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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7518 matches for " Erum Khan "
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Effect of Nutritional Requirement in the Medium for Growth and Decolorization of Textile Dye by Indigenous Fungal Isolates
Shazia Erum,Safia Ahmed,Zubair Anwar,Jabar Zaman Khan Khattak
Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The effects of nutritional requirement for growth and decolorization of textile dye by indigenous fungal isolates have been studied using .Duncan multiple range test and analysis of variance. Maximum decolorization was observed at 0.5-1 M nitrogen concentration by the selected strains, where higher concentration had a negative effect. Growth also showed their maximal (0.35 gm 100 mL-1 by SA 1, 0.27 gm 100 mL-1 by SA 2 and 0.31 gm 100 mL-1 by SA 3) in this range with all tested strains. All the fungal strains showed significant correlation with nitrogen concentration (R2 0.82, 0.77 and 0.88 of Aspergillus Niger SA 1, Aspergillus flavus SA 2 and Aspergillus terreus SA 3 respectively. Similar results observed for increased in concentration of carbon source as there was increasing trend of decolorization efficiencies of all the selected fungal strains (R2 0.85, 0.76 and 0.97 of SA1, SA2 and SA3, respectively). The comparison of the fungal response obtained, suggests that Aspergillus flavus SA2 yielded the best result of 80.72% which was followed by Aspergillus Niger SA1 behaving 78.29% decolorization Aspergillus terreus SA3 rated third within selected strains by rendering a percentage of 78.29.
Study of Serpentinized Ultramafic Rocks of Bela Ophiolite, Balochistan, Pakistan
Erum Bashir,Shahid Naseem,Maria Kaleem,Yousuf Khan
Journal of Geography and Geology , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jgg.v4n1p79
Abstract: Mineralogical and petrological study of ultramafic rocks of Bela Ophiolite of Cretaceous age revealed serpentinization after harzburgite. It is further evident on SiO2/MgO vs. Al2O3, molar ratio Si/Mg+Fe vs. LOI and MgO-SiO2-LOI diagrams. The XRD analysis also showed occurrence of olivine, different members of pyroxene and serpentine groups. The three polymorphous of serpentines can be distinguished on (Fe2++ Mg2+)/(Fe3++A13+) vs. H2O diagram, reflecting thermal regime in the study area. The analyzed samples of the study area showed relevance with Alpine peridotites. The plots MgO versus CaO and Ni show relation with average primitive mantle. The high amount of Ni and low content of Al2O3 in the study area indicates depleted-mantle peridotite. The parent rock is classified on the basis of Al/Si (av. 0.031) and Mg/Si (av. 1.05) ratios as harzburgite. The altered harzburgites displayed as serpentines on SiO2 vs. LOI plot and SiO2-(Al2O3+Fe2O3)-MgO triangular diagram.
Demographic and Clinical Features of Dengue Fever in Pakistan from 2003–2007: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study
Erum Khan,Mehreen Kisat,Nabil Khan,Amna Nasir,Salma Ayub,Rumina Hasan
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012505
Abstract: Demographic features of dengue fever have changed tremendously in Pakistan over the past two decades. Small scale studies from all over the country have reported different aspects of individual outbreaks during this time. However, there is scarcity of data looking at the overall trend of dengue virus infection in the country. In this study, we examined annual trends, seasonality, and clinical features of dengue fever in the Pakistani population.
