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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 139565 matches for " Ernest K. Sumaili "
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High prevalence of undiagnosed chronic kidney disease among at-risk population in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo
Ernest K Sumaili, Eric P Cohen, Chantal V Zinga, Jean-Marie Krzesinski, Nestor M Pakasa, Nazaire M Nseka
BMC Nephrology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2369-10-18
Abstract: In a cross-sectional study, 527 people from primary and secondary health care areas in the city of Kinshasa were studied from a random sample of at-risk out-patients with hypertension, diabetes, obesity, or HIV+. We measured blood pressure (BP), blood glucose level, proteinuria, body mass index, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR by MDRD equation) using calibrated creatinine levels based on one random measurement. The associations between health characteristics, indicators of kidney damage (proteinuria) and kidney function (<60 ml/min/1.73 m2) were also examined.The prevalence of CKD in this study was 36%, but only 12% were aware of their condition. 4% of patients had stage 1 CKD, 6% stage 2, 18% stage 3, 2% stage 4, and 6% had stage 5. 24 hour quantitative proteinuria (>300 mg/day) was found in 19%. In those with the at-risk conditions, the % of CKD was: 44% in patients with hypertension, 39% in those with diabetes; 16% in the obese and 12% in those who were HIV+. 82% of those with a history of diabetes had elevated serum glucose levels at screening (≥ 126 mg/dl). Only 6% of individuals with hypertension having CKD had reduced BP to lower than 130/80 mmHg. In multivariate analysis, diabetes, proteinuria and hypertension were the strongest determinants of CKD 3+.It appears that one out of three people in this at-risk population has undiagnosed CKD and poorly controlled CKD risk factors. This growing problem poses clear challenges to this developing country. Therefore, CKD should be addressed through the development of multidisciplinary teams and improved communication between traditional health care givers and nephrology services. Attention to CKD risk factors must become a priority.Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a worldwide health problem [1]. Indeed, the incidence and prevalence of CKD has increased in recent years in both developed and developing countries [2] including in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) [3]. In SSA, CKD affects mainly young adults in their
Chronic kidney disease among high school students of Kinshasa
Justine B Bukabau, Jean Robert R Makulo, Nestor M Pakasa, Eric P Cohen, Fran?ois B Lepira, Nazaire M Nseka, Patrick K Kayembe, Ernest K Sumaili
BMC Nephrology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2369-13-24
Abstract: In an epidemiological cross sectional study, a random sample of 524 pupils (263 boys, mean age of 18.7 ± 1.4 years) from school environment of Kinshasa were studied. Recorded parameters of interest were anthropometric, proteinuria, serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) according to the Schwartz formula using uncalibrated creatinine levels from one random measurement. CKD was defined as the presence of kidney damage (daily proteinuria ≥ 300 mg) and/or reduced kidney function (eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2). Concordances between eGFR according to Schwartz, Cockcroft-Gault (C-G) indexed for BSA and modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) study equations were computed using the kappa coefficient.The prevalence of CKD by the Schwartz formula was 1.5%. By stage, 0.8% had CKD stage 1 (proteinuria with normal eGFR) and 0.8% had CKD stage 3 (eGFR, 30 to 59 ml/min/1.73 m2). The prevalence of proteinuria ≥ 300 mg/day was 1% (one case had 2.7g/day). Agreement between eGFR according to Schwartz formula and the MDRD formula was excellent (kappa: 88.8%). Although correlations between all formulas were excellent (0.99; 0.87, and 0.89), agreement was poor between eGFR according to Schwartz and C-G indexed BSA equation (kappa: 52.7%) and, poorer with C-G unadjusted for BSA (kappa: 26.9%).In the large African city of Kinshasa, 2% of high school students have CKD. This high prevalence rate emphasizes the need for appropriate detection and prevention measures in this vulnerable young age population group.
