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OALib Journal期刊

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Socio-Demographic Determinants of Family Planning Service Utilization among Women of Reproductive Age in Urban Communities of Imo State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Chukwuma B. Duru, Obiageli F. Emelumadu, Anthony C. Iwu, Ikechi Ohanle, Chuka C. Agunwa, Ernest Nwaigbo, Emmanuel N. Ndukwu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104627
Abstract:
Introduction: Many developing countries are characterized by rapid population growth, which is partly attributed to high fertility rates, high birth rates, accompanied by steady declines in death rates, low contraceptive use and high but declining mortality rate. AIM: To determine the factors influencing family planning method use among women of reproductive age in urban communities of Imo state, Nigeria. Methodology: The study was a community based descriptive cross-sectional study involving 560 women of reproductive age who met the inclusion criteria and were selected using the multistage sampling technique. The data were collected using a pretested, semi-structured and interviewer administered questionnaire and were analyzed using EPI-INFO version 3.2.1. A p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 32.7 ± 7.7 years with most of the women (99.1%) being aware of family planning. The common methods known were; pills (65.2%), injections (62.5%), condoms (61.3%) and natural family planning methods (49.5%). The prevalence of ever use and current use of family planning was 54.1% and 35.1% respectively and the commonest method ever (36%) and currently (26%) used was the condom. The factors found to significantly influence family planning method use in the study were: age of women, religion, family size, number of male children, monthly income, being able to access and pay for family planning services without partners financial support, contraceptive knowledge, prior discussion of family planning with partner, partner being in support of modern family planning methods use and previous use of any form of contraception. Conclusion: Most of the factors found to influence use can be modified by appropriate intervention programs.  Thus there is need to institute these intervention programs by authorities concerned so as to increase utilization of services and reduce consequent problems.
The Church And Repositioning The Maternal Care In Africa: A Project Of The Millennium Development Goals
F Nwaigbo
OGIRISI: a New Journal of African Studies , 2009,
Abstract: No
Faith in the One God in Christian and African Traditional Religions: A Theological Appraisal
F Nwaigbo
OGIRISI: a New Journal of African Studies , 2010,
Abstract: The Second Vatican Council has led the contemporary Church out of the desert of an arid doctrinal point of view, which sometimes rejects all questions and any kind of critical research. In contemporary Christian Catholic theology, any critical research or questioning is no longer seen as lack of faith in God and the Church, but as the part of the Anselmian programme of theologizing as an act of faith seeking to understand the depth of the mystery of God in salvation history. In the search for the mystery of God in salvation history, how should the African Christians understand the relationship between revelation of the one God in the Christian and African Traditional Religions? In response to this critical question, this paper examines the Christian revelation of the one God in the Bible, on the one hand, and the knowledge of God in African Traditional religions on the other hand. Finally, it draws a theological appraisal.
Sexual Abuse among Female Undergraduates in Tertiary Institutions in IMO State, Southeast Nigeria: Prevalence, Pattern and Determinants  [PDF]
Chukwuma B. Duru, Chinyere M. Aguocha, Anthony C. Iwu, Uche R. Oluoha, Ijeoma N. Okedo-Alex, Ikechi Ohanle, Ernest Nwaigbo
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104516
Abstract:
Introduction: Sexual abuse is a global public health problem that cuts across social class, cultures, tribes etc. and has permeated the fabrics of tertiary institutions and many work places as long as humans have reasons to interact. Aim: To determine the prevalence, pattern and determinants of sexual abuse among undergraduates in tertiary institutions in Imo State, Nigeria. Methodology: This study was a descriptive, cross sectional survey of 600 female students in tertiary institutions in Imo State Nigeria. They were selected using the multistage sampling technique and data were collected using a pretested, semi-structural and self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using a computer soft-ware (EPI INFO version 3.3.2). Descriptive statistics was presented using summary indices, frequency tables and percentages. Associations between variables were done using the chi-square and logistic regression. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 21.7 3.2 years. The current and life-time prevalence of sexual abuse among the respondents was 15.2% and 34% respectively and the commonest form of sexual abuse experienced was founding/grabbing of sensitive body parts (52.5%). Factors found to influence current occurrence of sexual abuse among the students were; age (p = 0.010), tribe (p = 0.008), marital status (p < 0.001), type of student in secondary school attended (p = 0.001), faculty of study (p = 0), year in school (p < 0.0001), persons currently shared room with (p < 0.0001) and level of knowledge about sexual abuse (p = 0.007). Conclusion: The prevalence of abuse as revealed in this study was high. There is need to develop appropriated prevention strategies by the universities to curb this menace against our women.
Influence of plant prunings on soil properties and yield of yam minisett
MO Ahaiwe, LC Nwaigbo, AO Nwaigbo
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) , 2010,
Abstract: The importance of the application of agroforestry prunings on improvement of the soil organic matter cannot be overemphasized. The study focused on the influence of plant prunings on soil properties and yield of yam minisett. There is no doubt that effective production of seed yam through minisett technique requires adequate plant nutrient to be available in the soil. The study revealed that application of agroforestry prunings improved soil exchangeable K. The study showed that the plant prunings of Gliricidia sepium seem to be the best of the prunings used in this study in terms of total yield (t/ha), nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium addition to the soil. The resulting effect of this is improvement in the yield of yam minisett.
Environmental Sanitation Practices: A Case Study of Solid Waste Management in Semi-Urban Communities in Orlu, Imo State Nigeria  [PDF]
Chukwuma B. Duru, Anthony C. Iwu, Kevin C. Diwe, Kenechi A. Uwakwe, Irene A. Merenu, Ugochukwu C Madubueze, Ijeoma N. Okedo-Alex, Emmanuel U. Ndukwu, Ikechi Ohale, Ernest Nwaigbo
Occupational Diseases and Environmental Medicine (ODEM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/odem.2017.54009
Abstract: Background: Environmental sanitation is a fundamental process that is a key public health intervention which is essential for social, economic and overall health development of communities. Objective: To determine Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Environmental Sanitation in Semi-Urban Communities in Orlu, Imo State, Nigeria. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive design using a multistage random sampling technique to select 426 participants from households and business premises in semi-urban communities in Orlu Local Government Area of Imo State. Data was collected using a pretested, semi structured, interviewer administered questionnaire. Descriptive analyses were done with frequencies and summary statistics to assess the respondents’ knowledge, attitude and practices of environmental sanitation. Results: The results revealed that the mean age of the respondents’ was 37.0 ± 2.2 with a male to female ratio of 1:1.2. Despite high awareness about environmental sanitation (95.0%) reported among the respondents, proportion of them with good knowledge about environmental sanitation (22.9%), attitude (38.6%) and practice (20.8%) towards environmental sanitation was low. The mean quantity of waste generated per week per household or business premise was 14.1 ± 0.94 kg with a majority of the respondents (80.0%), not separating their waste before disposal. The commonest solid waste component generated was organic/perishable materials (74.8%) and the commonest disposal practice reported was open dumping (49.8%). Conclusion: A lot of attention is still required in the development of basic sanitation infrastructure and also, in the promotion of strategies or interventions that influence behavioural change towards environmental sanitation especially in developing countries like Nigeria.
Tariffs and Total Factor Productivity: The Case of Ghanaian Manufacturing Firms  [PDF]
Charles Ackah, Ernest Ernest Aryeetey, Oliver Morrissey
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.33037
Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of trade liberalization on firm productivity in Ghana. We examine Ghanaian trade policy from 1993 to 2002, a period during which trade liberalization deepened with intermittent protection in a number of ways across industries, to investigate the effects of trade policy reforms and firm productivity. We find a strong negative impact of nominal tariffs on firm productivity, controlling for observed and unobserved firm characteristics and industry heterogeneity, a result that is robust to various alterations of the base model, including treating tariffs as endogenous and employing different estimation techniques. These results indicate that firms that are overprotected have a lower level of Total Factor Productivity than firms that are exposed to import competition. The estimated coefficients on both tariffs and its squared term confirm that higher tariffs are particularly distortionary.
A Comparison of Classifiers in Performing Speaker Accent Recognition Using MFCCs  [PDF]
Zichen Ma, Ernest Fokoué
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2014.44025
Abstract:

