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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3433 matches for " Esther Ngo Um Meka "
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Clinical Study of Rape against Females at the Yaoundé Gyneco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital, Cameroun  [PDF]
Pascal Foumane, Julius Sama Dohbit, Francisca Monebenimp, Bruno Natolga, Esther Ngo Um Meka, Emile Telesphore Mboudou
Advances in Sexual Medicine (ASM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/asm.2014.42003
Abstract: Objective: To describe the clinical and therapeutic aspects of rape against females in a tertiary level hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a retrolective collection of data, concerning the female patients with a clinical diagnosis of rape received from January 1st 2008 to December 31st 2012. Results: Rape was confirmed at physical examination in 131 cases. The rape victim survivals were mostly aged less than 20 years (85/131; 64.9%), unmarried (127/131; 97.0%), with no income (95/131; 72.5%) and had no university education level (110/131; 83.9%). The aggression commonly took place during the night (68/131; 51.9%), at the victim’s or aggressor’s home (70/131; 53.4%), with physical constraint (73/131; 55.8%), by an unknown aggressor (88/131; 67.2%). A vaginal penetration was reported by 97.0% of the victims (127/131) while 12.2% of them (16/122) had an anal ingress. Condom usage was uncommon during rape (3/131; 2.3%). Vulvar and vaginal lesions were encountered in 32.8% of the cases (43/131). Only 27.5% (36/131) of the victims were prescribed an emergency contraception, while antiretroviral prophylaxis was administered to 46.6% (61/131) of them. Conclusion: These data might be useful for prevention of rape. The clinical management of survival victims of rape needs to be improved.
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Postpartum Depression in Yaounde, Cameroon  [PDF]
Nadège Djoda Adama, Pascal Foumane, Jean Pierre Kamga Olen, Julius Sama Dohbit, Esther Ngo Um Meka, Emile Mboudou
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2015.511086
Abstract: Introduction: Postpartum Depression is one of the commonest complications of the postpartum period. In Cameroon, little is known about this condition. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and identify the risk factors for postpartum depression. Methodology: The study was carried out at the Yaoundé Gyneco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital, from November 4th 2013 to April 4th 2014. All the women between the 4th and 6th week after birth who gave their consent were included. A pretested questionnaire including demographic, psychosocial, maternal and infant variables as well as the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was filled. A woman with an EPDS score ≥12 was considered having postpartum depression, while a score < 12 ruled out a postpartum depression. Results: We recruited 214 women, among whom 50 had an EPDS score ≥ 12, giving a prevalence of 23.4% of postpartum depression. After multivariate analysis, the risk factors of postpartum depression were: lack of satisfaction in the marital relationship, recent financial problems, recent conflicts with the partner, baby blues, difficulties in feeding the baby and problems with the baby’s sleep. Conclusion: Postpartum depression is common and associated to specific risk factors in our setting.
Maternal and Foetal Outcomes Associated with Caesarean Deliveries in Patients with Severe Preeclampsia in Two Teaching Hospitals, Yaoundé  [PDF]
Essiben Félix, Ngo Um Meka Esther, Mve Koh Valère, Gwos Laurentine, Ojong Samuel, Foumane Pascal
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2018.813129
Abstract: Introduction: Severe preeclampsia is a frequent cause of maternal death, and also a frequent indication for caesarean deliveries when faced with the need to expedite delivery. We sought complications specific to caesarean deliveries in patients with severe preeclampsia. Methods: It was a case-control study carried out over 6 months, from December 1st, 2015 to May 31st, 2016 at the Yaoundé Central and the Yaoundé Gynaeco-Obstetric and Paediatric Hospitals. We evaluated 159 women undergoing a caesarean delivery to assess the risk of maternal and foetal postoperative complications in patients with severe preeclampsia. Significance level was set at 0.05. Results: The incidence of postoperative complications stood at 26.4%. Maternal and foetal complications were more frequent in preeclamptic women at 54.5% versus 11.5% (p < 0.05) and 47.3% versus 27.9% (p < 0.05) respectively. The incidence of adverse events was greater in women with preeclampsia: pruritus and limb pain (RR = 2.96; p < 0.001), the persistence of high blood pressure (RR = 4.51, p < 0.001), maternal death (RR = 2.93, p < 0.001), postpartum convulsions (RR = 3, p < 0.001) headaches resistant to first-line analgesics (RR = 3, p < 0.001), Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) (RR = 2.92, p < 0.001), a cute pulmonary oedema (RR = 2.92, p < 0.001), prematurity (RR = 4.43, p < 0.001), neonatal asphyxia (RR = 2.93, p < 0.001), and hyaline membrane disease (RR = 2.93, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Severe preeclampsia is associated with an increased risk of postoperative complications.