Prognostic Signification of Admission Hyperglycemia among Acute Stroke Patients in Intensive Care Units in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo  [PDF]
Josée K. Tshituta, Fran?ois B. Lepira, Fran?ois P. Kajingulu, Jean Robert R. Makulo, Ernest K. Sumaili, Pierre Z. Akilimali, Aliocha N. Nkodila, Freddy M. Mbuyi, Angèle I. Masewu, Stéphane Mutombo, Eric B. Amisi, Jean Pierre M. Ilunga, Wilfrid B. Mbombo, Patrick M. Mukuna, Adolphe M. Kilembe
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2019.99060
Abstract:
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Although admission hyperglycemia has been reported to be associated with unfavorable outcomes in acute stroke, little is known about this association in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the prognostic significance of admission hyperglycemia in the acute phase of stroke in Congolese patients. METHODS: In a multicenter prospective cohort study, consecutive patients with acute stroke were examined in 5 Emergency Rooms or Intensive Care Units of Kinshasa between July 15th, 2017 and March 15th, 2018. The severity of stroke was assessed at admission using the Glasgow Coma Scale. Stress hyperglycemia was defined as random blood glucose levels at admission > 140 mg/dL in patients without known type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The endpoint was 10-day all-cause in-hospital mortality. Survival (time-to-death) curves were built using the Kaplan Meier methods. Cox proportional analysis was used to identify predictors of 10-day all-cause in-hospital mortality. The predictive performance of blood glucose level
Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Analysis of Continuous Surveillance Data from 2007 to 2016  [PDF]
Serge Bisuta-Fueza, Jean Marie Kayembe-Ntumba, Marie-Jose Kabedi-Bajani, Pascale Mulomba Sabwe, Hippolyte Situakibanza-Nani Tuma, Jean-Pierre Simelo, Ernest Sumaili-Kiswaya, John Ditekemena-Dinanga, Patrick Kayembe-Kalambayi
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2019.71004
Abstract: Background: For countries with limited resources such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the diagnosis of Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is still insufficient. The MDR-TB identification is done primarily among at-risk groups. The knowledge of the true extent of the MDR-TB remains a major challenge. This study tries to determine the proportion of MDR-TB in each group of presumptive MDR-TB patients and to identify some associated factors. Methods: This is an analysis of the DRC surveillance between 2007 and 2016. The proportions were expressed in Percentage. The logistic regression permits to identify the associated factors with the RR-/MDR-TB with adjusted Odds-ratio and 95% CI. Significance defined as p ≤ 0.05. Results: Overall, 83% (5407/6512) of the MDR-TB presumptive cases had each a TB test. 86.5% (4676/5407) had each a culture and drug sensitive testing (DST) on solid medium, and 24.3% (1312/5407) had performed an Xpert MTB/RIF test. The proportion of those with at least one first-line drug resistance was 59.3% [95% CI 57.2 - 61.4] among which 50.1%, [95% CI 47.9 - 52.3] for the isoniazid, 45.6% [95% CI 43.4 - 47.8] for the rifampicin, 49.9% [95% CI 47.8 - 52.1] for ethambutol and 35.8% [95% CI 33.7 - 37.9] for streptomycin. The confirmation of MDR-TB was 42.8% [95% CI 38.4 - 47.8]. Combining both tests, the proportion of RR-/MDR-TB was 49.6% [95% CI 47.9 - 51.4] for all presumptives. This proportion was 60.0% for failures, 40.7% for relapses and 34.7% for defaulters. Associated factors with the diagnosis of MDR-TB were: aged less than 35 years; prior treatment failure; defaulters; the delay between the collection of sputum and the test completion. Conclusion: The proportion of RR-/MDR-TB among the presumptives has been higher than those estimated generally. The National tuberculosis programme (NTP) should improve patient follow-up to reduce TB treatment failures and defaulting. Moreover, while increasing the use of molecular tests, they should reduce sample delivery times when they use culture and DST concomitantly.
