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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 876 matches for " Ernest Lytia Molua "
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Agro-Industrial Groundwater Quality Abuja FCT, Nigeria: An Evaluation for Urban and Peri-Urban (UPA) Agricultural Irrigation  [PDF]
Richard Ayuk II Akoachere, Omogbemi Omoloju Yaya, Areakpoh Thomson Eyong, Marcelle-Carole Pami Ngassam, Ernest Lytia Molua, Raymond Ndip Nkongho, Elizabeth Orock Ayuk, Tom Tabi Oben
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105698
From the declaration made by the African Mayors in Senegal; the Mayors and Municipal Health Officers of the Americas in Columbia; the City Executives of Cities and Local Governments of the World in Spain and in the context of the Millennium Development Goals MDG 1&7; there is a need for increased food production in urban and peri-urban areas UPA in the world. Sub-Saharan Africa faces more development challenges than any other major region of the world with most of the people living in slums, without access to adequate food, water, or sanitation. UPA contributes to increased food security, nutrition and livelihoods in a combination of ways giving access to consumer markets; less need for packaging, storage and transportation of food; potential agricultural-related jobs and incomes; non-market access to food for poor consumers; availability of fresh, perishable food. In Abuja FCT, 40% of the populations in UPA are farmers, a reason why the agricultural quality of its groundwater which is used for irrigation begs for our attention. 33% of the fresh vegetables in the Abuja Federal Capital Territory (FCT) are produced in Abuja UPA. In order to assess groundwater for agro-industrial suitability the following were used: Physicochemical parameters (pH, Temperature, Electrical Conductivity), Sodium Adsorption Ratio SAR, Permeability Index PI, Magnesium Adsorption Ratio MAR, Percent Sodium %Na, Kelly’s Ratio KR and Residual Sodium Carbonate RSC and the Wilcox diagram. pH ranged from, 4.8 - 7.9; EC, 13.4 - 1634 μS/cm; Temperature, 26℃ - 36.1℃ and TDS, 17.42 - 1094.78 mg/L.SAR (0.1 > SAR < 2.1), Percent Sodium (7.11 > %Na < 100), KR (0 > KR < 0.68), RSC (-9.8 > RSC < 0.55), PI (13.9 > PI < 932.4), and MAR (0 > MAR < 80.1). Comparing these values to WHO and the Nigerian Water Quality guidelines, SAR, %Na, KR, RSC, values are 100% suitable, while PI, 96.81% suitable, and MAR 56.46% unsuitable respectively for irrigational purposes in agriculture. The quality classifications of irrigation water based on the values: Sodium Adsorption Ratio SAR, Wilcox, Kelley Ratio KR, Residual Sodium Carbonate RSC, Permeability Index PI and Percent Sodium %Na; indicate that groundwater of Abuja FCT is suitable for irrigation purpose on all soil types and that the groundwater will not degrade the soil. However, United States Soil Salinity USSL Index of Abuja FCT groundwater fall in “very low to high salinity” and “low sodium hazard zone” and Magnesium Adsorption Ratio MAR indicates half of the groundwater as “not suitable”. Hence the groundwater in Abuja FCT should be used only on soils that are well drained.
Discourse on Climate-Smart Agriculture for REDD+ Strategy in the Congo Basin
Ernest L. Molua
Journal of Sustainable Development , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jsd.v5n10p77
Abstract: Sustainable agriculture is central to the development challenges of the Central African sub-region. It is the nexus for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. The Congo basin in the central African sub-region stores a vast amount of carbon. However, deforestation and degradation from agricultural practices compromise the forest carbon stocks at the expense of sustainable forest management. This paper contends that in the advent of climate change, agriculture must be one that meets the triple challenge of ensuring food security, adapting to climate stressors and contributing to climate change mitigation. The goal of this discourse is to unveil the potentials for climate-smart agriculture in contributing to a better REDD+ strategy for countries in the Congo Basin. The paper reveals that agriculture based on agroforestry systems and conservation practices will be required to conserve forests and ensure food production, and also contribute to meeting the objectives of REDD+. The paper demonstrates that sustainable land management and climate-smart actions that form the panoply of agroforestry actions could help increase carbon sequestration, increase overall productivity and ensure systems cope with the adverse effects of climate change. Harnessing these opportunities requires that the prescribed strategies strengthen the link between forestry and agriculture, and agrarian efforts maximize synergies and minimize trade-offs in addressing agricultural production, food security and climate change adaptation and mitigation challenges.
