloric biopsies revealed asthma alone induced parietal cell hypertrophy (increase in parietal cell size p < 0.000100 in both stomach regions) and chief cell hyper functioning. the use of hydrocortisone and modul8tm, as a therapy to correct the perceived gastric alterations were dismal; only in the case of fundic parietal cells were both treatments able to compensate for the hypertrophic effect caused by asthma, while in the pylorus parietal cell asthma- induced hypertrophy was only compensated for by modul8tm.
Investigating the Effect of the Homeopathic Immunomodulator, MODUL8? on Blood Count, Bronchial Lavage and Fibrin Ultrastructure on Experimental Asthmatic BALB/c Mice
Oberholzer,Hester Magdalena; Vieira,Warren Antonio; Pretorius,Etheresia;
International Journal of Morphology , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022009000300049
Abstract: modul8? is a composite mixture of natural products that are known to be an immunomodulator. in the current study the effect of this immunomodulator is tested on an experimental asthmatic balb/c mouse model to investigate its properties on the white blood cell count in the blood and bronchial lavage of the animals since white blood cells play a fundamental role in the inflammatory process involved in asthma. as it is known that platelets also play an important role in the immune system, the ultrastructure of platelets and fibrin networks were also investigated by scanning electron microscopy. the animals were sensitised, nebulized and treated over a period of 43 days until termination. results from the blood smears as well as the bronchial lavage smears revealed significantly higher eosinophil counts in the asthmatic group compared to the control and treated groups. changes in the ultrastructure of the platelets and fibrin networks could also be observed, with the modul8? -treated group appearing similar to that of the control group where thick major and thin minor fibres could clearly be distinguished and a tight mass of platelet aggregate could be observed. whereas the fibrin networks from the asthmatic animals appeared flimsy with a tight mass of thin fibres covering the thick major fibres. the asthmatic platelet aggregates appeared granular without the tight round appearance of the control platelet aggregates. it is therefore concluded that modul8? positively influences the white blood cell counts by altering the asthmatic profile to look similar to that of the control. also, it seems as if modul8? has a stabilizing effect on the platelets and fibrin networks. from these results it can be suggested that modul8? might successfully be used in the treatment of inflammatory conditions such as asthma.
Investigating the Effect of the Homeopathic Immunomodulator, MODUL8 on Blood Count, Bronchial Lavage and Fibrin Ultrastructure on Experimental Asthmatic BALB/c Mice Investigación del Efecto del Inmunomodulador Homeopatico Modul8 sobre Sangre, Lavado Bronquial y Ultraestructura de la Fibrina en Ratones Experimentales Asmáticos BALB/c
Hester Magdalena Oberholzer,Warren Antonio Vieira,Etheresia Pretorius
International Journal of Morphology , 2009,
Abstract: Modul8 is a composite mixture of natural products that are known to be an immunomodulator. In the current study the effect of this immunomodulator is tested on an experimental asthmatic BALB/c mouse model to investigate its properties on the white blood cell count in the blood and bronchial lavage of the animals since white blood cells play a fundamental role in the inflammatory process involved in asthma. As it is known that platelets also play an important role in the immune system, the ultrastructure of platelets and fibrin networks were also investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The animals were sensitised, nebulized and treated over a period of 43 days until termination. Results from the blood smears as well as the bronchial lavage smears revealed significantly higher eosinophil counts in the asthmatic group compared to the control and treated groups. Changes in the ultrastructure of the platelets and fibrin networks could also be observed, with the Modul8 -treated group appearing similar to that of the control group where thick major and thin minor fibres could clearly be distinguished and a tight mass of platelet aggregate could be observed. Whereas the fibrin networks from the asthmatic animals appeared flimsy with a tight mass of thin fibres covering the thick major fibres. The asthmatic platelet aggregates appeared granular without the tight round appearance of the control platelet aggregates. It is therefore concluded that Modul8 positively influences the white blood cell counts by altering the asthmatic profile to look similar to that of the control. Also, it seems as if Modul8 has a stabilizing effect on the platelets and fibrin networks. From these results it can be suggested that Modul8 might successfully be used in the treatment of inflammatory conditions such as asthma. Modul8 es una mezcla compuesta de productos naturales que es conocida por ser un inmunomodulador. En el presente estudio, el efecto de este inmunomodulador se prueba de forma experimental en el modelo de ratón asmáticos BALB/c, para investigar sus propiedades sobre el conteo de glóbulos blancos en la sangre y lavado bronquial de los animales, ya que los glóbulos blancos desempe an un papel fundamental en el proceso de respuesta inflamatoria implicado en el asma. Como es sabido, también las plaquetas desempe an un papel importante en el sistema inmunológico, así, la ultraestructura de las plaquetas y las redes de fibrina también fueron investigadas por microscopía electrónica de barrido. Los animales fueron sensibilizados, nebulizados y tratados durante un pe
