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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3904 matches for " Error Margins "
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Estimation of Tree Biomass, Carbon Stocks, and Error Propagation in Mecrusse Woodlands  [PDF]
Tarquinio Mateus Magalh?es, Thomas Seifert
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2015.54041
Abstract: We performed a biomass inventory using two-phase sampling to estimate biomass and carbon stocks for mecrusse woodlands and to quantify errors in the estimates. The first sampling phase involved measurement of auxiliary variables of living Androstachys johnsonii trees; in the second phase, we performed destructive biomass measurements on a randomly selected subset of trees from the first phase. The second-phase data were used to fit regression models to estimate below and aboveground biomass. These models were then applied to the first-phase data to estimate biomass stock. The estimated forest biomass and carbon stocks were 167.05 and 82.73 Mg·ha-1, respectively. The percent error resulting from plot selection and allometric equations for whole tree biomass stock was 4.55% and 1.53%, respectively, yielding a total error of 4.80%. Among individual variables in the first sampling phase, diameter at breast height (DBH) measurement was the largest source of error, and tree-height estimates contributed substantially to the error. Almost none of the error was attributable to plot variability. For the second sampling phase, DBH measurements were the largest source of error, followed by height measurements and stem-wood density estimates. Of the total error (as total variance) of the sampling process, 90% was attributed to plot selection and 10% to the allometric biomass model. The total error of our measurements was very low, which indicated that the two-phase sampling approach and sample size were effective for capturing and predicting biomass of this forest type.
Are Newer-Generation Drug-Eluting Stents More Effective in Women than Early-Generation Ones?  [PDF]
Andrea Messori, Valeria Fadda, Dario Maratea, Sabrina Trippoli
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2014.44021
Abstract: Evidence-based research is increasingly aimed at differentiating between no proof of difference (failed demonstration of superiority) and proof of no difference (demonstration of equivalence). The latter requires that equivalence margins are incorporated in the analysis of outcomes. We applied an analysis of equivalence to study the incremental benefit of newer-generation vs early-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) in women receiving percutaneous coronary intervention. The clinical material was derived from published data. Our equivalence testing was focused on the end-point of target-lesion revascularisation (TLR). Results were expressed as rate differences (RDs), while the equivalence margins (±2.9%) were derived from the statistical power calculations of a recent trial. Our results clearly indicated that, in women, there was an equivalent effectiveness between newer-generation and early-generation of DES.
Frozen Section Analysis of Breast Lumpectomy Margins  [PDF]
Fatma Khinaifis Althoubaity, Adnan Merdad, Nouf Yahya Akeel, Nisar Haider Zaidi, Abdullah Omar Sultan
Surgical Science (SS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2017.86029
Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate breast lumpectomy margins by frozen section in breast conservation surgery. Methods: A retrospective study of frozen section of lumpectomy margins of one hundred ten patients was done at King Abdulaziz University Hospital from June 2007 to June 2013. All patients underwent lumpectomy + Sentinel lymph node biopsy. Patient records were studied for location of mass in breast, size of mass, site of breast, pre or postmenopausal, frozen section margins, new frozen section margins, permanent margins, reoperation. Complications like skin necrosis, numbness, and wound infection were studied. Result: Majority were Saudis (64.5%). Left breast was involved in 60%. Upper outer quadrant was involved in majority (51.9%). Size of mass was less than 1 cm in 14.8% cases, 1 - 2.9 cm in 43.5%, 3 - 4 cm in 13%, more than 4 cm in 10.2%. Lumpectomy plus sentinel lymph node biopsy was done in 96.4% and lumpectomy and axillary lymph node dissection was done in 1.8% cases. Gross margins were positive in 17.3% and frozen margins were positive in 28.2%. New margin on frozen section were positive in 3.6% and negative in 79.1%. Permanent section histology showed positive margins in 5.5% and negative in 94.5% cases. Re-operation was done in 7.3%. Lympho-vascular margins were positive in 20.9%. Skin necrosis was found in 2.2%, numbness was found in 4.4%, wound infection was in 2.2%. Conclusion: Lumpectomy margins with frozen section reduce re-operation and recurrence.