Determinants of Ecotourism Trade in Cameroon  [PDF]
Grace L. Sama, Ernest L. Molua
Natural Resources (NR) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2019.106014
Abstract: Trade in services accounts for a large and growing share of both production and employment in Cameroon. Services have been among the fastest-growing components of Cameroon’s trade portfolio in sectors like telecommunications, information and communication technology, finance, transport and construction. Cameroon is endowed with potentials in the provision of services such as tourism, particularly ecotourism. However, the development of ecotourism still appears to be in its infancy. The country is still short of the objective to qualify as a developed tourism destination by the World Tourism Organisation standards. This raises important policy research questions. This paper examines the ecological assets and investigates the determinants of ecotourism in Cameroon; using an annual panel data of both primary and secondary data to analyse the economic, social, psychological and political impacts of ecotourism on local communities. The results revealed that the income of the origin countries, the price and the supply of available amenities in Cameroon significantly affect the demand for ecotourism services from Cameroon. The paper concludes that ecotourism has double-barrel potential to promote trade growth and enhance the welfare of local communities.
Forest Soil Quality and Potentials for Food Systems Health in the Takamanda National Park in South Western Cameroon  [PDF]
Mary E. Ngaiwi, Ernest Molua, A. E. Egbe
Natural Resources (NR) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2019.106015
Abstract: Soil is a basic natural resource for food production, the vast majority of food we consume is either directly or indirectly derived from soil. Soil quality determines the quantity and quality of foods grown. Protecting the soil’s physical, chemical and biological integrity?is?therefore of vital importance in safeguarding global food security. This paper evaluates the physical and chemical propertiesof soils in the rainforest of the Takamanda in Southwestern Cameroon and their implications?on?agricultural productivity and food security. Soils were randomly sampled using a bucket soil auger at the left, middle and right flank of the 50 ha Takamanda forest dynamic plot. Soils were sampled from three flanks at depths of 0 - 10 cm, 10 - 20 cm and 20 - 30 cm. Bulk density increased with soil depth in all the flanks. Soil nitrogen, organic carbon, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus and cation exchange capacity were greater in topsoil (0 - 10 cm) than subsoils. Soil Ca and pH were slightly greater at 20 - 30 cm soil depths with value of 0.45 cmol (+)/kg and 4.24 respectively. Soil C/N ratio was highest (13.12) in 10 - 20 cm soil depth though it was not significantly different from the other soil depths. To promote food production, an integrated cost-effective approach to soil management should comprise the use of acid-tolerant species of crop plants, efficient use of fertilizers, suitable crop rotations, crop diversification and agroforestry.
Tariffs and Total Factor Productivity: The Case of Ghanaian Manufacturing Firms  [PDF]
Charles Ackah, Ernest Ernest Aryeetey, Oliver Morrissey
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.33037
Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of trade liberalization on firm productivity in Ghana. We examine Ghanaian trade policy from 1993 to 2002, a period during which trade liberalization deepened with intermittent protection in a number of ways across industries, to investigate the effects of trade policy reforms and firm productivity. We find a strong negative impact of nominal tariffs on firm productivity, controlling for observed and unobserved firm characteristics and industry heterogeneity, a result that is robust to various alterations of the base model, including treating tariffs as endogenous and employing different estimation techniques. These results indicate that firms that are overprotected have a lower level of Total Factor Productivity than firms that are exposed to import competition. The estimated coefficients on both tariffs and its squared term confirm that higher tariffs are particularly distortionary.
A Comparison of Classifiers in Performing Speaker Accent Recognition Using MFCCs  [PDF]
Zichen Ma, Ernest Fokoué
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2014.44025

An algorithm involving Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) is provided to perform signal feature extraction for the task of speaker accent recognition. Then different classifiers are compared based on the MFCC feature. For each signal, the mean vector of MFCC matrix is used as an input vector for pattern recognition. A sample of 330 signals, containing 165 US voice and 165 non-US voice, is analyzed. By comparison, k-nearest neighbors yield the highest average test accuracy, after using a cross-validation of size 500, and least time being used in the computation.