The Morphological Effects of Asthma, As Well As Conventional and Alternative Asthma Therapies on Parietal and Chief Cells in the Stomach of BALB/c Mice Los Efectos Morfológicos del Asma, Así Como de las Terapias Convencionales y Alternativas del Asma sobre las Células Parietales y Principales en el Estómago de Ratones Balb/c
Warren Antonio Vieira,Hester Magdalena Oberholzer,Etheresia Pretorius
International Journal of Morphology , 2011,
Abstract: Scientific literature, although limited in this area, supports the hypothesis that asthma, by means of selective leukocyte trafficking between the various mucosal and glandular sites of the body, can have the same pathophysiological effects on the stomach as the airways. This study aimed to determine if asthma, in the absence and presence of various asthma therapies (Hydrocortisone and Modul8TM), imparted any morphological alteration on the stomach parietal and chief cells. The BALB/c murine asthmatic mouse model was the model of choice in this study. The asthma induction protocol as well as the asthma therapies were proved to be effective with the aid of bronchial lavage fluid leukocyte quantification. Fundic and pyloric biopsies were extracted at termination and assessed by means of transmission electron, scanning electron and light microscopy. The extracted fundic and pyloric biopsies revealed asthma alone induced parietal cell hypertrophy (increase in parietal cell size P < 0.000100 in both stomach regions) and chief cell hyper functioning. The use of Hydrocortisone and Modul8TM, as a therapy to correct the perceived gastric alterations were dismal; only in the case of fundic parietal cells were both treatments able to compensate for the hypertrophic effect caused by asthma, while in the pylorus parietal cell asthma- induced hypertrophy was only compensated for by Modul8TM. La literatura científica, aunque limitada en esta área, apoya la hipótesis de que el asma, por medio del tráfico selectivo de leucocitos entre los diferentes sitios y la mucosa glandular del cuerpo, puede tener los mismos efectos fisiopatológicos en el estómago y las vías respiratorias. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar si el asma, en ausencia y presencia de diversos tratamientos para el asma (hidrocortisona y Modul8 TM), generó alguna alteración morfológica en las céluals parietales y principales del estómago. El modelo murino BALB/c del ratón asmático fue el modelo de elección en este estudio. El protocolo de inducción de asma, así como el tratamiento del asma demostró ser eficaz con la ayuda de lavado bronquial y cuantificación leucocitaria del fluido. Biopsias de las regiones fúndica y pilórica fueron extraídas y evaluadas por medio de microscopía electrónica de transmisión, de barrido y de luz. Las biopsias extraídas de la región fúndica y pilórica revelaron que el asma solamente induce hipertrofia de las células parietales (aumento del tama o de las células parietales P <0,00001 en ambas regiones del estómago) e hiperfuncionamiento de las células principales. El us
Comparison of Platelet Ultrastructure and Elastic Properties in Thrombo-Embolic Ischemic Stroke and Smoking Using Atomic Force and Scanning Electron Microscopy
Jeanette Noel Du Plooy, Antoinette Buys, Wiebren Duim, Etheresia Pretorius
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069774
Abstract: Thrombo-embolic ischemic stroke is a serious and debilitating disease, and it remains the second most common cause of death worldwide. Tobacco smoke exposure continues to be responsible for preventable deaths around the world, and is a major risk factor for stroke. Platelets play a fundamental role in clotting, and their pathophysiological functioning is present in smokers and stroke patients, resulting in a pro-thrombotic state. In the current manuscript, atomic force and scanning electron microscopy were used to compare the platelets of smokers, stroke patients and healthy individuals. Results showed that the elastic modulus of stroke platelets is decreased by up to 40%, whereas there is an elasticity decrease of up to 20% in smokers’ platelets. This indicates a biophysical alteration of the platelets. Ultrastructurally, both the stroke patients and smokers’ platelets are more activated than the healthy control group, with prominent cytoskeletal rearrangement involved; but to a more severe extent in the stroke group than in the smokers. Importantly, this is a confirmation of the extent of smoking as risk factor for stroke. We conclude by suggesting that the combined AFM and SEM analyses of platelets might give valuable information about the disease status of patients. Efficacy of treatment regimes on the integrity, cell shape, roughness and health status of platelets may be tracked, as this cell’s health status is crucial in the over-activated coagulation system of conditions like stroke.
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