Increasing Trend of Resistance to Penicillin, Tetracycline, and Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae from Pakistan (1992–2009)
Kauser Jabeen,Summiya Nizamuddin,Seema Irfan,Erum Khan,Faisal Malik,Afia Zafar
Journal of Tropical Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/960501
Abstract: Emergence and spread of drug resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae is global concern. We evaluated trends of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae over years 1992–2009 in Pakistan. Resistance rates were compared between years (2007–2009) and (1992–2006). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and interpreted according to Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria using the disk diffusion methodology against penicillin, ceftriaxone, tetracycline and ofloxacin. Additional antibiotics tested in 100 strains isolated during 2007–2009, included cefotaxime, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, cefipime, ceftazidime, ceftizoxime, cefixime, cefpodoxime, spectinomycin and azithromycin. Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226 was used as control. Chi-square for trend analysis was conducted to assess resistance trend over the study period. During study period significant increase in combined resistance to penicillin, tetracycline and ofloxacin was observed (P value ). Resistance rates during the two study period also increased significantly (P value ). Ceftriaxone resistance was not observed. None of the isolates were found to be resistant or with intermediate sensitivity to additional antibiotics. Our findings suggest that penicillin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline should not be used in the empirical treatment of gonorrhea in Pakistan. Ceftriaxone and cefixime should be the first line therapy; however periodic MICs should be determined to identify emergence of strains with reduced susceptibility. 1. Introduction Gonorrhea continues to be a public health problem with the emergence of multidrug resistant strains [1]. Accurate diagnosis with effective treatment to prevent further transmission is one of the essential elements for control of gonococcal infections [2]. Treatment strategies should be devised to utilize appropriate and preferably single-dose therapy that could be conveniently administered at the time of diagnosis [3]. Surveillance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance is crucial in guiding empirical therapy in any individual setting as resistance may vary in different countries [4]. Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections have been reported from Pakistan as a cause of sexually transmitted infections, but unfortunately national surveillance data is not available to assess its prevalence or antimicrobial resistance [5, 6]. Due to limited resources and lack of trained technologist and microbiologists, most of the laboratories do not report Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Therefore, existing antimicrobial resistance data from the country is limited and
Increase in isolation of extended spectrum beta lactamase producing multidrug resistant non typhoidal Salmonellae in Pakistan
Kauser Jabeen, Afia Zafar, Seema Irfan, Erum Khan, Vikram Mehraj, Rumina Hasan
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-10-101
Abstract: Retrospective analysis of laboratory data was conducted (1990-2006). NTS were isolated and identified from clinical samples using standard microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby Bauer. Extended spectrum beta lactamase production (ESBL) was detected using combined disc method. Ciprofloxacin sensitivity was detected by nalidixic acid screening method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin was determined by agar dilution method. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 13.Analysis of 1967 NTS isolates showed a significant increase in ciprofloxacin resistance from 23% in 2002 to 50.5% in 2006, with increased mean MIC values from 0.6 to 1.3 ug/mL. Ceftriaxone resistant NTS also increased and ESBL production was seen in 98.7% isolates. These isolates exhibited high resistance against amoxicillin clavulanic acid (57%), gentamicin (69%), amikacin (44%) and piperacillin tazobactam (30%). No resistance to carbapenem was seen. Ceftriaxone resistance was significantly higher in children <1 year, in invasive isolates and in Salmonella Typhimurium.Increase in quinolone and ceftriaxone NTS is a serious threat to public health requiring continuous surveillance and use of appropriate screening tests for laboratory detection.Non typhoidal salmonellae (NTS) are associated in approximately 5% of the patients with bacteremia, invasive infections and death [1]. Increased antimicrobial resistance has made empiric antibiotic of choice for these potentially fatal infections quite limited. Current literature recommends either a fluoroquinolones or a third generation cephalosporins as drug of choice; however increasing evidence of emergence of resistance against these antibiotics in a great concern [2,3].Outbreaks due to highly resistant NTS have been reported from a number of countries [3-6]. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance amongst NTS is crucial, particularly in developing countries where facilities for
An Evaluation of Systematic Tuberculosis Screening at Private Facilities in Karachi, Pakistan
Jacob Creswell, Saira Khowaja, Andrew Codlin, Rabia Hashmi, Erum Rasheed, Mubashir Khan, Irfan Durab, Christina Mergenthaler, Owais Hussain, Faisal Khan, Aamir J. Khan
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093858
Abstract: Background In Pakistan, like many Asian countries, a large proportion of healthcare is provided through the private sector. We evaluated a systematic screening strategy to identify people with tuberculosis in private facilities in Karachi and assessed the approaches' ability to diagnose patients earlier in their disease progression. Methods and Findings Lay workers at 89 private clinics and a large hospital outpatient department screened all attendees for tuberculosis using a mobile phone-based questionnaire during one year. The number needed to screen to detect a case of tuberculosis was calculated. To evaluate early diagnosis, we tested for differences in cough duration and smear grading by screening facility. 529,447 people were screened, 1,010 smear-positive tuberculosis cases were detected and 942 (93.3%) started treatment, representing 58.7% of all smear-positive cases notified in the intervention area. The number needed to screen to detect a smear-positive case was 124 (prevalence 806/100,000) at the hospital and 763 (prevalence 131/100,000) at the clinics; however, ten times the number of individuals were screened in clinics. People with smear-positive TB detected at the hospital were less likely to report cough lasting 2–3 weeks (RR 0.66 95%CI [0.49–0.90]) and more likely to report cough duration >3 weeks (RR 1.10 95%CI [1.03–1.18]). Smear-positive cases at the clinics were less likely to have a +3 grade (RR 0.76 95%CI [0.63–0.92]) and more likely to have +1 smear grade (RR 1.24 95%CI [1.02–1.51]). Conclusions Tuberculosis screening at private facilities is acceptable and can yield large numbers of previously undiagnosed cases. Screening at general practitioner clinics may find cases earlier than at hospitals although more people must be screened to identify a case of tuberculosis. Limitations include lack of culture testing, therefore underestimating true TB prevalence. Using more sensitive and specific screening and diagnostic tests such as chest x-ray and Xpert MTB/RIF may improve results.