Sickle Cell Trait, Hemoglobin Levels and Anemia among Black Patients with Predialysis Chronic Kidney Disease: A Post Hoc Analysis  [PDF]
F. B. Lepira, T. K. Mukendi, F. I. N. Mbutiwi, J. R. Makulo, E. K. Sumaili, P. K. Kayembe, N. M. Nseka
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2016.68029
Abstract: Objective: To assess the relationship between SCT, hemoglobin levels and anemia in CKD black patients. Method: A post-hoc analysis of data from 188 patients, enrolled in a cross-sectional study of sickle cell trait (SCT) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), was performed to assess the relationship between SCT, hemoglobin (Hb) levels and anemia defined as Hb < 12 g/dl in men and <11 g/dl in women. Student t test, Mann Whitney and Chi square test were used as appropriate for different comparisons. P < 0.05 defined the level of statistical significance. Results: SCT (HbAS) and normal hemoglobin (HbAA) were present in 39 (21%) and 149 (79%) CKD patients, respectively. Despite similar estimated GFR (eGFR) and age, HbAS patients had significantly lower Hb levels (8.8 ± 1.8 vs 10 ± 2.2 g/dl; p = 0.001) and a higher proportion of anemia (95% vs 72%, p = 0.001). In multiple linear regression analysis, eGFR, BMI, SBP and SCT emerged as independent determinants of Hb levels. The presence of SCT was associated with 1.185 g/dl decrease in Hb levels. Conclusion: In the present case series, SCT was associated with lower Hb levels suggesting its potential contribution to the pathogenesis of CKD-associated anemia.
Risk Factors, Clinical Features, Baseline Alanine Aminotransferase and CD4+ Count of Children with HIV Co-Infection with Hepatitis B and C at a Tertiary Hospital in Southwest Nigeria  [PDF]
M. O. Durowaye, S. K. Ernest, I. A. Ojuawo
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2016.74030
Abstract: Background: Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B and C viruses are endemic in sub- Saharan African countries including Nigeria. Researchers have studied the burden of co-infection of HIV with hepatitis B and hepatitis C but the risk factors and clinical presentation have not been much addressed especially in children. Methodology: This was a prospective cross sectional study that determined the prevalence, risk factors, clinical features, baseline CD4+ count, CD4+ percentage, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of newly diagnosed, HAART na?ve HIV co-infection among children who were managed at a Tertiary Hospital in Ilorin, Nigeria. Result: Of the 60 HIV- infected children recruited, 11.7% had HIV co-infection with HBV or HCV. Children with co-infec- tions (mean age 8.43 ± 2.37 years) were significantly older than their HIV mono-infected counterparts (mean age 5.25 ± 3.96 years) (p = 0.011). There was no significant difference between HIV monoinfection and HIV co-infection with respect to gender (p = 0.758), ethnicity (p = 0.707), religion of parents (p = 0.436), family type (p = 0.184), social class (p = 0.535), previous transfusion (p = 0.053), scarification (p = 0.612), female genital mutilation (p = 0.778), and sharing of clippers (p = 0.806). The mean BMI, immunological staging (p = 0.535), baseline ALT (p = 0.940), and mean baseline CD4+ count (p = 0.928) were comparable. However, the body mass index of HIV co-infec- ted children decreased with age up till age 10 years. Conclusion: There were no risk factors, nor clinical features predictive of co-infection identified in this study. Co-infection did not negatively impact baseline, CD4+ count and ALT.
Singlet fermion dark matter and electroweak baryogenesis with radiative neutrino mass
Babu, K. S.;Ma, Ernest
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007, DOI: 10.1142/S0217751X08040299
Abstract: The model of radiative neutrino mass with dark matter proposed by one of us is extended to include a real singlet scalar field. There are then two important new consequences. One is the realistic possibility of having the lightest neutral singlet fermion (instead of the lightest neutral component of the dark scalar doublet) as the dark matter of the Universe. The other is a modification of the effective Higgs potential of the Standard Model, consistent with electroweak baryogenesis.
NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH BENEFITS OF BUCKWHEAT
Martina Danihelová,Ernest ?turdík
Potravinarstvo : Scientific Journal for Food Industry , 2012, DOI: 10.5219/206
Abstract: Buckwheat represents a raw material interesting in term of its nutritional and health beneficial suitability. Buckwheat grain is a source of valuable proteins, starch with low glycemic index or high amount of unsaturated fatty acids. It contains compounds with prophylactic value, too. Buckwheat is one of the richest sources of flavonoids. The highest content of dietary fibre is in bran fraction, where it counts for 40 %. Present phytosterols are usefull in lowering blood cholesterol. Buckwheat is better source of magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, zinc, manganese and copper than other cereals. Among vitamins the most abundant is pyridoxin. Buckwheat is effective in management of many diseases, mainly cardiovascular and digestion disorders, cancer, diabetes and obesity. In the last decades buckwheat is an interesting material not only for development of new functional foods, but for the preparation of concentrates with healing buckwheat components, too. doi:10.5219/206
Antioxidant and antiproteinase effects of buckwheat hull extracts
Martina Danihelová,Ernest ?turdík
Potravinarstvo : Scientific Journal for Food Industry , 2013, DOI: 10.5219/272
Abstract: Buckwheat is known not only due to its appropriate nutritional composition but the content of prophylactic compounds, too. These are responsible for buckwheat beneficial impact on human health. Most of them are concentrated in outer layers of buckwheat grain. The subject of this work was to screen hulls of nine common and one tartary buckwheat cultivar for the content of flavonoids and its antioxidant and antiproteinase effects. The highest content of total flavonoids was determined for tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska (0.6% of hulls weight). Among common buckwheat cultivars the best values reached samples Bamby (0.23%) and KASHO-2 (0.11%). Antioxidant activity as detected via binding radical ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) and monitoring reducing power was the most effective for samples with highest flavonoid content. Buckwheat hulls effectively inhibited pathophysiological proteases thrombin and urokinase, whereas only little effects were seen to trypsin and elastase. In this testing there were again the best samples with highest flavonoid content. Only tartary buckwheat Madawaska effectively inhibited elastase at tested concentrations. No significant correlation was determined between flavonoid content and measured antioxidant or protease inhibitory action. Obtained results allow us to commend tartary buckwheat cultivar Madawaska as well as common buckwheat cultivars Bamby and KASHO-2 for further experiments. doi:10.5219/272
FLAVONOID NATURAL SOURCES AND THEIR IMPORTANCE IN THE HUMAN DIET
Martina Danihelová,Ernest ?turdík
Potravinarstvo : Scientific Journal for Food Industry , 2011, DOI: 10.5219/160
Abstract: Flavonoids as natural bioactive compounds are present in almost every sort of fruits, vegetables and from them derived products. Flavonols may be found mainly in fruits and vegetables, while flavones are abundant in herbs and spices. Rich natural sources of flavanols are tea, cocoa, grape seeds or apple skin. Flavanones are primarily found in a variety of citrus fruits and anthocyanidins in many coloured berries. Soy is rich in isoflavonoids. Average daily intake of flavonoids is approximately in the range of 150 to 300 mg. It strongly depends on individual, country and culture usages. In west countries main dietary sources of flavonoids consist of tea, wine and fruits, while in east countries there is consumed mainly soy with high isoflavonoid content. Many studies have shown, that intake of fruits and vegetables with high flavonoid content is associated with lowered risk of incidence of some diseases such as cardiovascular or cancer. These findings are attributed to experimentally confirmed biological effects of flavonoids - antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anticancer or cardioprotective. The final effect is however depending on their bioavailability, which is in the case of flavonoids not high, because in the nature dominating flavonoid glycosides can poorly penetrate through lipophilic cell membranes. Final effective molecules are flavonoid metabolites, that more or less retain their biological activities. doi: 10.5219/160
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