Risk Factors for Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study of 315 Women Followed in the Gynecology and Oncology Departments of Two University Teaching Hospitals in Yaounde, Cameroon  [PDF]
Felix Essiben, Pascal Foumane, Esther Ngo Um Meka, Patience Signing Soh, Julius Dohbit Sama, Eyongoben Osogo, Emile Telesphore Mboudou
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2016.612085
Abstract: Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the first cause of cancer-related deaths among women in Cameroon. The aim of the study was to investigate its risk factors for breast cancer at two University Teaching Hospitals in Yaoundé. Methodology: A case-control study was conducted for 5 months, from February 25th to July 25th 2015, at the Gynecology unit of the Yaoundé Gyneco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital (YGOPH) and the Medical Oncology unit of the Yaoundé General Hospital (YGH). One hundred and five patients with breast cancer (cases) were compared to 210 women who did not have breast cancer (controls). SPSS Version 18.0.0 software was used to analyze the data with a statistical significance considered at P-value < 0.05. Results: After univariate analysis, risk factors associated with breast cancer were: patient age > 50 years (P < 0.00; OR = 4.16; CI = [2.50 - 7.14]); widowhood (P = 0.001; OR = 3.45; CI = [1.7 - 6.9]), monthly income < 86 US dollars (P = 0.002; OR = 2.19; CI = [1, 31 - 3.65]), primary level of education (P = 0.005; OR = 2.11; CI = [1.25 - 3.56]), consumption of red meat > three times per week (P = 0.002; OR = 2.14; CI = [1.33 - 3.45]), palm oil consumption > two times per week (P = 0.001; OR = 2.38; CI = [1.4 - 4.1]). After multivariate analysis, age > 50 years (aOR = 41.48; CI = [2.46 - 69.9]) and consumption of red meat > three times per week [aOR = 7.33; (1.49 - 36)] were the risk factors considered significant for breast cancer. Conclusion: Age > 50 years and red meat consumption are independent risk factors for breast cancer at the Yaoundé General Hospital and at the Yaoundé Gyneco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital.
Evaluation of the Implementation of the WHO’s 2010 Guide on Prevention of Mother To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV/Aids: Case of Two Hospitals in Yaoundé  [PDF]
P. M. Tebeu, E. Ngo Um Meka, E. Bechem, C. Ndomo, F. Essiben, R. E. Mbu
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2017.75050
Abstract: Introduction: The prevalence of HIV infection amongst pregnant women in Cameroon is 5.6%. Mother-to-child transmission is a major expansion factor. In 2010, Cameroon adopted new strategies pegged to WHO guidelines. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the new guidelines of prevention of mother to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in the Yaoundé Central Hospital and the Yaoundé Teaching Hospital. Methodology: It was a cross sectional descriptive and prospective study over a period of 6 months in Yaoundé. It included all HIV-positive women, doing their antenatal care in the above cited hospitals, and having given their consent. The studied variables included socio demographic features, obstetrical history, the antenatal care, the initiation of anti retroviral (ARV) drugs, the ARV regimen, the number of years on ARV drugs, the mode of delivery and the mother and child outcome. The data was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. They were obtained by interview of the seropositive pregnant women. Data were analysed using Epi info 3.5.3. Results: We performed 3104 antenatal consultations and 287 women were recruited in the study. The prevalence of HIV infection was 9.24%. The mean age of women was 28.77 (SD: 5.13) years. The women were aged between 20 and 29 years in 51.20%. Amongst the 156 women who knew their status before pregnancy, 109 (70.50%) had their first ANC in the first trimester. All were managed according to the 2010 WHO recommendations on PMTCT of HIV. Amongst the women unaware of their status, 25.20% had their booking ANC in the first trimester, 25.14% started ARVs at 14 weeks, 69.46% at 28 weeks. We had 125 live births, 84.8% by vaginal route, neonatal prophylaxis in all babies was effective. Conclusion: PMTCT of HIV is available and guidelines are well applied in Yaoundé. Late treatment initiation still remains a problem to optimize care.