Probit Normal Correlated Topic Model  [PDF]
Xingchen Yu, Ernest Fokoué
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2014.411083
Abstract: The logistic normal distribution has recently been adapted via the transformation of multivariate Gaussian variables to model the topical distribution of documents in the presence of correlations among topics. In this paper, we propose a probit normal alternative approach to modelling correlated topical structures. Our use of the probit model in the context of topic discovery is novel, as many authors have so far concentrated solely of the logistic model partly due to the formidable inefficiency of the multinomial probit model even in the case of very small topical spaces. We herein circumvent the inefficiency of multinomial probit estimation by using an adaptation of the diagonal orthant multinomial probit in the topic models context, resulting in the ability of our topic modeling scheme to handle corpuses with a large number of latent topics. An additional and very important benefit of our method lies in the fact that unlike with the logistic normal model whose non-conjugacy leads to the need for sophisticated sampling schemes, our approach exploits the natural conjugacy inherent in the auxiliary formulation of the probit model to achieve greater simplicity. The application of our proposed scheme to a well-known Associated Press corpus not only helps discover a large number of meaningful topics but also reveals the capturing of compellingly intuitive correlations among certain topics. Besides, our proposed approach lends itself to even further scalability thanks to various existing high performance algorithms and architectures capable of handling millions of documents.
Random Subspace Learning Approach to High-Dimensional Outliers Detection  [PDF]
Bohan Liu, Ernest Fokoué
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2015.56063

We introduce and develop a novel approach to outlier detection based on adaptation of random subspace learning. Our proposed method handles both high-dimension low-sample size and traditional low-dimensional high-sample size datasets. Essentially, we avoid the computational bottleneck of techniques like Minimum Covariance Determinant (MCD) by computing the needed determinants and associated measures in much lower dimensional subspaces. Both theoretical and computational development of our approach reveal that it is computationally more efficient than the regularized methods in high-dimensional low-sample size, and often competes favorably with existing methods as far as the percentage of correct outlier detection are concerned.

BMI and Risk Factors of Underweight and Obesity in HIV Subjects in Eastern Nigeria  [PDF]
Ernest Ndukaife Anyabolu
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2016.61002
Abstract: Background and Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) is a global healthcare problem. Progression of HIV infection is commonly associated with decreasing weight. In the early phases of HIV infection, factors associated with weight changes are not completely known. This study evaluated the body mass index (BMI) and its potential risk factors in drug-naive HIV subjects in Owerri, Eastern Nigeria. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study of HIV subjects. BMI was determined. Relevant investigations were performed. Potential risk factors of BMI were analyzed at different BMI categories. Association of variables with BMI and the strength of variables to predict BMI, underweight and obesity were determined. Results: The mean BMI of the HIV subjects was 26.2 ± 5.4 kg/m2. Underweight was present in 24 (6.1%), overweight in 150 (38.4%) and obesity in 84 (21.5%) of the HIV subjects. High spot urine creatinine (SUCr), high 24-hour urine osmolality (24HUOsm), high serum cholesterol and high hemoglobin predicted BMI in HIV subjects. Low 24HUOsm predicted under weight, whereas low 24-hour urine protein (24 HUP) and high 24HUOsm predicted obesity in HIV subjects. Conclusion: The prevalence of underweight was low (6.1%), overweight high (38.4%) and obesity high (21.5%) in HIV subjects. High SUCr, high 24HUOsm, high serum cholesterol and high hemoglobin were predictors of BMI in HIV subjects. Low 24HUOsm was a predictor of underweight, while low 24HUP and high 24HUOsm were predictors of obesity in HIV subjects. Abnormalities of serum lipids, renal function, and anemia were common in HIV subjects who were underweight and in those obese. Underweight HIV subjects should be evaluated at the early stages for dyslipidemia, renal damage and anemia.
Comparative Thermometery in Paediatric Age Group: Is the Non-Touch Infrared Thermometer (NTIT) Reading Comparable to Regular Mercury-in-Glass Thermometer (MIGT) Reading?  [PDF]
Yetunde Olasinde, Moninuola Ernest, Gbenga Popoola, Kolade Ernest
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2018.84031
Abstract: Background: Accurate temperature measurement is a critical step in evaluating health or disease especially in children and immmunocompromised subjects; inaccurate measurement may lead to improper diagnosis, wrong treatment or inappropriate intervention. Several methods of temperature measurements exist and comparing these gives room for choosing a near ideal method in terms of speed, safety and accuracy. The study aimed to compare the forehead non touch infra-red thermometer with the axilllary mercury-in-glass method of temperature measurement in the Paediatric age-group. Methods: Study was given ethical approval as part of a larger study. Four hundred and thirty seven children aged 1 to 24 months were studied at the well-baby/immunizationclinic of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital over a 6-months period. Both non-touch infrared and theregular mercury-in-glass thermometers were used to take the body temperatures. Data were analysed with SPSS version 21. Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationship between the two methods of temperature measurements, while Bland-Altman method was used to test for level of agreement between them. Results: The
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