An algorithm involving Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) is provided to perform signal feature extraction for the task of speaker accent recognition. Then different classifiers are compared based on the MFCC feature. For each signal, the mean vector of MFCC matrix is used as an input vector for pattern recognition. A sample of 330 signals, containing 165 US voice and 165 non-US voice, is analyzed. By comparison, k-nearest neighbors yield the highest average test accuracy, after using a cross-validation of size 500, and least time being used in the computation.

Probit Normal Correlated Topic Model  [PDF]
Xingchen Yu, Ernest Fokoué
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2014.411083
Abstract: The logistic normal distribution has recently been adapted via the transformation of multivariate Gaussian variables to model the topical distribution of documents in the presence of correlations among topics. In this paper, we propose a probit normal alternative approach to modelling correlated topical structures. Our use of the probit model in the context of topic discovery is novel, as many authors have so far concentrated solely of the logistic model partly due to the formidable inefficiency of the multinomial probit model even in the case of very small topical spaces. We herein circumvent the inefficiency of multinomial probit estimation by using an adaptation of the diagonal orthant multinomial probit in the topic models context, resulting in the ability of our topic modeling scheme to handle corpuses with a large number of latent topics. An additional and very important benefit of our method lies in the fact that unlike with the logistic normal model whose non-conjugacy leads to the need for sophisticated sampling schemes, our approach exploits the natural conjugacy inherent in the auxiliary formulation of the probit model to achieve greater simplicity. The application of our proposed scheme to a well-known Associated Press corpus not only helps discover a large number of meaningful topics but also reveals the capturing of compellingly intuitive correlations among certain topics. Besides, our proposed approach lends itself to even further scalability thanks to various existing high performance algorithms and architectures capable of handling millions of documents.
Random Subspace Learning Approach to High-Dimensional Outliers Detection  [PDF]
Bohan Liu, Ernest Fokoué
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2015.56063
Abstract:

We introduce and develop a novel approach to outlier detection based on adaptation of random subspace learning. Our proposed method handles both high-dimension low-sample size and traditional low-dimensional high-sample size datasets. Essentially, we avoid the computational bottleneck of techniques like Minimum Covariance Determinant (MCD) by computing the needed determinants and associated measures in much lower dimensional subspaces. Both theoretical and computational development of our approach reveal that it is computationally more efficient than the regularized methods in high-dimensional low-sample size, and often competes favorably with existing methods as far as the percentage of correct outlier detection are concerned.

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