Predictive Factors of Complications of Vaginal Delivery on Scarred Uterus at the Yaoundé Gynaeco-Obstetric and Paediatric Hospital  [PDF]
E. Ngo Um Meka, P. Foumane, F. Essiben, E. R. Ngwesse, J. Dohbit Sama, E. T. Mboudou
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2016.613103
Abstract: Objective: This study was aimed at identifying predictive factors of complications during vaginal delivery on scarred uterus. Methodology: During 9 months, from October 1st, 2015 to June 30th, 2016, a case control study was carried out at the Yaoundé Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital. Eighty nine women each with a single scarred uterus who presented with complications during delivery (cases) were compared to eighty nine others who had a successfully trial of scar (control) during the study period. Data were analyzed using the CSPro version 6.0 and SPSS version 20.0 softwares with statistical significance set at P < 0.05. Results: We recruited 2 groups of 89 women, aged 17 to 40 years, with an average age of 29.05 years. The majority of women with complications were married (50.6%) and unemployed (42.8%). Following univariate analysis, predictive factors of complications were: prematurity (OR = 7.4), post-term (OR = 13.7), no history of vaginal delivery on scarred uterus (OR = 4.3), inter-pregnancy spacing period greater than 60 months (five years) (OR = 2.9), History of caesarian delivery indicated for cephalo-pelvic disproportion (OR = 6.6), less than four ante-natal consultations (OR = 3.6), antenatal consultations done in a Health Centre (OR = 2.7), ante-natal follow up conducted by a nurse (OR = 2.4; IC = [1.2 - 4.7]), referral from a different health unit (OR = 4.4, IC = 2.0 - 9.4), a Bishop score less than 7 on admission (OR = 12.4, IC = 5.6 - 27.4), a meconium stained amniotic fluid (OR = 9.9; CI = [3.6 - 26.8]). After logistic regression, the retained factors associated with complications were post-term (aOR = 34.5), absence of vaginal birth after caesarian delivery, (aOR = 11.7), previous caesarean section indicated for cephalo-pelvic disproportion (aOR = 6.1), a bishop score less than 7 (aOR = 12.0), meconium stained amniotic fluid (aOR = 13.6). Conclusion: Predictive factors of complications can help anticipate negative obstetric outcomes.
Maternal and Fetal Outcomes Following Labour at Term in Singleton Pregnancies with Meconium-Stained Amniotic Fluid: A Prospective Cohort Study  [PDF]
Julius Sama Dohbit, Evelyne M. Mah, Felix Essiben, Edmond Mesumbe Nzene, Esther U. N. Meka, Pascal Foumane, Joel Noutakdie Tochie, Benjamin Momo Kadia, Felix A. Elong, Philip Njotang Nana
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2018.89082
Abstract: Background: Meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) is frequently encountered in obstetric practice. Literature on the subject is still poorly documented in the African setting. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the maternal and fetal outcomes in case of meconium stained amniotic fluid observed during term labour. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study enrolling all consenting pregnant women with term singleton fetus in cephalic presentation admitted for labour with ruptured fetal membranes in the maternity units of the Yaoundé Central Hospital (YCH) and the Yaoundé Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital (YGOPH) of Cameroon between December 2014 and April 2015. The exposed grouped was considered as participants having MSAF, while the non-exposed group comprised those with clear amniotic fluid (CAF). The two groups were monitored during labor using the WHO partograph, and then followed up till 72 hours after delivery. Variables studied included the colour and texture of amniotic fluid as well as maternal and fetal complications. Data was analyzed using Epi-info version 3.5.4. The chi-square and Fischer’s exact tests were appropriately used to compare the two groups. A p-value less than 5% was considered statistically significant. Results: 2376 vaginal deliveries were recorded during the study period among which MSAF was observed in 265 cases, hence a prevalence rate of MSAF of 11.15%. Among these cases of MSAF, 52.1% was thick meconium and 47.9% was light meconium. Maternal morbidity was high in the group with MSAF; these included: Higher proportions of caesarean