Zoran Pe?i?,Dragan Krasi?,Dragan Mihailovi?
Acta Medica Medianae , 2003,
Abstract: Correct surgical therapy considers radical excision of tumor formation, what can be certificated by absence of tumor cells on histopathological specimen margins.The aim of this investigation is to estimate incidence of presence of tumor cells on histopathological specimen margins in cases of intraoral carcinomas, surgically excised in macroscopically normal tissue with different wideness of normal tissue zone and relation to postoperative survival of this patients with intraoral carcinomas.Fifty seven patients with intraoral carcinomas were divided in three groups according to wideness of zone of excision in macroscopically normal tissue. Lowest percent of presence of tumor cells on margins of histopathological specimens were in group of patients with zone of excision behind zone of indurations of soft tissue, but patients from this group had shortest postoperative survival period. Presence of tumor cells on margins of histopathological specimens of excided intraoral carcinomas was found in high number of 81,07%.It can be said that presence of tumor cells on margins of histopathological specimens of exceeded intraoral carcinomas was found in extremely high number of 81,07%, but direct statistical significant relation in-between wideness of surgical excision and postoperative survival period was not found what show that another factors connected with postoperative survival of this patients must be examine.
Biologic Width - The No Encroachment Zone
Hari Krishna Reddy S,Chetan Kumar S
Indian Journal of Dental Advancements , 2010,
Abstract: Dentistry of modern era is dominated by restorative procedures which are carried out to meet the demands of not only function but also esthetics. The dentist is having a narrow room of flexibility to wander in order to achieve a good esthetic restoration which is fully functional, the design of preparation and the technique sensitive fabrication form one side of the coin and establishing a harmonious margin for a crown on abutment forms the other side of the coin when trying to insert a fixed prosthetic restoration for replacing missing teeth, the phenomenon of biologic width was less understood till very recently but the growing clinical experience and better diagnostic skills of today has helped us to understand the intricacies of this concept and the need for its maintenance, the violation of which leads to the ultimate failure of the prosthesis. This article attempts to explain the ways of diagnosing biologic width violation, the care needed to exert when preparing a teeth to receive a crown and exactly deciding where to place the margins of the crown to avoid biologic width violation
Comparative Marketing Margins for Kaja (Red Delicious) and Shin Kulu (Golden Delicious) Apple in Pishin
Syed Mohammad Khair,Nisar Ali Shah,Shahjehan Khan,Manzoor Ahmed Kasi
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: The main focus of this study is to find out and compare the marketing margins for two apple varieties Shin Kulu (Golden Delicious),and Kaja (Red Delicious). The shares of apple producer and other intermediaries in consumer`s price for both the varieties and the comparison of their profit abilities to the farmers were also sorted out. The marketing channel common in the area is: producer - preharvest contractor - commission agent - wholesaler - retailer - consumer. It was observed that marketing margin for Shin Kulu was 7 % more than Kaja. The marketing margins were 76 and 69 % of consumer price for Shin Kulu and Kaja respectively. Farmer`s share in consumer`s price/rupee for Shin Kulu and Kaja was, 24 and 31%. It means that farmers got 7 % higher net margin in Kaja than Shin Kulu apple showing a considerable difference between their profit abilities.
Distributive Marketing Margins for Kaja Apple in Pishin (A Case Study of Quetta Market)
S. Mohammad Khair,Nisar Ali Shah,Asif Azeem,Manzoor Ahmad Kasi
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: This study was undertaken to determine the marketing margins for Kaja apple in two common marketing channels. These are: (1). Producer-Pre-harvest contractor-commission agent-Wholesaler-Retailer-Consumer, and (2). Producer-Commission agent-Wholesaler-Retailer-Consumer. The net marketing margins for Kaja apple are, 69 % when the produce is marketed through pre-harvest contractor and 57 %, When the growers perform self marketing. Farmer`s share in consumer`s price is, 31 and 43 % which indicates that the rest 69 and 57 % of consumer price is going to different marketing middlemen.
Excision margins in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue: A retrospective audit and review of the literature  [PDF]
Miriam Thake, Athanasis Kalantzis
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2013.31013