Periodontal Bone Substitutes Application Techniques and Cost Evaluation: A Review
Jamaluddin Syed, Najmus Sahar, Raffaella Aversa, Relly Victoria V. Petrescu, Davide Apicella, Erum Khan, Michele Simeone, Florian Ion T. Petrescu and Antonio Apicella
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2016, DOI: DOI : 10.3844/ajeassp.2016.951.961
Abstract: Bioactive Materials have been used since decades but the researches on these materials are still continuing in phase. This material got extra ordinary attention by the scientist and researchers. Bioactive material has ability to bind itself chemically with natural bone tissues. Bioactive materials bring revolution in the field of bone repair and implantology. Bioactive materials have also ability to effect on gene activation of osteoblastic cells that enhance proliferation, resulting rapid bone formation. At last the techniques through which bioactive materials are used to deposits on the implant, to create bond between implants and the bone. Cost evaluation is the very essential part that classifies the use of material commercially.
The Reversed Feto-Maternal Bile Acid Gradient in Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy Is Corrected by Ursodeoxycholic Acid
Victoria Geenes, Anita L?vgren-Sandblom, Lisbet Benthin, Dominic Lawrance, Jenny Chambers, Vinita Gurung, Jim Thornton, Lucy Chappell, Erum Khan, Peter Dixon, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall, Catherine Williamson
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083828
Abstract: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a pregnancy-specific liver disorder associated with an increased risk of adverse fetal outcomes. It is characterised by raised maternal serum bile acids, which are believed to cause the adverse outcomes. ICP is commonly treated with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). This study aimed to determine the fetal and maternal bile acid profiles in normal and ICP pregnancies, and to examine the effect of UDCA treatment. Matched maternal and umbilical cord serum samples were collected from untreated ICP (n = 18), UDCA-treated ICP (n = 46) and uncomplicated pregnancy (n = 15) cases at the time of delivery. Nineteen individual bile acids were measured using HPLC-MS/MS. Maternal and fetal serum bile acids are significantly raised in ICP compared with normal pregnancy (p = <0.0001 and <0.05, respectively), predominantly due to increased levels of conjugated cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid. There are no differences between the umbilical cord artery and cord vein levels of the major bile acid species. The feto-maternal gradient of bile acids is reversed in ICP. Treatment with UDCA significantly reduces serum bile acids in the maternal compartment (p = <0.0001), thereby reducing the feto-maternal transplacental gradient. UDCA-treatment does not cause a clinically important increase in lithocholic acid (LCA) concentrations. ICP is associated with significant quantitative and qualitative changes in the maternal and fetal bile acid pools. Treatment with UDCA reduces the level of bile acids in both compartments and reverses the qualitative changes. We have not found evidence to support the suggestion that UDCA treatment increases fetal LCA concentrations to deleterious levels.
N-Benzyl-N-methyl-3-phenyl-3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]propanamine (N-benzylflouoxetine)
Nosheen Kanwal,Erum Akbar Hussain,Onur Sahin
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2010, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536810012699
Abstract: In the title compound, C24H24F3NO, the N-benzyl derivative of fluoxetine {N-methyl-3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]benzenepropanamine}, the three aromatic rings A, B and C are inclined to one another by 76.77 (12)° for A/B, 17.05 (14)° for A/C and 89.66 (14)° for B/C. In the crystal structure, molecules are linked via C—H...π interactions to form one-dimensional chains propagating in the [010] direction.
Antimicrobial activity of some ethno-medicinal plants used in Pakistan
Sajid Bashir,Alia Erum,Rizwana Kausar,UzmaSaleem
Research in Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Medicinal plants have been used for their antimicrobial activity to discover newantimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of fourethnomedicinal plants such as Acacia modesta, Thymus serphylum, Syzygium cumuni L andOlea ferruginea were evaluated against five bacterial strains such as S. aureus, E. coli, P.aeruginosa, S. epidermidis and B. subtilis by disc diffusion method. The results showed thatAcacia modesta showed maximum activity against E. coli with zone of inhibition (16.2 mm).Thymus serphylum showed maximum activity against B. subtilis with zone of inhibition(13.3 mm) but no activity against P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Syzygium cumuni L showedmaximum activity against S.epidermidis with zone of inhibition (14.5 mm) but no activityagainst E. coli, P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis. Similarly Olea ferruginea displayed maximumactivity against S. epidermidis with zone of inhibition (16.8 mm). Antimicrobial activity ofplants was concentration dependent. Methanolic extracts of plants showed better activitythan aqueous extracts.
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