A polynomial time approximation scheme for computing the supremum of Gaussian processes
Raghu Meka
Computer Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1214/13-AAP997
Abstract: We give a polynomial time approximation scheme (PTAS) for computing the supremum of a Gaussian process. That is, given a finite set of vectors $V\subseteq\mathbb{R}^d$, we compute a $(1+\varepsilon)$-factor approximation to $\mathop {\mathbb{E}}_{X\leftarrow\mathcal{N}^d}[\sup_{v\in V}|\langle v,X\rangle|]$ deterministically in time $\operatorname {poly}(d)\cdot|V|^{O_{\varepsilon}(1)}$. Previously, only a constant factor deterministic polynomial time approximation algorithm was known due to the work of Ding, Lee and Peres [Ann. of Math. (2) 175 (2012) 1409-1471]. This answers an open question of Lee (2010) and Ding [Ann. Probab. 42 (2014) 464-496]. The study of supremum of Gaussian processes is of considerable importance in probability with applications in functional analysis, convex geometry, and in light of the recent breakthrough work of Ding, Lee and Peres [Ann. of Math. (2) 175 (2012) 1409-1471], to random walks on finite graphs. As such our result could be of use elsewhere. In particular, combining with the work of Ding [Ann. Probab. 42 (2014) 464-496], our result yields a PTAS for computing the cover time of bounded-degree graphs. Previously, such algorithms were known only for trees. Along the way, we also give an explicit oblivious estimator for semi-norms in Gaussian space with optimal query complexity. Our algorithm and its analysis are elementary in nature, using two classical comparison inequalities, Slepian's lemma and Kanter's lemma.
Explicit resilient functions matching Ajtai-Linial
Raghu Meka
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: A Boolean function on n variables is q-resilient if for any subset of at most q variables, the function is very likely to be determined by a uniformly random assignment to the remaining n-q variables; in other words, no coalition of at most q variables has significant influence on the function. Resilient functions have been extensively studied with a variety of applications in cryptography, distributed computing, and pseudorandomness. The best known balanced resilient function on n variables due to Ajtai and Linial ([AL93]) is Omega(n/(log^2 n))-resilient. However, the construction of Ajtai and Linial is by the probabilistic method and does not give an efficiently computable function. In this work we give an explicit monotone depth three almost-balanced Boolean function on n bits that is Omega(n/(log^2 n))-resilient matching the work of Ajtai and Linial. The best previous explicit construction due to Meka [Meka09] (which only gives a logarithmic depth function) and Chattopadhyay and Zuckermman [CZ15] were only n^{1-c}-resilient for any constant c < 1. Our construction and analysis are motivated by (and simplifies parts of) the recent breakthrough of [CZ15] giving explicit two-sources extractors for polylogarithmic min-entropy; a key ingredient in their result was the construction of explicit constant-depth resilient functions. An important ingredient in our construction is a new randomness optimal oblivious sampler which preserves moment generating functions of sums of variables and could be useful elsewhere.
Almost Optimal Explicit Johnson-Lindenstrauss Transformations
Raghu Meka
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: The Johnson-Lindenstrauss lemma is a fundamental result in probability with several applications in the design and analysis of algorithms in high dimensional geometry. Most known constructions of linear embeddings that satisfy the Johnson-Lindenstrauss property involve randomness. We address the question of explicitly constructing such embedding families and provide a construction with an almost optimal use of randomness: we use O(log(n/delta)log(log(n/delta)/epsilon)) random bits for embedding n dimensions to O(log(1/delta)/epsilon^2) dimensions with error probability at most delta, and distortion at most epsilon. In particular, for delta = 1/poly(n) and fixed epsilon, we use O(log n loglog n) random bits. Previous constructions required at least O(log^2 n) random bits to get polynomially small error.
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