The incidence of close and involved tongue resection margins for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were reviewed with the aim to identify any possible need for change in the surgical approach to glossectomies. The histopathological reports of 101 partial glossectomies for SCC between 2006 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Overall 52 (51.5%) patients had one or more close or involved margin and 9 (8.9%) had both close and involved margins. 42 (41.5%) patients had close margins and 11 (10.9%) had involved margins. The inferior/lateral muscoal margin was most frequently close/involved (32%) followed by deep margin (27%). The anterior margin was least close/involved (5%). The posterior and superior/medical margins were close/involved in 12% and 11% of cases respectively. Conclusions: 52.5% of patients had close or involved margins following surgery, potentially requiring further treatment to avoid an increased risk of tumour recurrence and the associated increase in morbidity and mortality. The inferior/lateral and deep margins were most frequently involved possible due to the anatomical difficulties visualising and dissecting these margins. The potential explanations for these disparities and possible solutions are discussed.

Comparing the methods of oral hygiene, over hanged removal and restoration—Changing on periodontal health and alveolar bone height of rest orated mandibular molars with proximal over hanged amalgam  [PDF]
Masood Bamadi, Mohammad Salarpour
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.511257

Objective: Conservative restoration principles that accurately reduce plaque accumulation are the goals of restorative dentistry. Correct and perfect restoration has an important effect on health of periodontious tissues. This study was done to compare the methods of oral hygiene, over hanged removal and restoration changing on periodontal health and alveolar bone height of restored mandible molars with proximal over hanged amalgam. Materials and Methods: All patients with over hanged amalgam restoration were randomly divided into three groups. In order to survey the effect of over hanged removal on gingival and bleeding indices and alveolar bone height adjacent to mandible molar teeth, these indices were determined according to recurrent radio-graphical early signs of alveolar bone loss during three months. Sixty patients, 20 in each group, were studied. In the group I, overhang was removed with ultrasonic scale or bur and oral hygiene methods as usual were continued. In the group II, over-hang was left, but plaque controls as the prophylaxis and flossing were done. In the group III, restoration was changed and oral hygiene was done as usual. Plaque index and bleeding index were measured at the beginning of study and three months later. Findings: Statistical analysis of studied indices at the beginning and three months after treatment using paired test has shown significant

differences in gingival inflammation, in all groups. Statistical analysis of indices using Tukey HSD test has also shown significant differences in decreasing gingival inflammation measure when the over hanged restoration was removed. While there is no difference between the other two groups. Conclusion: The results showed that plaque

Bilateral involvement in patients with granulomatous mastitis: Surgical treatment and case report  [PDF]
P. Orsaria, F. De Sanctis, A. Esser, L. Dori, E. Bonanno, G. Petrella, O. Buonomo
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2013.29137

Introduction: Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is a rare benign histopathologic lesion, associated with tissue inflammation, architectural distortions and heterogeneous parenchymal inflammation upon radiological evaluation. The treatment of GM is controversial, and currently, there is no consensus about the most appropriate therapy. Case Presentation: We presented a unique, atypical GM case with a prolonged disease course that ultimately led to a bilateral mastectomy. A conservative therapeutic approach and limited or wide surgical excisions have failed to prevent unfavorable outcomes in both the initial presentation and recurrent disease. Conclusions: There’re no clear data in the literature delineating persistent recurrences of GM after conservative treatment and multiple surgeries. Obtaining a disease-free surgical margin might be an important prognostic factor for a lasting relapse-free clinical resolution.


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